Cactophagus

Anderson, Robert S., 2002, The Dryophthoridae of Costa Rica and Panama: Checklist with keys, new synonymy and descriptions of new species of Cactophagus, Mesocordylus, Metamasius and Rhodobaenus (Coleoptera; Curculionoi, Zootaxa 80, pp. 1-94: 23-27

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.156033

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:6D9F45FE-587D-4161-A54E-DB83C10A112F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/01363A23-146B-5B45-FECC-FB5EFA92ED2F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cactophagus
status

 

Key to species of Cactophagus  in Costa Rica and Panama (after Vaurie 1966, 1967)

1 Pronotum deeply laterally incised subapically immediately behind eye; in dorsal view, lateral margin with distinct, deep subapical emargination, apex distinctly tubulate; pronotum and (especially) elytra with coarse, irregular sculpture ................................ 2

­ Pronotum at most slightly laterally impressed subapically behind eye, not distinctly incised; in dorsal view, lateral margin more or less continuous to apex, at most slightly constricted subapically or rarely subemarginate; pronotum and elytra generally lacking coarse sculpture............................................................................................................. 5

2 Elytra smooth and even, lacking "wart­like" swellings, striae and intervals uniform, not distorted by swellings; elytra very slightly transversely impressed at anterior and posterior one­thirds but not deeply plicate; color black with elytral intervals 3 and 9 orange throughout most of their lengths .................. C. lineatus  Anderson, new species

­ Elytra with moderate to large, "wart­like" swellings which distort striae and intervals; elytra distinctly, deeply transversely plicate at anterior and posterior one­thirds; color uniformly black or elytra black with few red spots near base....................................... 3

3 Color black, elytra with distinct red spots at base of interval 3, on humerus and sub­

apically on interval 9; Panama.................................. C. morrisi Anderson  , new species ­ Color uniformly black; Costa Rica................................................................................ 4

4 Pronotum with subbasal impression weakly carinate; prosternum between coxae narrow, not tuberculate…. .......................................................... C. verrucosus (Champion) 

­ Pronotum with subbasal impression not carinate; prosternum between coxae wider, slightly tuberculate ................................................................ C. gibberosus (Champion) 

5 Outer apex of tibia bidentate; male femora with inner margin with distinct tooth ......... .............................................................................................. C. transatlanticus  (Kirsch)

­ Outer apex of tibia rounded or obtusely angulate; male femora with inner margin lacking tooth, simple............................................................................................................ 6

6 Metasternum with round or conical protuberance between middle coxae.................... 7

­ Metasternum feebly rounded or flat between middle coxae ....................................... 13

7 Pronotum with three round, equidistant depressions; antennal club with pilose apical portion one­quarter or less length of entire club; elytra yellowish with black borders and spots............................................................................ C. graphipterus (Champion) 

­ Pronotum with one depression at middle of base; antennal club with pilose apical portion one­third or more length of entire club; elytra black, or black with red or orange bands or stripes.............................................................................................................. 8

8 Metasternal protuberance rounded, not larger than bulge of coxa; mesepimeron with outer front corner turned upward or backward…................... C. pruinosus (Champion) 

­ Metasternal protuberance conical, larger than bulge of coxa; mesepimeron with outer front corner flat.............................................................................................................. 9

9 Rostrum densely, coarsely punctate laterally in basal one­half, sides in front of scrobe with hairy, elongate depression formed by coalescent punctures... C. viduus (Hustache) 

­ Rostrum very finely punctate or impunctate laterally, sides in front of scrobe smooth.. ..................................................................................................................................... 10

10 Rostrum with upper margin of scrobe straight, base not dilated over scrobes................ ................................................................................................ C. aurofasciatus  (Breme)

­ Rostrum with upper margin of scrobe with small angulation or sinuation, base dilated (at least slightly) over scrobes..................................................................................... 11

11 Elytra black, with large black velvety patch on each elytron (feebly defined in some specimens); prosternum with round swelling in front of each coxa ............................... ............................................................................................... C. carinipyga (Champion) 

­ Elytra black, with 1 or 2 transverse orange or red bands; prosternum smooth in front of each coxa ..................................................................................................................... 12

12 Elytra with 2 red bands, one subbasal, the other at apical one­quarter; pronotum markedly sinuate at middle; scutellum distinctly emarginate anteriorly................................. ............................................................................................ C. duplocinctus (Champion) 

­ Elytra with a single red basal band; pronotum very slightly sinuate at middle; scutellum slightly concave anteriorly.......................... C. riesenorum Anderson  , new species

13 Antenna with pilose apical portion very small, less than one­fourth or one­fifth length of club.......................................................................................................................... 14

­ Antenna with pilose apical portion one­third or more length of club ......................... 16

14 Hind tibia broad, flat and "paddle­like", width at middle about one­third length........... ..................................................................................... C. silron  Anderson, new species

­ Hind tibia typically slender and elongate, width at middle much less than one­third length............................................................................................................................ 15

15 Pronotum with basal depression and two or more additional depressions; antennal club symmetical in profile…....................................................... C. aurocinctus (Champion) 

­ Pronotum with single shallow basal depression or no depression; antennal club oblique in profile, one side longer than the other....................... C. strigosus (Erichson) 

16 Rostrum with ventral surface with long or short hairs................................................ 17

­ Rostrum with ventral surface glabrous........................................................................ 18

17 Rostrum with ventral hairs sparse, tiny, basal; pronotum and elytra with velvety black areas; elytral apices truncate ............................ C. miniatopunctatus Chevrolat  (in part)

­ Rostrum with ventral hairs dense, long, in two distinct rows; pronotum and elytra without velvety black areas but with tumid orange spots; elytral apices separately rounded....................................................................................... C. personatus (Vaurie) 

18 Elytra black, with single transverse red band at extreme base (band may be incomplete at middle or divided at sides) ...................................................................................... 19

­ Elytra without transverse red band or if present, not at base, or with other pattern of red markings................................................................................................................ 21

19 Elytral intervals at base flat or only feebly swollen .............. C. mesomelas  (Champion)

­ Elytral intervals at base abruptly bulbous ................................................................... 20

20 Elytra with one red band; fourth interval bulbous at base and wider than others; pronotum black…. ........................................................................ C. sanguinolentus (Olivier) 

­ Elytra with two red bands; fourth and fifth intervals bulbous at base but fourth not wider than others; pronotum with some red in most specimens ..................................... ................................................................................................ C. rubrovariegatus  Bovie

21 Mesosternal process at apex distinctly narrower than one­half diameter of coxa ...... 22

­ Mesosternal process at apex equal to or greater than one­half diameter of coxa........ 26

22 Elytral striae uniform, straight, not distorted by orange maculations (if maculations present); antennal scrobe with posterior edge separated from eye by no more than twice width of base of scape; inner face of front coxa lacking tubercles.................... 23

­ Elytral striae variously redirected and distorted by swellings at orange maculations (if maculations present); antennal scrobe with posterior edge distant from eye by nearly length of antennal club or more; inner face of front coxa of male with inward­pointed tubercle......................................................................................................................... 24

23 Rostrum immediately in front of eye with deep, vertical groove (formed by coalescent punctures); pygidium with dense long hairs in apical one­half, along lateral margins

and along midline; form slender, pronotum longer than wide ........................................ ................................................................................ C. lingorum  Anderson, new species ­ Rostrum immediately in front of eye with large, deep punctures; pygidium (except for apical fringe) with sparse, short hairs throughout; form more robust, pronotum about as long as wide .................................................... C. circumdatus  (Champion), (in part)

24 Pronotum and basal portion of elytra coarsely, irregularly sculptured, rugulose, deeply coarsely punctate; pronotum with single transverse subbasal impression and two paramedian shallow, irregular impressions near midlength................................................... .................................................................................. C. dragoni  Anderson, new species

­ Pronotum and elytra more or less smooth, finely evenly punctate; pronotum with only single transverse subbasal impression......................................................................... 25

25 Elytra each with colored subapical spot on third interval elongate and nearly extended to apex; humeral spot longer than adjacent spot ....................... C. sinuatus (Champion) 

­ Elytra each with colored subapical spot on third interval (if present), nearly round, situated far from apex; humeral spot short, not larger than others...................................... .................................................................................................... C. ornatus (Champion) 

26 Rostrum short, lower margin only three or four times longer than wide .................... 27

­ Rostrum longer, lower margin at least five times longer than wide............................ 28

27 Middle coxae separated by width of coxa; front coxae separated by width of antennal club; antennal club with apical pilose portion about one­third length of club ................ ........................................................................................... C. pulcherrimus (Champion) 

­ Middle coxae separated by about one­half to two­thirds width of coxa; front coxae separated by less than width of antennal club; antennal club with apical pilose portion about one­half length of club ................................................. C. annulatus (Champion) 

28 Elytra with punctures of striae large, fovea­like, deeply impressed and "pit­like", intervals and pronotum impunctate .................................................... C. fahraei (Gyllenhal) 

­ Elytra with punctures of striae small to moderate, shallowly to moderately impressed, intervals finely punctate or impunctate; pronotum with punctures large, coarse and deep to small, shallow and fine ................................................................................... 29

29 Punctures of elytral striae moderate in size, distinct; intervals finely but distinctly punctate; pronotum with distinct, moderately large deep punctures........................... 30

­ Punctures of elytral striae small if present, not distinct; intervals impunctate; pronotum at most finely punctate ................................................................................................ 31

30 Elytra with bases of intervals 3­5 slightly swollen, interval 5 noticeably wider at base than throughout rest of length; pronotum with punctures large, coarse and deep, some coalescent; pygidium subcarinate towards apex ............................................................. ...................................................................... C. gasbarrinorum Anderson  , new species

­ Elytra with bases of intervals 3­5 flat, more or less of same width throughout lengths; pronotum with punctures moderate, individually distinct, not coalescent; pygidium evenly convex towards apex, not at all carinate................... C. validirostris (Gyllenhal) 

31 Pronotum with subbasal impression indistinct or absent; pronotum red or orange with black paramedian stripes; body size less than 8.0 mm................... C. condylus (Vaurie) 

­ Pronotum with subbasal impression distinct and moderately deep; pronotum black with lateral oblique red or orange stripe or maculation, or with no red or orange markings; body size greater than 8.0 mm............................................................................ 32

32 Pronotum with distinct red or orange lateral stripes that continue posteriorly onto elytra............................................................................................................................ 33

­ Pronotum entirely black or black with pale red marks medially, not continuing posteriorly onto elytra ............................................................................................................ 34

33 Prosternum between coxae with distinct tubercle (males) or swelling (females); front tarsus with article 3 almost fully pilose ventrally, with at most a fine median, basal glabrous line; pronotal red or orange stripes narrow, many times longer than wide; pygidium subcarinate .................................................................. C. circumjectus (Champion) 

­ Prosternum flat between coxae; front tarsus with article 3 with broad, triangular, basal glabrous area; pronotal red or orange stripes broad, about three times longer than wide; pygidium slightly, evenly convex........................ C. circumdatus (Champion)  , (in part)

34 Front coxae separated by slightly more than one­half width of coxa; base of elytral interval 4 swollen and directed slightly medially............................................................ ......................................................................... C. sunatoriorum  Anderson, new species

­ Front coxae separated by at most about one­third width of coxa; base of elytral interval 4 flat or slightly convex, directed anteriorly ............................................................... 35

35 Male with prosternum between front coxae with distinct tubercle; pygidium with subapical swelling, apex subtruncate in lateral view; elytra with intervals 3­5 lacking series of orange dots at basal one­third ............................... C. rectistriatus (Champion) 

­ Male with prosternum flat between front coxae; pygidium at most slightly evenly convex, rounded in lateral view; elytra with row of red or orange dots on intervals 3­5 at basal one­third ................................................. C. miniatopunctatus Chevrolat  , (in part)