Biantes spatulatus, Gong & Martens & Zhang, 2018

Gong, Xuyun, Martens, Jochen & Zhang, Chao, 2018, Two new species of Biantes from China and Malaysia (Opiliones: Laniatores: Biantidae), Zootaxa 4461 (4), pp. 587-599: 593-597

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Biantes spatulatus

sp. nov.

BIantes spatulatus  sp. nov.

( Figs 8–9 View Figure , 28–43View FIGURES 28–37View FIGURES 38–46, 50–52 View Figure )

Type material. Holotype: male, MALAYSIA: Perak, Temenggor Lake [N05°32´, E 101°21´], alt. 306m, October 24, 2015, Z.Z. Gao leg. (MHBU-Opi-15ZC1112). Paratype: one female (MHBU-Opi-15ZC1113), same collecting data as holotypeGoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. Patella of pedipalp with a meso-ventral setiferous tubercle, its length almost equal to the sum of the length of the tibia and tarsus. Conductor of penis smooth, without any apophyses; the tip conical, pointing downward; the titillator spoon-shaped; the ventral plate without spongy body.

Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Latin word “ spatulatus  ” meaning “spoon-shaped”, referring to the shape of the titillator of the penis. It also alludes to the spathe in the aroid plant family surrounding the spadix inflorescence, which bears the flowers.

Description. Male (holotype): habitus as in Figs 8 View Figure , 28 View Figure , 50–51 View Figure . Coloration ( Figs 50–51 View Figure ): Entire body yellow, without reticulations, opisthosomal scutum light mahogany.

Dorsum ( Figs 8 View Figure , 51 View Figure ). Dorsal scutum granular and trapezoid in shape, widest portion of body at scutal area V. Anterior margin of carapace with two shallow cheliceral sockets and five small tubercles laterally. Eyes widely separated from each other with circum-ocular tubercles, adjacent to the latero-posterior region of carapace; the distance between eyes shorter than the width of scutal area I. The mesotergal sulci inconspicuous. Scutum and free tergites without enlarged tubercles.

Venter. Genital operculum a rounded pentagon ( Fig. 35 View Figure ). Coxae tuberculate. Coxa I with conspicuous tubercles with setae on top ( Fig. 29 View Figure ). Coxae II, III and IV only with minute tubercles. Genital operculum with a few setatipped granules. Free sternites with a row of minute tubercles with setae on top. Spiracles clearly visible.

Chelicerae ( Figs 30–32 View Figure ). Basal segment of chelicera with distinct dorsal bulla, no prominent armaments except a few small setiferous tubercles. Cheliceral claw unarmed, with sparse setae only. Fingers relatively short, inner edges toothed as illustrated ( Fig. 32 View Figure ): moveable finger with five teeth, fixed finger with four teeth.

Pedipalps ( Fig. 33 View Figure ). Coxa with one dorsal setiferous tubercle. Trochanter smooth. Femur straight, unarmed, with only a few ventral setae. Patella slim and markedly elongate, the length almost equal to the sum of the length of the tibia and tarsus, also with a meso-ventral setiferous tubercle. Tibia with two ventromesal setiferous tubercles and three ventroectal ones. Tarsus with two setiferous tubercles on each side of ventral surface. Tarsal claw curved, approximately the same length as the tarsus.

Legs ( Fig. 34 View Figure ). All segments smooth, with only scarce short setae. Femur IV slightly curved. Distitarsus I with two tarsomeres, distitarsus II with three tarsomeres. Distitarsi III–IV with scopulae ( Fig. 34 View Figure ). Tarsal claws smooth. Tarsal formula (I–IV): 3/5/5/5.

Penis ( Figs 38–43 View Figure ). The basal third of the shaft slender and slightly broadened, the distal half more strongly enlarged but nearly parallel-sided until apical portion (pars distalis; Figs 38, 40 View Figure ). The ventral plate nearly rectangular, with slightly indented apical margin. Two spoon-shaped titillators enclose nearly two thirds of capsula interna in penis resting state ( Fig. 38 View Figure ). In the everted state, titillators bent perpendicular to truncus shaft, forming two characteristic spoon-shaped structures (“spathes”, see above). The tips of the two conductors closely associated to each other, in the resting state surrounded by both titillators, just like the nib of fountain pen ( Fig. 38 View Figure ). On top of the inner side of both conductors a triangular, conical proximal pointing tip ( Figs 41, 43 View Figure ). Stylus slender, hidden between the conductors. Pars distalis of truncus with 12 ventral setae: four setae on the ventral plate, six setae near the base of the ventral plate, two additional setae placed slightly more proximally ( Figs 40, 43 View Figure ).

Female paratype: ( Figs 9 View Figure , 36–37 View Figure , 44–46 View Figure , 52 View Figure ). In general, appearance similar to the male ( Figs 9 View Figure , 52 View Figure ), with only a slight difference in inner edges of finger of chelicera ( Fig. 37 View Figure ) and in genital operculum ( Fig. 36 View Figure ). Ovipositor ( Figs 44–46 View Figure ) conical. Distal tip divided into two external lobes. Each lobe with five setae: two on the ventral side and three on the dorsal side.

Measurements. Male (female paratype): body 1.47(1.58) long; scutum 1.32 (1.26) long, 1.15 (1.10) wide; carapace 0.51 (0.46) long, 0.81 (0.73) wide. Interocular distance 0.46 (0.43) (not including the eye). Pedipalp claw 0.32(0.31) long. Penis 0.65 long. Measurements of pedipalp and legs as in Table 2.

Habitat. The specimens were collected by leaf litter sifting in dark, moist forest habitat under dense canopy.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality.