Apodrosus epipolevatus Girón & Franz, 2010

Girón, Jennifer C. & Franz, Nico M., 2010, Revision, phylogeny and historical biogeography of the genus Apodrosus Marshall, 1922 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae), Insect Systematics & Evolution 41, pp. 339-414 : 362-366

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1163/187631210X538799

publication LSID




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scientific name

Apodrosus epipolevatus Girón & Franz


Apodrosus epipolevatus Girón & Franz sp.n.

( Fig. 9 View Fig )


Apodrosus epipolevatus is characterized by the combination of subplane to convex dorsal outline in lateral view, an indistinct nasal plate, a slightly tuberculate surface of the elytra, an alternating color pattern of scale vestiture on the legs, a strongly produced surface of the elytra basad of the midpoint of interval X, a complete separation of elytral striae IX and X along their entire length, and a vestiture composed of brown and light brown to white, iridescent (greenish, yellowish to reddish) scales, and with recurvate, semi-erect setae. This species may be differentiated from A. wolcotti by its smaller size, the slightly tuberculate elytral surface, and the completely separated elytral striae IX and X.

Specimens examined

Holotype ♀ “ Puerto Rico ( USA), Bosque Estatal Toro Negro, Cerro de Punta , 1330 m, N 18°10.2′ 0″ W 66°35.31′ 0″, Beating/ sweeping plants / Mar 15/2008, Leg. J. Cardona, N. Franz, J. Girón, A. Mazo ” ( UPRM) GoogleMaps ; paratypes, same label information as holotype (CMNC: 2 ♂, 1 ♀; CWOB: 2 ♂, 1 ♀; MEBT: 2 ♂; NMNH: 2 ♂, 1 ♀; UPRM: 2 ♂); “PUERTO RICO, Guilarte For. Res., Hwy. 131 & 158, July 23-1979, G.B. Marshall” (UPRM: 1 ♀); “PUERTO RICO, Carib. N. F., El Toro Negro, D., Hwy. 143, K16H4, 7-21-1979, C.W.O’Brien/ on Rubus sp.” (UPRM: 1 ♀); “PUERTO RICO, Carib. N. F., El Toro Negro, D., Hwy. 143, K16H4, 7-21-1979, G.B. Marshall” (UPRM: 1 ♂); “Puerto Rico (USA), Bosque Estatal Toro Negro, Cerro de Punta, 1330m, N 18°10.333′ W 66°35.513/ Beating/sweeping plants, Leg. Cardona, Castellanos, Franz & Girón; Jan-04-2008” (UPRM: 4 ♂, 4 ♀); “Puerto Rico (USA), Bosque Estatal Toro Negro, Cerro de Punta, 1320 m, N 18°10.32′ W 66°35.53′/ beating/sweeping plants, leg. N. Franz & J. Girón, VIII-07-2007” (UPRM: 2 ♂, including dissected, 1 ♀; MEBT: 1 ♀); “Puerto Rico (USA), Bosque Estatal Toro Negro, Cerro Monte de Jayuya, 1320 m, N 18°10.064′ W 66°34.596′/ Beating/sweeping plants, Leg. Cardona, Castellanos, Franz & Girón; Jan-04-2008” (UPRM: 4 ♀); “USA, Puerto Rico, Bosque Estatal Toro Negro, Biol. Stat. UPRM, 935 m, N 18°10′43″ W 66°29′19″/ beating/sweeping plants, leg. N. Franz & J. Girón, VIII-07-2007” (UPRM: 1 ♂);

“PUERTO RICO, Hwy. 184, K21H1, Carite For. Res., July 20-1979, G.B. Marshall” (UPRM: 1 ♂).


Body length 2–4 mm; in dorsal view ( Fig. 9A View Fig ) 2.5-times longer than greatest width which is at basal third of elytra, shape escudate; dorsal outline in lateral view subplane in males, convex in females. Integument surface slightly tuberculate; vestiture composed of brown and light brown to white, iridescent (greenish, yellowish to reddish) scales, with recurvate, semi-erect setae. Eyes ( Fig. 9B View Fig ) 1.5-times longer than wide, projected; 0.6-times width and 0.7-times length of head in lateral view, separated from anterior margin of prothorax by 0.5-times greatest diameter of eye; line of anterior margin of eyes slightly impressed; shortest distance between eyes (in dorsal view) 0.3-times greatest width of pronotum; median furrow ( Fig. 9B View Fig ) linear, deep, extending from mid length of rostrum to posterior margin of eyes. Rostrum ( Fig. 9B View Fig ) 1.1-times longer than wide, constricted at midpoint; apical half with a shallow V-shaped impression; epistome apically with 2-3 setae situated on each side; nasal plate not defined. Length of rostrum in lateral view 1.4-times its basal width; antennal insertion at apical fourth of rostrum; scrobe curved downwards by 45°, directed ventrally at end, extending to anterior margin of eye, separated from it by 1.2-times width of scrobe. Mandibles with 2 lateral setae, pharyngeal process 1.6-times longer than mandible. Maxillae with cardo 3-times longer than its greatest width; stipes with 2-3 lateral setae; galeo-lacinial complex mesally extending to midpoint of maxillary palpomere II, apex with 4-5 tongue-like apically narrowed setae and a tuft of shorter and apically rounded setae, with 3 lacinial teeth and 4 long fine setae at base of lacinia; maxillary palpomere I slightly longer than II, II slightly longer than III; II and III with 2 mesolateral setae. Labium with prementum 1.9-times longer than wide, apex slightly roundly produced in mid region, with external surface sculptured. Antennae yellowish brown; antennal scape extending beyond posterior margin of eye, not reaching anterior margin of prothorax; funicular antennomere I as long as II; antennal club 0.6-times length of funicle, 2.2-times longer than wide. Pronotum ( Fig. 9A View Fig ) subquadrate, slightly wider than long, greatest width at midpoint;dorsal surface slightly depressed at apical third, shallowly puncturate, each puncture with a curved, spatulate brown seta; posterior margin slightly bisinuate, 1.2-times wider than anterior margin; prothorax in lateral view with dorsal outline 1.7-times length of ventral outline; scutellum subcircular, with scarce setiform scales. Mesosternum ( Fig. 9D View Fig ) 0.5-times length of prosternum. Metasternum with lateral portions mesally produced (in lateral profile mesally roundly produced); distance between posterior margin of mesocoxae and anterior margin of metacoxae 0.7-times length of prosternum. Metendosternite with furcal arms 1.4-times longer than stalk, positioned at 120° in relation to horizontal axis; length of ventral margin of stalk 3.1-times its dorsal width. Legs with profemora 1.3- times length of pronotum; claws subparallel. Elytra in dorsal view ( Fig. 9A View Fig ) 1.6-times their greatest width which is 1.6-times wider than pronotum; anterior margins sinuate; humeral region 1.5-times width of posterior margin of pronotum; lateral margins subparallel until midpoint, thereafter convergent; apex roundly truncate; in lateral view ( Fig. 9C View Fig ) with dorsal outline subplane to convex; posterior declivity gradual; striae IX and X completely separated along their entire length; intervals completely covered with oval scales, forming an irregular dark/light pattern; interval III with three elevations (at base, at second and at third fifth); interval V with two elevations (at second and at third fifth); interval X strongly produced along basal third; with recurvate, spatulate, brown setae. Wings nearly as long as elytra, 3.1-times longer than wide; costal margin emarginate along basal third; apex rounded; alar venation reduced, only R, Cu and 2A, defined, vanished apically; radial, medial and cubital margins nearly straight; anal area with margin slightly emarginate. Venter with elongate, scattered, greenish scales, denser at sides; IV 1.5-times longer than V and VI jointly; median posterior pit of segment VII reduced to absent; VII with anterior margin 2-times wider than its length; ♂: IV

as long as VII; VII posterior margin rounded; ♀: IV 1.4-times length of VII; VII posterior margin slightly narrowed mesally.

Terminalia. Male with tergum VII 1.5-times wider than its mesal length, mesal area with setae on distal half; anterior margin with mesal area projected, truncate; posterior margin nearly straight, posterior area with long multifid setae. Tergum VIII 1.5-times longer than its mesal length, with anterior margin acutely emarginate; apical margin rounded. Sternum VIII with posterior margin emarginate; spiculum relictum as a linear process 5.2-times longer than wide, with apical fourth darker. Spiculum gastrale with apodeme 1.2-times longer than aedeagus, each arm sclerotized, narrowly oval, with parallel inner margins. Tegmen with tegminal apodeme nearly 0.6-times length of aedeagus; tegminal plate simple. Aedeagus in dorsal view ( Fig. 9E View Fig ) 5-times longer than its greatest width, slightly constricted apicad of midpoint; apex mesally roundly set off. Endophallus with a pair of lateral plates at apical fifth, with a light, elongate, median sclerite, with a pair of vertical rod-like sclerites positioned near midpoint, between these with 1 n-shaped sclerite. Aedeagus in lateral view ( Fig. 9F View Fig ) 8-times longer than its greatest width. Aedeagal apodemes 0.9-times length of aedeagus.

Female. With tergum VII 1.6-times wider than long, posterior margin rounded. Tergum VIII nearly trapezoidal, 1.5-times wider than long. Sternum VIII with lamina rhomboidal, occupying posterior one fourth. Coxites+styli nearly as long as lamina of sternum VIII, stylus 3.6-times longer than its greatest width, with 3-4 long apical setae. Genital chamber 0.7-times length of sternum VIII. Spermatheca ( Fig. 9G View Fig ) 1.8- times longer than wide, J-shaped; ramus apically truncate, laterally rounded; surface striate.


Th e examined specimens vary mainly in their color pattern which is either slightly spotted or uniformly colored. There is also slight variation in the degree of projection of the elytral elevations.


Noun in apposition. Named after the Greek epipole signifying “surface” and the Latin levatus signifying “raise” ( Brown 1956), thus referring to the characteristic elytral elevations of this species.

Natural history

Apodrosus epipolevatus occurs at some of the highest elevations of the Puerto Rico Central Cordillera (Cerro de Punta, Monte Jayuya, Carite) ( Fig. 19A View Fig ). Under laboratory conditions the oviposition pattern corresponds to “type a” according to Emden (1950; cited by Marvaldi 1999), in which the eggs are laid separately and randomly; the egg shell is white when recently oviposited, becoming darker during subsequent

days. The observed eggs hatched within 14-16 days. Only first instar larvae were obtained at that time. The host plant associations remain unknown.


USA, Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, University of Puerto Rico