Calisto bahoruco Pérez

Hausmann, Axel, 2017, A new species of the hysius species-group of Calisto Hübner (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) and insights into the status of different populations currently attributed to C. grannus Bates, Zootaxa 4317 (1), pp. 1-44: 3-6

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Calisto bahoruco Pérez


Calisto bahoruco Pérez  –Asso, Núñez & Genaro, new species

Figures 1–6 View Figure , 9–10 View Figure

Diagnosis. Calisto bahoruco  n. sp. requires comparison with its closest relative C. hysius  . Both have a similar color pattern but differ in several characters. Average FWL is smaller in C. bahoruco  , 15 mm in males (n=5) and 16.8 mm females (n=5), than in C. hysius  , 16.5 mm in males (n=7), 18.3 mm in females (n=4). Ocelli are distinctly larger in C. bahoruco  with a median of the ratio ocellus largest diameter/wing length of 0.20 at FW and 0.18 at HW. Values in C. hysius  are 0.17 and 0.14 at FW and HW respectively. Wing pattern of C. bahoruco  shows a darker background on the under surface, the discal of the HW is straighter and smooth, the overall pale scaling on the distal edge of lines is much more contrasting compared to the equivalent in C. hysius  which shows a paler ground colour, less contrasting distal edges of lines and the discal line more irregular than that in C. bahoruco  . Genitalia are very similar in both sexes, however, the tegumen of C. hysius  male broadly protrudes backwards compared to that of C. bahoruco  ( Figs. 13, 14 View Figure ), and in addition the male structure of the latter is notably more sclerotized ( Fig. 13 View Figure ). The minimum pairwise K2P genetic distance among C. bahoruco  n. sp. and a representative of the hysius  group is to C. hysius  , 2.3%, with intraspecific genetic distances averaging 0.14 and 0.05% respectively (Table 2). Comparison of COIAbout COI barcodes belonging to both species showed C. hysius  has a cytosine at positions 187 and 517, characters absent from any other hysius  group member including C. bahoruco  n. sp. (Table 3). The barcode of the latter species bears a thymine at position 220 whereas C. hysius  possesses cytosine. However, this character is not exclusive since it is present in two sequences of C. batesi  , all remaining 207 analyzed sequences bear a cytosine in that position. Additional non exclusive nucleotide positions distinguishing the COIAbout COI barcodes of both species are mentioned in the Species delimitation methods section.

Description. Male ( Figs 1–4 View Figure ): FWL 14.2–16.2 mm. Upper surface blackish brown, FW with triangular androconial patch from base to the cell on the area below the latter. Underside dark brown, paler beyond the post discal line on the FW. Discal cell with a red spot outwardly edged by a transverse blackish brown line. FW post discal line with a narrow pale yellow band on its outer edge. FW ocellus moderately large, circular, with two white pupils and edged below by a red spot. HW dark brown, background color formed by a mix of dark brown and pale yellow scales. HW discal line moderately straight outwardly edged by a narrow but distinctive band of white scales. HW ocellus elliptical, with a single basal white pupil and a trace of white scales along its larger axis; area around external ring rusty colored. Area above ocellus with four tiny white dots being the one at Sc–Rs interspace the smaller. Post discal and subterminal lines edged by pale yellow contrasting scales on the outer and inner sides respectively.

Genitalia ( Fig. 13 View Figure ). As illustrated.

Female ( Figs 5, 6 View Figure ): FWL 15.7–17.9 mm. Similar to male except: Upperside of wings brown, outer half of wings paler. Outer third of the four wings with a rusty spot at central position.

Genitalia ( Fig. 15 View Figure ). As illustrated.

HOLOTYPE. Male. Villa Nizao, Paraíso , Barahona, República Dominicana, 5–VIII–2014, A. R. Pérez – Asso & A. López coll., DNAAbout DNA voucher code JAGWI  –1018 (VGRC).

PARATYPES. 4♂, 5♀, same data as holotype except DNA voucher codes JAGWI–1015, 1016, 1018, R–114, R–115 (VGRC). Genitalia slide preparations ♂: Rh1745, Rh1752, and ♀: Rh1747 (ZSM).

Distribution ( Fig. 17 View Figure ). Only known from the type locality, Villa Nizao, Barahona province, at the foothills of eastern extreme of Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic. Apparently the species also inhabits several localities around the type locality, all at Barahona province (see Discussion).

Natural history. Unknown. The type series was collected only at the type locality, a secondary mesic forest mixed with coffee plantations.

Comparative examined material. Calisto hysius  :

Type. Satyrus hyisus  68, Godart (RSM). Reviewed through pictures available at Butterflies of America website (Warren et al. 2015).

Additional material (9♂, 4♀): camino de Los Arroyos a Ojo de Agua, Pedernales, República Dominicana, 28– VII–2010, A. López, A. R. Pérez –Asso & J. A. Genaro colls., DNAAbout DNA voucher codes WI–JAG–493–497 (5 ♂)  . Same data as anterior except July 2010, J. A. Genaro & A. R. Pérez – Asso colls., DNAAbout DNA voucher code WI–JAG–549 (♂)  . El Aguacate , 1055 m, pinar, Sierra de Bahoruco, Pedernales, República Dominicana, 9–Jun–2011, A. López & A. R. Pérez – Asso colls. (3 ♀)  . Zapoten , 1545 m, pinar, Sierra de Bahoruco, Pedernales, República Dominicana, 11– Jun–2011, A. López & A. R. Pérez – Asso colls. (1 ♂, 1 ♀)  . Las Abejas , pinar–latifoliado, PN Sierra de Bahoruco, Pedernales, República Dominicana, 20–11–2011, A. R. Pérez – Asso & A. López colls. (2 ♂)  . ( VGRC). Genitalia slide preparations ♂: Rh 1743, Rh 1746, and ♀: Rh1739, Rh1744 ( ZSMAbout ZSM). 


University of Coimbra Botany Department


Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport


Bavarian State Collection of Zoology