Xenomerus, Ergenna Walker, 1836

Mikó, I., Masner, L. & Deans, A. R., 2010, World revision of Xenomerus Walker (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea, Platygastridae) 2708, Zootaxa 2708, pp. 1-73: 10-13

publication ID

1175­5334

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0124294A-3173-FFF4-FF08-FD5A1087FBF1

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Xenomerus
status

 

Key to World species of Xenomerus  

FEMALES (Unknown for X. hilleri   , X. melleus   , X. noyesi   ,)

1 Mesopleural carina absent ( Fig. 23) or incomplete, not extending ventrally to mesocoxa ( Fig. 22) (ergenna- group) .................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

- Mesopleural carina complete, extending ventrally to mesocoxa (e.g. Figs 51, 60).................................................. 7

2(1) Hyperoccipital carina extending to orbit ( Fig. 24); notaulus absent ( Fig. 24); mesopleural carina absent, sulci on mesopleuron not foveolate ( Fig. 23); T3 without basal depressions; Yemen. ............................ X. vanharteni   sp. n.

- Hyperoccipital carina, if present, not extending to inner orbit (e.g. Figs 25–27, 30, 31); notaulus present ( Fig. 25– 27, 30, 31); mesopleural carina present, sulci on mesopleuron foveolate ( Fig. 28); T3 with basal depressions (e.g. Figs 32, 33) ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

3(2) POL 2–2.2 times as long as OOL; vertex behind POL unsculptured, with sharp hyperoccipital carina ( Fig. 25); Old world, widespread .................................................................................................................. X. ergenna Walker  

- POL 1–1.4 times as long as OOL; vertex behind POL sculptured, hyperoccipital carina absent (e.g. Figs 26, 27, 30, 31) ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4(3) Wings reduced, not exceeding middle of T3; mesoscutum 2.5 times as wide as long; mesosoma yellowish ( Fig. 26); Russia. .......................................................................................................... X. buccatus (Kononova & Kozlov)  

- Wing fully developed, exceeding apex of metasoma; mesoscutum 1.4–1.6 times as wide as long; mesosoma blackish ( Figs 27, 30, 31).......................................................................................................................................... 5

5(4) Sculpture of vertex extending down to frons ( Fig. 28); mesoscutum sculpture reaching posterior margin ( Fig. 27); Russia, Netherlands............................................................................................ X. calligetus (Kononova & Kozlov)  

- Frons smooth ( Fig. 29); sculpture of mesoscutum not reaching posterior margin (e.g. Figs 30, 31)...................... 6

6(5) Sculpture of vertex merging with genal patch, cells of reticulate sculpture as wide as lateral ocellus diameter; POL=OOL ( Fig. 31); notauli less convergent, shortest distance between notauli (DPN) two times as long as distance between posterior end of notaulus and posterolateral edge of mesoscutum (DNP) ( Fig. 31); metasoma elongated: T1 3–3.5 times as wide as long ( Fig. 33); A1 1.4 times as long as radicle; Russia (Primorskij Kraj), Japan. ............................................................................................................................ X. cornutus (Kononova & Kozlov)  

- Sculpture of vertex not reaching genal patch, cells of reticulate sculpture half as wide as lateral ocellus diameter; POL/OOL=1.3–1.5 ( Fig. 30); shortest distance between notauli (DPN) as long as distance between posterior end of notaulus and posterolateral edge of mesoscutum (DNP) ( Fig. 30); metasoma short: T1 5.5–6 times as wide as long ( Fig. 32); A1 3–3.2 times as long as radicle; Old world, widespread. ........................... X. canariensis Huggert  

7(1) Mesoscutellum medially with sharp spine ( Figs 34, 41) and median keel extending between anterior margin and apex of spine ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

- Mesoscutellum unarmed (e.g. Figs 42, 54, 55)........................................................................................................ 9

8(7) Hyperoccipital carina not extending to orbit; vertex patch present ( Fig. 37); HW/IOS=1.8, IOS longest below eye midlevel ( Fig. 39); netrion sulcus present ( Fig. 40); A4 distinctly longer than A3; Taiwan, Malaysia..................... ........................................................................................................................................................ X. spinosus   sp. n.

- Hyperoccipital carina extending to inner orbit; vertex patch absent ( Fig. 36); HW/IOS=1.5, IOS longest above eye midlevel ( Fig. 38); netrion sulcus absent; A4 distinctly shorter than A3; Thailand....................... X. armatus   sp. n.

9(7) Notaulus absent ( Fig. 42); propodeal lateral carina S-shaped ( Fig. 43); T3 with elongated apical setae ( Fig. 47–49) ( ochraceus   -group) ................................................................................................................................................... 10

- Notaulus present (e.g. Figs 54, 55, 61, 64), propodeal lateral carinae inverted Y- or V- shaped ( Fig. 50); apical setae on T3 not elongated (e.g. Figs 52, 53, 62, 75) ............................................................................................... 12

10(9) Frons with dense setae ( Fig. 44, 46); T3 costae extending at most to middle of tergum ( Fig. 47, 48); if mesoscutellum and head black, mesonotum black ................................................................................................................... 11

- Frons with sparse setae ( Fig. 45); T3 costae exceeding middle of tergum ( Fig. 49); mesoscutellum and head black, mesonotum yellowish; Papua New Guinea. ................................................................................. X. guinensis   sp. n.

11(10) Central keel incomplete ( Fig. 44); basal depressions on T3 thick ( Fig. 48); POL/OOL=1.25–1.35; Ethiopian, Oriental .............................................................................................................................................. X. ochraceus   sp. n.

- Central keel complete ( Fig. 46); basal depressions on T3 thin ( Fig. 47); POL/OOL= 1–1.15; Oriental ................... .................................................................................................................................................... X. yamagishii   sp. n.

12 (9) POL distinctly shorter than OOL (POL/OOL=0.6–0.8) ( Figs 54, 55); facial striae extending to vertex sculpture, frons with rugulous sculpture ( Figs 56, 57) ............................................................................................................ 13

- POL equal or longer than OOL (POL/OOL=1–3.4) (e.g. Figs 61, 64, 66, 67, 70, 78); frons without rugulose sculpture (if facial striae extending to OOL, frons not rugulous) (e.g. Figs 63, 65, 68, 69) ........................................... 14

13(12) T3 costae not exceeding middle of tergum, posteriorly reticulate ( Fig. 52); pronotal suprahumeral sulcus not foveolate; netrion sculpture not extending onto lateral pronotal area ( Fig. 58); metascutellum bluntly triangular, entirely striated; wings reduced, not exceeding middle of T3 ( Fig. 54); radicle short (A1/r=6–6.5) (Fig. 12, 56); Australia...................................................................................................................................... X. halteratus   sp. n.

- T3 costae reaching posterior margin of tergum, posteriorly not reticulate ( Fig. 53), pronotal suprahumeral sulcus foveolate; netrion sculpture extending to propleuron ( Fig. 60); metascutellum pointed, only base striated ( Fig. 55); wings well developed, exceeding apex of metasoma; radicle elongated (A1/r=2.7–2.8) (Figs 13, 57); Indonesia, Malaysia......................................................................................................................................... X. rugifrons   sp. n.

14(12) T3 longitudinally rugoso-punctate ( Fig. 62); frons and mesonotum with dense, thick setae ( Fig. 61, 63); Africa, widespread ...................................................................................................................................... X. comatus   sp. n.

- T3 with only longitudinal costae ( Figs 90, 91), frons with sparse, thin setae (e.g. Figs 66–69, 74, 80, 86, 87) .... 15

15(14) POL about 3 times as long as OOL, LOL> OOL ( Fig. 64); Africa, widespread; United Arab Emirates. ................ ...................................................................................................................................................... X. watshami   sp. n.

- POL 1 to 2.2 times as long as OOL, LOL longer OOL (e.g. Figs 66, 67, 78, 79, 81, 84, 88, 89).......................... 16

16(15) Radicle elongate: A1/r=2.8–3.4 (e.g. Fig. 14); metasoma less elongated (T1W/T1+2=1.8–1.9) ......................... 17

- Radicle short: A1/r=5–6.5 (e.g. Fig. 15); metasoma more elongated (T1W/T1+2=1–1.4).................................... 19

17(16) Hyperoccipital carina extending to orbit; vertex smooth ( Fig. 67); facial striae extend to middle of frons curving to central keel ( Fig. 69); mesoscutellum anteriorly rugulose ( Fig. 100). Oriental, widespread ... X. orientalis   sp. n.

- Hyperoccipital carina not extending to margin of eye, vertex patch present ( Fig. 66); facial striae never extend to middle of frons, not curving to central keel (e.g. Fig. 66); mesoscutellum smooth ( Fig. 70) ................................ 18

18(17) Vertex smooth, only vertex patch present ( Fig. 70); genal patch absent ( Fig. 71); POL/OOL=1.7–1.8 ( Fig. 70); A1/r=2.7–2.8 (Fig. 14); lateral pronotal area without sculpture; South Africa, Kenya................. X. aureipes   sp. n.

- Vertex entirely reticulate ( Fig. 66); genal patch present; POL/OOL=2.1–2.2 ( Fig. 66); A1/r=3.3; lateral pronotal area with oblique crenulae; Brunei, Vietnam........................................................................... X. parorinetalis   sp. n.

19(16) Mesoscutellum anteriorly rugulose ( Fig. 72), (POL/OOL=1.2; Uganda.................................... X. scutellatus   sp. n.

- Mesoscutellum smooth (e.g. Figs 73, 78, 79, 81, 84) or crenulated anteriorly ( Fig. 86) ....................................... 20

20(19) Mesoscutellum anteriorly with transversely crenulate ( Fig. 85); dorsal margin of T1 convex from lateral view. Malawi.............................................................................................................................................. X. malawi   sp. n.

- Mesoscutellum smooth anteriorly ( Figs 73, 78, 79, 81, 84, 88, 89); dorsal margin of T1 concave from lateral view ............................................................................................................................................................................... 21

21(20) Notaulus not reaching transscutal line, 2–3 times as long as wide ( Fig. 73). Papua New Guinea. .. X. melikai   sp. n.

- Notaulus reaching transscutal line, 8–10 times as long as wide ( Figs 78, 79, 81, 84, 88, 89) .............................. 22

22(21) Facial striae exceeding eye midlevel, parallel with inner orbit; central keel complete ( Figs 74, 80); T3 costae not exceeding mid length of tergum (e.g. Fig. 75) ........................................................................................................ 23

- Facial striae not exceeding eye midlevel, not parallel with inner orbit; central keel incomplete ( Figs 86, 87); T3 costae exceeding 2/3 length of tergum ( Figs 90, 91) .............................................................................................. 26

23(22) Eye widest below midlevel (frontal view) ( Fig. 80); scutellum less transverse (SW/SL=1.8) ( Figs 81, 84); T3 as long as wide ............................................................................................................................................................ 24

- Eye widest in midlevel ( Figs 74); scutellum transverse (SW/SL=2–2.2) ( Figs 78, 79); T3 about 1.5 times as wide as long ..................................................................................................................................................................... 25

24(23) Metascutellum unarmed ( Fig. 81); netrion enlarged, distinctly wider than fore coxa ( Fig. 82); Australia, Queensland ............................................................................................................................................... X. gloriosus   sp. n.

- Metanotal spine well developed ( Fig. 84); netrion smaller, as wide as fore coxa ( Fig. 83); Australia, Victoria ....... .......................................................................................................................................................... X. bickeli   sp. n.

25(23) Metanotal spine long, slender ( Fig. 77, 79); netrion sulcus absent, netrion larger ( Fig. 78); A1–A7 brown; vertex patch present; Australia................................................................................................................... X. laticeps Dodd  

- Metanotal spine short, tubercle like ( Figs 76, 78); netrion sulcus present, netrion smaller ( Fig. 76); A1–A6 yellow; vertex patch absent; Australia, Queensland ..................................................................................... X. varipes Dodd  

26(22) POL=OOL ( Fig. 89), frontal patch as wide as long, not reaching eye midlevel ( Fig. 86), metasoma shorter (T1W/ T1+2L=1.2); T3 posteriorly with coriaceous sculpture ( Fig. 91); coxae yellow; Africa. ................. X. feehani   sp. n.

- POL/OOL=1.4 ( Fig. 88); frontal patch vertically elongated, exceeding eye midlevel ( Fig. 87); metasoma longer (T1W/T1+2L=1.4–1.5); T3 posteriorly smooth ( Fig 90); coxae brown Africa .............................. X. kalocsai   sp. n.

MALES (Unknown for X. armatus   , X. bickeli   , X. buccatus   , X. feehani   , X. gloriosus   , X. halteratus   , X. kalocsai   , X. malawi   , X. melikai   , X. parorinetalis   , X. rugifrons   , X. scutellatus   , X. spinosus   )

1 A8–A11 without median constriction (e.g. Fig. 17) ................................................................................................. 2

- A8–A11 with median constriction (e.g. Fig. 18) ...................................................................................................... 7

2(1) Notaulus absent ( Fig. 24); mesopleural carina absent, sulci on mesopleuron not foveolate ( Fig. 23); Yemen. ........ .................................................................................................................................................... X. vanharteni   sp. n.

- Notaulus present (e.g. Figs. 25–27, 30, 31); mesopleural carina present, sulci on mesopleuron foveolate ( Figs. 22, 93) ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

3(2) T3 smooth ( Fig. 92); Indonesia......................................................................................................... X. noyesi   sp. n.

- T3 with basal groves ( Figs 32, 33) .......................................................................................................................... 4

4(3) POL 2–2.2 times as long as OOL; vertex behind POL unsculptured, with sharp hyperoccipital carina ( Fig. 25); Old world, widespread .................................................................................................................. X. ergenna Walker  

- POL 1–1.4 times as long as OOL; vertex behind POL sculptured; hyperoccipital carina absent (e.g. Figs 26, 27, 30, 31) ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5(4) Sculpture of vertex extending down to frons ( Fig. 28); mesoscutum sculpture reaching posterior margin ( Fig. 27); Russia, Netherlands. ........................................................................................... X. calligetus (Kononova & Kozlov)  

- Frons smooth ( Fig. 29) sculpture of mesoscutum not reaching posterior margin (e.g. Figs 30, 31)........................ 6

6(5) Sculpture of vertex merging with genal patch, cells of reticulate sculpture as wide as lateral ocellus diameter; POL=OOL ( Fig. 31); notauli less converge, shortest distance between notauli (DPN) two times as long as between posterior end of notaulus and posterolateral edge of mesoscutum (DNP) ( Fig. 31); metasoma elongated: T1 3–3.5 times as wide as long ( Fig. 33); A1 1.4 times as long as radicle; Russia (Primorskij Kraj), Japan............................ ............................................................................................................................ X. cornutus (Kononova & Kozlov)  

- Sculpture of vertex not reaching genal patch, cells of reticulate sculpture half as wide as lateral ocellus diameter; POL/OOL=1.3–1.5 ( Fig. 30); shortest distance between notauli (DPN) as long as distance between posterior end of notaulus and posterolateral edge of mesoscutum (DNP) ( Fig. 30); metasoma short: T1 5.5–6 times as wide as long ( Fig. 32); A1 3–3.2 times as long as radicle; Old world, widespread. ........................... X. canariensis Huggert  

7(1) T3 longitudinally rugoso-punctate ( Fig. 62), frons with thick setae ( Fig. 63) ............................... X. comatus   sp. n.

- T3 with only longitudinal costae ( Figs 75, 90, 91); frons with thin setae ( Figs 94, 95, 99) .................................... 8

8(7) Metascutellum bluntly triangular, entirely striated ( Figs 96, 97); pronotal cervical sulcus not foveolate (e.g. Figs 99); mesosoma light brown to yellow; median constrictions on male flagellomeres weak (Figs 11, 18, 19) .......... 9

- Metascutellum pointed, only base striated ( Fig. 100, 101, 103, 104, 108, 109); mesosoma dark brown to black; pronotal cervical sulcus foveolate ( Figs 76, 77); median constriction of male flagellomeres distinct ( Fig. 16).... 12

9(8) Mesopleural carina incomplete; netrion sulcus present ( Fig. 98); pronotal suprahumeral sulcus absent ( Fig. 98); facial striae exceeding top of head ( Fig. 94); mesoscutellum anteriorly sculptured ( Fig. 96); A4–6 with few ventral microcilia ( Fig. 19); apical setae on T3 short. Australia.................................................................. X. melleus   sp. n.

- Mesopleural carina complete, netrion sulcus absent, pronotal suprahumeral sulcus present ( Fig. 51); head less transverse, facial striae not exceeding top of head ( Fig. 95); mesoscutellum smooth ( Fig. 97); A4–6 with numerous ventral microcilia (Fig. 11); T3 apical setae elongated ( Fig. 47–49) ............................................................... 10

10(9) Frons with dense setae ( Fig. 44); T3 costae extending at most to middle of tergum ( Fig. 47, 48); if mesoscutellum and head black, mesonotum black .......................................................................................................................... 11

- Frons with sparse setae ( Fig. 45); T3 costae exceeding middle of tergum ( Fig. 49); mesoscutellum and head black, mesonotum yellowish; Papua New Guinea. ................................................................................. X. guinensis   sp. n.

11(10) Central keel complete ( Fig. 46); basal depressions on T3 thin ( Fig. 47). Japan........................ X. yamagishii   sp. n.

- Central keel incomplete ( Fig. 44, 101); basal depressions on T3 thick ( Fig. 48)....................... X. ochraceus   sp. n.

12(8) Mesopleural carina incomplete; netrion distinctly wider than fore coxa ( Fig. 102); Australia, Queensland ............. ............................................................................................................................................................ X. hilleri   sp. n.

- Mesopleural carina complete; netrion narrower than fore coxa ( Fig. 76, 77) ....................................................... 13

13(12) POL 2.5–2.7 times as long as LOL, vertex entirely reticulate ( Fig. 109); central keel incomplete ( Fig.107); Africa. ...................................................................................................................................................... X. watshami   sp. n.

- POL 1–1.5 times as long as OOL; vertex smooth behind POL (e.g. Figs 103, 104, 106); central keel complete ( Figs 105, 106) ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

14(13) POL/OOL=1.3–1.5; A5 modified (e.g. Figs 19) (Africa, Oriental) ....................................................................... 15

- POL/OOL=1; A5 not modified (e.g. Figs 9, 10) ( Australia).................................................................................. 16

15(14) A3–8 with numerous ventral microcilia; genal patch absent; hyperoccipital carina not extending to inner orbit; mesoscutellum smooth ( Fig. 108); netrion sulcus complete; facial striae shorter, not curved inward ( Fig. 106); T3 costae almost reaching posterior margin submedially; Africa. ................................................................. X. aureipes  

- A3–8 with few ventral microcilia; genal patch present; hyperoccipital carina extending to inner orbit; mesoscutellum anteriorly rugulous ( Fig. 100); facial striae extending to frons, curved inward (e.g. Fig. 69); T3 costae reduced submedially; Oriental ...................................................................................................... X. orientalis   sp. n.

16(14) A3–A7 with numerous ventral microcilia (Fig. 9); metanotal spine reduced, tubercle like ( Fig. 103); hind tibia and tarsi brown; Australia, Queensland. ........................................................................................... X. varipes Dodd  

- A3–A7 with few ventral microcilia (Fig. 10); metanotal spine elongated ( Fig. 104); hindtibia and tarsi yellow; Australia........................................................................................................................................... X. laticeps Dodd