Antheromorpha uncinata (Attems, 1931)

Likhitrakarn, Natdanai, Golovatch, Sergei I. & Panha, Somsak, 2016, Review of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Antheromorpha Jeekel, 1968 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), ZooKeys 571, pp. 21-57: 27-34

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.571.7566

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4EEA9AD1-5762-4A93-A189-CF185F64CBAF

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/02C60B3C-288A-6DA9-DFEC-5A3F739F39CB

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Antheromorpha uncinata (Attems, 1931)
status

 

Taxon classification Animalia Polydesmida Paradoxosomatidae

Antheromorpha uncinata (Attems, 1931)  Figs 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 21

Orthomorpha (Orthomorpha) uncinata  Attems, 1931: 117 (D).

Orthomorpha uncinata  - Attems 1930: 132 (D); 1936: 197 (D).

Orthomorpha (Orthomorpha) uncinata  - Attems 1936: 199 (M); 1937: 62 (D); Weidner 1960: 86 (M).

" Orthomorpha " uncinata  - Jeekel 1963: 269 (M).

Antheromorpha uncinata  - Jeekel 1968: 57 (M); 1980: 85 (M); Enghoff 2005: 95 (R); Nguyen and Sierwald 2013: 1235 (M).

Lectotype

♂ of Orthomorpha uncinata  ( NHMW-3496), Thailand, Muok Lek, 01-02.1901, leg. H. Fruhstorfer.

Paralectotype.

1 ♀ ( NHMW-3496), same locality, together with lectotype.

Lectotype designation proposed herewith is necessary to ensure the species is based on a male.

Other material examined.

4 ♂, 9 ♀ ( CUMZ), Thailand, Kanchanaburi Province, Sai Yok District, Sai Yoi Noi Waterfall, 14°14'14"N, 99°03'30"E, ca 150 m a.s.l., 08.05.2014, leg. P. Jirapatrasilp. 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), same locality, 08.05.2010, leg. N. Likhitrakarn. 7 ♂, 4 ♀ ( CUMZ), same District, Wat Tham Phromlok Khaoyai, 14°12'14"N, 99°07'57"E, ca 120 m a.s.l., 09.07.2009, leg. S. Panha, N. Likhitrakarn and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), same locality, 29.10.2013, leg. R. Saokord. 3 ♀ (CUMZ), same District, Chong Khao Khat, 14°22'23"N, 98°55'40"E, 414 m a.s.l., 29.08.2011, leg. S. Panha, N. Likhitrakarn and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂, 2 ♀ ( CUMZ), same District, near Cave Krasae, 14°09'12"N, 99°06'37"E, ca 75 m a.s.l., 10.12.2006, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 2 ♂ ( CUMZ), same Province, Si Sawat District, Arawan Waterfall, 14°22'31"N, 99°08'39"E, ca 90 m a.s.l., 13.05.2010, leg. S. Panha, N. Likhitrakarn and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), same District, Chaloem Rattanakosin National Park, Tham Lod Noi, 14°39'29"N, 99°18'19"E, ca 320 m a.s.l., 10.07.2006, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 3 ♂ ( CUMZ), same District, Srinakharin Dam, 14°24'09"N, 99°07'34"E, ca 220 m a.s.l., 13.05.2010, leg. S. Panha, N. Likhitrakarn and C. Sutcharit. 2 ♂, 2 ♀ ( CUMZ), same Province, Nong Prue District, Wat Tham Phukung, 14°28'18"N, 99°06'34"E, ca 200 m a.s.l., 20.12.2013, leg. S. Panha, R. Saokord and C. Sutcharit. 12 ♂, 5 ♀ ( CUMZ), 2 ♂, 1 ♀ (ZMUM ρ 3056), 2 ♂, 1 ♀ ( ZMUC), 2 ♂, 1 ♀ ( NHMW), Uthai Thani Province, Ban Rai District, Tham Prakaiphet, 15°12'17"N, 99°44'01"E, ca 90 m a.s.l., 08.07.2009, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 7 ♂, 10 ♀, 1 juv. ( CUMZ), same District, Wat Tham Khao Wong, 15°01'59"N, 99°27'18"E, ca 110 m a.s.l., 08.07.2009, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 10 ♂, 5 ♀, 7 juv. ( CUMZ), same District, Huaykhakhaeng Country Home Resort, 15°06'02"N, 99°35'42"E, ca 210 m a.s.l., 07.06.2008, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), same locality, 27.10.2013, leg. S. Panha, R. Saokord and C. Sutcharit. 2 ♂, 2 ♀ ( CUMZ), Sa Kaeo Province, Khlong Hat District, Tham Phet Phothong, 13°24'47"N, 102°19'32"E, ca 200 m a.s.l., 28.10.2010, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂, 2 ♀ ( CUMZ), same locality, 22.05.2012, leg. R. Saokord. 1 ♂, 2 ♀ ( CUMZ), same Province, Ta Phraya District, Amphoe Ta Phraya, 14°08'22"N, 102°40'11"E, ca 180 m a.s.l., 27.10.2010, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂ ( CUMZ), same Province, Wang Sombun District, Thamkhao Phrapphrueng Thong, 13°26'55"N, 102°13'02"E, ca 180 m a.s.l., 22.05.2012, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), Loei Province, Nong Hin District, Wat Tham Pho Thi Sat, 17°05'17"N, 101°46'51"E, 405 m a.s.l., 19.10.2007, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂ ( CUMZ), same District, Wat Tham Dok Bua, 17°03'14"N, 101°44'39"E, ca 680 m a.s.l., 12.06.2013, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂ ( CUMZ), same District, Hin Pha Ngam Park, 17°03'02"N, 101°44'37"E, ca 680 m a.s.l., 19.10.2007, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 2 ♂ ( CUMZ), Wang Saphung District, Wat Tham Wangsaphung, 17°19'38"N, 101°39'59"E, ca 275 m a.s.l., 18.10.2007, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂, 2 ♀ ( CUMZ), Chiang Mai Province, Mae Rim District, near Mae Rim city, 18°54'23"N, 98°54'14.76"E, ca 340 m a.s.l., 17.09.2015, leg. N. Nantarat. 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), Chiang Rai Province, Mueang Chiang Rai District, Pang Rimkorn, 19°50'51"N, 99°40'04"E, 485 m a.s.l., 10.07.2006, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 2 ♂, 2 ♀, 1 juv. ( CUMZ), Lopburi Province, Phatthana Nikhom District, Wat Dilang, 14°56'15"N, 100°53'46"E, ca 85 m a.s.l., 11.07.2008, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), Phetchabun Province, Bueng Sam Phan District, Ban Phanom Phet, 15°46'56"N, 100°49'37"E, ca 100 m a.s.l., 10.04.2007, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 5 juv. ( CUMZ), same Province, Nam Nao District, Nam Nao National Park, 16°45'26"N, 101°33'41"E, ca 925 m a.s.l., 19.06.2014, leg. S. Noommeechai. 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), Saraburi Province, Kaeng Khoi District, Siharatdechochai, 14°41'05"N, 101°03'17"E, ca 60 m a.s.l., 19.09.2009, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), Ratchaburi Province, Mueang Ratchaburi District, Wat Tham Khaobin, 13°35'35"N, 99°40'03"E, ca 50 m a.s.l., 30.10.2013, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), Sukhothai Province, Si Samrong District, Wat Tham Rakhang, 17°10'02"N, 99°33'29"E, ca 200 m a.s.l., 19.09.2009, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 4 ♂, 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), Nakhon Sawan Province, Mueang Nakhon Sawan District, Wat Mano, 15°48'41"N, 99°54'55"E, ca 90 m a.s.l., 29.05.2009, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂ ( CUMZ), same Province, Takhli District, Wat Thampratun Temple, 15°14'07"N, 100°22'11"E, ca 30 m a.s.l., 27.10.2015, leg. N. Likhitrakarn and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Wang Nam Khiao District, Sakaerat Environmental Research Station Sakaerat Biosphere Reserves, 14°30'42"N, 101°56'35"E, ca 340 m a.s.l., 24.04.2009, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 2 ♀, 2 juv. ( CUMZ), same locality, 03.08.2013, leg. R. Saokord. 2 ♂, 2 ♀ ( CUMZ), same Province, Pak Chong District, Khao Rup Chang, 14°31'33"N, 101°21'36"E, ca 415 m a.s.l., 24.04.2009, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 2 ♂, 3 ♀ ( CUMZ), Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, Thap Sakae District, Thap Sakae, 11°33'57"N, 99°32'56"E, 85 m a.s.l., 31.08.2011, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( CUMZ), same Province, Bang Saphan District, Tham Khao Ma Rong, 11°12'20"N, 99°29'44"E, 7 m a.s.l., 12.10.2008, leg. S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 3 ♀ ( CUMZ), same locality, 22.05.2010, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂ ( CUMZ), same Province, Hua Hin District, Kaeng Krachan, 12°45'32"N, 99°32'59"E, ca 570 m a.s.l., 24.01.2012, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂ ( CUMZ), same Province, Kui Buri District, Ban Yang Chum, 12°05'33"N 99°42'59"E, ca 60 m a.s.l., 07.08.2014, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit. 1 ♂ ( CUMZ), same Province, Kui Buri District, Kui Buri National Park, 12°03'05"N 99°37'24"E, 150 m a.s.l., 15.03.2010, leg. N. Likhitrakarn, S. Panha and C. Sutcharit.

Redescription.

Length 30.0-42.5 (♂) or 34.0-44.5 mm (♀), width of midbody pro- and metazonae 2.6-4.0 and 2.9-4.4 mm (♂), 3.9-5.3 and 4.4-6.1 mm (♀), respectively.

Coloration of live animals red, orange to yellow (Fig. 7), with blackish to dark brown parallel bands on metaterga and prozonae; head and antennae blackish, legs dark to light brown (Fig. 7); coloration in alcohol, after a long term preservation, faded to pale yellowish (Figs 8, 9), the parallel bands faded to brownish to pale brown, head and antennae light brown to dark brown, legs and venter light yellowish to pale yellowish (Figs 8, 9).

Clypeolabral region densely, vertex sparsely setose; epicranial suture distinct. Antennae long (Figs 7, 8A, B, 9A), extending behind metaterga 3 when stretched dorsally (♂, ♀). In width, head < collum < segment 4 < 3 < 2 < 5-17 (♂) or head < collum < segment 2 < 4 < 3 < 5-17 (♀), gently and gradually tapering thereafter. Collum with three transverse rows of setae: 4+4 in anterior, 2+2 in intermediate and 3+3 in pos terior row; caudal corner of paraterga rounded, declined, not extending behind rear tergal margin (Figs 8A, 9A).

Tegument smooth and shining, prozonae finely shagreened, metaterga leathery and faintly rugulose, surface below paraterga finely microgranulate. Postcollum metaterga with two transverse rows of setae traceable at least as insertion points when setae broken off: 2+2 in anterior (pre-sulcus) and 3+3 in posterior (post-sulcus) row. Tergal setae long, strong, slender, about 1/3 of metatergal length. Axial line visible only on metaterga. Paraterga very strongly developed (Figs 8 A–G, 9 A–G, J–L), especially well so in ♂, mostly upturned, subhorizontal, all lying below dorsum, set at about upper 1/3 of midbody height, caudal corner narrowly rounded to pointed, increasingly strongly spiniform and produced behind rear tergal margin, best developed and slightly curved mesad on segments 15-19; in lateral view, paraterga modestly enlarged on pore-bearing segments, thinner on poreless ones. Calluses delimited only by a dorsal sulcus. Paraterga 2 broad, anterior edge angular, lateral edge with one larger and two smaller, but evident incisions in anterior 1/3; posterior edge well concave (Fig. 9A). Following paraterga with anterior edge broadly rounded, bordered and fused to callus, lateral edge without incisions, caudal corners extending behind tergal margin, posterior edge oblique to clearly concave, especially well so in segments 16-19 (Figs 8F, 9F). Ozopores evident, lateral, lying in an ovoid groove at about 1/3 of metatergite’s length in front of caudal corner. Transverse sulcus usually distinct (Figs 8A, C, F, 9A, C, F, J–L), complete on metaterga 5-18, shallow, not reaching bases of paraterga, very faintly beaded at bottom, incomplete and nearly wanting on segments 4 and 19. Stricture between pro- and metazonae wide, rather deep, beaded at bottom down to base of paraterga (Figs 8 A–F, 9 A–D, J–L). Pleurosternal carinae complete crests with a sharp caudal tooth on segments 2-4, thereafter crests bulged anteriorly and with a small, sharp, caudal tooth on segments 5-9, a very small denticle on segments 10-15 (♂) (Figs 8B, D, E, 9B, D, E) or crests bulged anteriorly and with a small, sharp, caudal tooth on segments 5-10, thereafter a very small denticle on segments 11-14 (♀). Epiproct (Figs 8 E–G, 9 E–G) conical, flattened dorsoventrally, with two evident, caudoventrally curved, apical papillae; tip subtruncate; pre-apical papillae small, but visible, lying rather close to tip. Hypoproct roundly subtrapeziform to subtriangular, setiferous knobs at caudal edge evident and well-separated.

Sterna sparsely setose, without modifications; a large, central, setose cone between ♂ coxae 4 (Figs 8H, J, 9H, J). No conspicuous ridge in front of gonopod aperture. Legs moderately long and slender, midbody ones ca 1.2-1.4 (♂) or 0.8-0.9 (♀) times as long as body height, prefemora without modifications, ♂ tarsal brushes present until legs of segment 17.

Gonopods (Figs 10-12) with femorite about 3 times as long as prefemoral (= strongly setose) part. Femorite rather stout and long, strongly curved, postfemoral portion demarcated by an oblique lateral sulcus; tip of solenophore (sph) rather deeply bifid; process d slender, rounded to nearly pointed; process m rounded, longer than process v.

Remarks.

This species was described from Muok Lek, Thailand ( Attems 1931). Enghoff (2005), based on ZMUC material, added another four localities: Kamphaeng Phet Province; Sitang, Northeast Thailand; Phu Kradung; Phu Kugio, field on way to communist camp, Chayaphum Province. We revised Attems’ type specimens, both in NHMW, and herewith designate a lectotype to ensure that the name-bearing specimen is a complete ♂. In most of their characters, the new samples are very similar to the type series except for body size and the shape of paraterga. In one and the same population, variation in the shape of paraterga is often observed, these ranging from more to less convex laterally and more or less strongly drawn caudad behind the rear tergal margin (Figs 8A, C, F, 9A, C, F, J–L). In addition, colour variations can be seen, the body being mostly red (prevailing), orange or yellow, with all possible intergradations (Fig. 7). It is noteworthy that only adults show colour variations, whereas juveniles are colourless. At Pang Rimkorn, Chiang Rai Province, Antheromorpha uncinata  has been observed as showing swarming behaviour.