Cactophagus dragoni Anderson

Anderson, Robert S., 2002, The Dryophthoridae of Costa Rica and Panama: Checklist with keys, new synonymy and descriptions of new species of Cactophagus, Mesocordylus, Metamasius and Rhodobaenus (Coleoptera; Curculionoi, Zootaxa 80, pp. 1-94: 27-30

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.156033

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Cactophagus dragoni Anderson


Cactophagus dragoni Anderson 

( Figs. 7 ­10View FIGURES 7 - 14, 15­ 18View FIGURES 15 ­ 18)

Identification.— Cactophagus dragoni  appears to be closely related to C. ornatus  and C. sinuatus  based on similarities in the placement of the antennae on the rostrum far from the eye ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 15 ­ 18), the bilamellate apical portion of the peduncle of the postmentum which is somewhat projected anteriorly and ventrally, and the elytral maculations which (if present) distort the form of the elytal striae ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 7 - 14). Most specimens of C. dragoni  have elytra with orange humeri and a series of disjunct orange maculations extended in an oblique arc from the anterior one­third of the lateral elytal margin to the posterior one­third of the elytral length at interval 3 ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 7 - 14). These maculations are tumescent and slightly distort the elytral striae. One immaculate conspecific specimen (near Boquete) is known ( Figs. 7-8View FIGURES 7 - 14). Whereas similar, C. ornatus  and C. sinuatus  are not as markedly sculptured, have only a transverse subbasal pronotal impression, and the peduncle is not as sharply bilamellate as in C. dragoni  .

Description. Male, length, 13.8-15 .3 mm; width, 5.8-6.5 mm. Female, length, 13.4-

14.4 mm; width, 6. 0-6.3 mm. Color black with elytral orange maculations at humeri, on Rostrum subequal to length pronotum; elongate, cylindrical, robust, evenly rather strongly curved, very coarsely, irregularly punctate basally, punctures somewhat finer, sparser apically; base of rostrum expanded slightly in dorsal view at point of antennal insertion only; in lateral view slightly wider at base but not obviously expanded, basal area long, about two­fifths total rostral length. Rostrum glabrous ventrally; peduncle markedly bilamellate apically, projected anteriorly and ventrally. Scrobe with posterior margin about 6 or 7 times width of base of scape from anterior margin of eyes. Antenna with scape more or less one­half length rostrum; club slightly laterally compressed, elongateoval; apical pilose part subequal to length basal glabrous part. Pronotum with lateral margins irregular, subparallel in basal one­half, convergent subapically, tubulate to apex; disc and flanks moderately deeply irregularly punctate throughout, some punctures coalescent forming irregular shallow rugae; surface irregular, with shallow impressions laterally at midlength and deep transverse impression subbasally at middle; anterolateral margin immediately behind eyes with surface somewhat crenulate. Pronotum slightly longer than wide. Elytra with length one and one­half times length pronotum; intervals finely punctate, irregularly creased; intervals 3­5 swollen and irregularly scupltured at base; striae with moderately deep, widely spaced, small punctures. Scutellum large, “V” shaped, length slightly longer than width at base, flat. Pygidium tumescent medially; shallowly regularly punctate throughout; apex broadly rounded, with transverse row of longer setae. Ventrally with front coxae very narrowly separated by no more than width of base of scape; prosternum markedly sloping between and anterior to front coxae, with low tubercle between coxae. Meso­, metasternum and ventrite 1 irregularly sparsely punctate; ventrites 2 to 5 sparsely, finely punctate; last ventrite flat, glabrous. Legs moderately long, moderately densely regularly punctate, especially on outer face of femora; front coxae of male with inwardly projected low rounded swelling, lacking in female; femora clavate, moderately long, hind femur reaching apex of pygidium; inner margins of middle and hind tibiae very slightly inwardly expanded subbasally; all tibiae with very fine, uniformly short, stout, peglike setae throughout length arranged in pectinate manner. Tarsi with article 1 of front leg pilose on both lobes; third article very widely dilated, pilose ventrally except for narrow median line in basal one­half; all tarsi with third articles symmetrical; apical margin of third articles very shallowly emarginate.

Variation.—Some variation exists in the extent of the elytral orange maculations which are lacking on interval 4 and intervals 6 and 7 in some specimens, and one immaculate specimen (near Boquete) is known.

Sexual dimorphism.—Sexes are difficult to separate in this species. Males have a slightly more concave metasternum and ventrite 1, and possess small tubercles on the front coxae.

Material Examined.—Male HOLOTYPE labelled “Pan. Chiriqui Prov. / Cont'l Divide Trl. / 11­15.V. 1995 / Morris & Wappes" ( CMNC). Female ALLOTYPE labelled " Panama. Chiriqui / Fortuna, 82 ° 15 'W / 8 ° 44 'N, May 20, 1978 / O'Briens & Marshall " ( CWOB). PARATYPES (5, 3). PANAMA. CHIRIQUI PROVINCE. Boquete (5.6 km. W.), La Culebra Trail, 1450m, 1996, J.Ashe & R. Brooks, Arum  leaf axils, # 178 (1). Continental Divide Trail, 11­15.V. 1995, Morris and Wappes (1). Fortuna, 82 ° 15 'W 8 ° 44 'N, May 20, 1978, O'Briens & Marshall (1). May 16, 1978 (2; 1). Reserva Forestal La Fortuna, Quebrada Aleman, 21.VII. 1995, C.W. and L.B. O'Brien (1). Cuenca Fortuna, Aoki Camp, 23.V. 1985, R. Flowers (1). Paratypes in CMNC, CWOB.

Distribution.— Panama (Chiriqui).

Natural history.—Adults have been collected in montane cloud forest in the La Fortuna area of Chiriqui province, Panama. The specimen from 5.6 km. W. Boquete was collected in the axil of a large arum  plant ( Araceae  ).

Derivation of specific name.— Through support for the Nature Discovery Fund at the Canadian Museum of Nature, this species is named after Jane Dragon of Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, Canada.

Comments.—This species approaches species previously placed in Cactophagoides  in the extent of pronotal and elytral sculpture. Such intermediate forms have led to the consideration of Cactophagoides  as a junior synonym of Cactophagus  .