Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae

Santos, George Garcia, Nascimento, Elielton & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2018, Halichondriidae Gray, 1867 from the Northeastern Brazil with description of a new species, Zootaxa 4379 (4), pp. 556-566: 558-562

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4379.4.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:14EF086C-557D-46D1-9907-43F11C105840

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0380878F-FFAC-FFC9-4795-6A81F16CFEFF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae
status

sp. nov.

Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae  sp. nov.

( Figures 1–3View FIGURE 1View FIGURE2View FIGURE 3, Table 1, 2)

Synonymy: Halichondria cf. melanadocia  (Hajdu et al. 2011: pp. 118). Halichondria  sp.1 and sp.2 ( Leonel et al. 2011: pp. 35, 54).

Type specimens: Holotype. UFPEPOR 1861, Carapibus beach (7°17’57.66”S, 34°47’52.93”W), Conde City, Paraíba State, Brazil, 0.5–1 m depth, coll. G. G. Santos, (21.II.2015).GoogleMaps 

Paratypes. UFPEPOR, 1862 collected together with the holotype; UFPEPOR 1590, 1630 Cabo Branco beach (7°08’50”S, 34°47’51”W), João Pessoa city, Paraíba State, Brazil, 1 m depth, coll. G. G. Santos, (04.XI.2013)GoogleMaps  ; UFPEPOR 1580, Tabatinga beach (7°19’07”S, 34°48’01”W), Brazil, 1 m depth, coll. G. G. Santos, (06.XI.2013)GoogleMaps  ; UFPEPOR 1638, Jacumã beach (7°11’38”S, 34°47’39”W), Brazil, 1 m depth, coll. G. G. Santos, (01.II.1014); UFPEPOR 1657, 1746, 1755, 1758, Tambaba beach (7°21’52”S, 34°47’50”W), Brazil, coll. G. G. Santos, 0.5 m depth, (17.III.2014)GoogleMaps  ; UFPEPOR 1680, Penha beach (7°10’ S, 34°45’W), Brazil, 0.5 m depth, coll. G. G. Santos, (30.I.2014)GoogleMaps  ; UFPEPOR 1797, Coqueirinho beach (7°19’14”S, 34°47’40”W), Brazil, 0.5 m depth, coll. G. G. Santos, (05.XII.2014)GoogleMaps  ; UFPEPOR 1806, Carapibus beach (7°17’57.66”S, 34°47’52.93”W), Brazil, 1 m depth, coll. G. G. Santos, (05.XII.2014)GoogleMaps  ; UFPEPOR 1823, Coqueirinho do Norte beach (6°44’21,89”S, 34°55’41,22”W), Brazil, 1 m depth, coll. G. G. Santos, (06.I.2015)GoogleMaps  ; UFPEPOR 1844, Pier de Cabedelo (6°57’39”S, 34°50’34”W), Brazil, 1 m depth, coll. G. G. Santos, (20.I.2015)GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae  sp. nov. differs from other Tropical Western Atlantic species by its combination of long and robust oxeas (large than 500 µm) and dark green color.

External morphology ( Fig. 2A –DView FIGURE2). Thickly encrusting to massive sponges. The preserved holotype consist of one fragment, one 9.5 x 2.5 x 3 cm (length x width x thickness). Surface rugose and rough. Regularly oscular projections or diffusely distributed along the top of the sponge ( Fig. 2A – DView FIGURE2) less than 4 mm in diameter, generally in rows, some with membranous rims slightly down. Some specimens with subectosomal thin canals ending in oscula. Texture firm, soft, fleshy, but compact and compressible. Color in vivo is dark green (externally) and greenish (internally), becoming grayish or brownish after fixation (ethanol 92 %).

Skeleton ( Fig. 2E –FView FIGURE2). Ectosome detachable from choanosome. The ectosomal skeleton is typically composed of a regular reticulation of tangentially arranged tracts (40–90 µm in diameter) of oxeas ( Fig. 2EView FIGURE2). Choanosomal skeleton is typically halichondrid ( Fig. 2FView FIGURE2), with oxeas of variable length organized in a confused fashion, showing a tendency to form ascending tracts (30–160 µm in diameter). Tracts form small brushes of oxeas perpendicular in the surface (see Fig. 2FView FIGURE2). Many loose interstitial spicules in the basal and deeper regions. Pigmented cells in both regions and little spongin present.

Spicules ( Fig. 3A –BView FIGURE 3, Table 1 and 2). Oxeas smooth, varying from straight to slightly curved, not divisible into two categories (90– 340.4 –800 / 5– 11 –20 µm).

Ecology. This species is often found in reef environments in sciaphylous habitats ( Fig. 2CView FIGURE2). Shallow water at 0.5–1 m depth.

Distribution ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). Brazil: Northeastern Region: Paraíba and Bahia State.

Etymology. Named after Mariana Carvalho, researcher from Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, to her contributions to the knowledge of Brazilian sponges.

Remarks. Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae  sp. nov. differs from the other 13 species recorded for the Tropical Western Atlantic by its combination of long and robust oxeas and dark green color. The most similar species is Halichondria (H.) melanadocia de Laubenfels, 1936  from Florida due to the detachable ectosome, choanosomal with spicules strewn in confusion and fusiform oxeas. However, both species clearly differ in the size of the oxeas, whereas in new species is larger than Halichondria (H.) melanadocia  ( Table 2). Additionally Halichondria (H.) melanadocia  have a black color whereas the new species is green (see Table 2).

Another Tropical Western Atlantic Halichondria  species is Halichondria (Halichondria) corrugata Diaz, van Soest & Pomponi, 1993  , but it has smaller and thinner spicules than new species ( Table 2). Additionally, Halichondria (H.) corrugata  also present color light greenish-brown or pink and lobate growth form against dark green color and thickly encrusting to massive form in the new species.

Halichondria (Halichondria) lutea Alcolado, 1984  differ from new species in many features: the oxeas are larger than in new species and the growth form is subspherical. Finally, H. (H.) lutea  is orange to yellow alive with corrugated projections against dark green color with surface rugose in Halichondria (H.) marianae  sp. nov.

Halichondria (Halichondria) stylata Diaz, Pomponi & Van Soest, 1993  have oxea, styles and styloids differs from the present specimen by possessing smaller spicules (see Table 2). Furthermore, the possession of color black and of styles separate if from the Halichondria (H.) marianae  sp. nov.

References: (1) Carvalho & Hajdu (2001); (2) Diaz et al. (1993); (3) Alcolado (1984); (4) Hechtel (1965); (5) de Laubenfels (1936).

In Brazil, five species of Halichondria  had been reported ( Table 2) and many other specimens are available in scientific collections without identification at specific level (Muricy et al. 2011). Among the species recorded for the Brazilian coast, Halichondria (H.) tenebrica  is the most similar to Halichondria (H.) marianae  sp. nov. in the spicules size and shape (see Table 2). The new species differs from Halichondria (H.) tenebrica  in the ectosomal skeleton and color: Halichondria (H.) marianae  sp. nov. presents ectosomal skeleton with a regular reticulation of tangentially arranged always multispicular tracts of spicules (40–90 µm in diameter) and with abundant pigmented cells in both regions against ectosomal skeleton with a dense tangential reticulation of pauci-multispicular tracts (30–140 µm in diameter) of Halichondria (H.) tenebrica  . Finally, Halichondria (H.) tenebrica  do not exhibit pigmented cells and may display the color purple in vivo and in ethanol. However, this color has not been observed in any of the specimens described herein. Halichondria (H.) marianae  sp. nov. differs from all other four species recorded from Brazil ( Halichondria (H.) cebimarensis  ; Halichondria (H.) magniconulosa  ; Halichondria (H.) migottea  and H. (H.) sulfurea  ) due to the combine of long and robust oxeas and the presence of dark green color (see Table 2).

This description of Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae  sp. nov. increased to 17 the number of Halichondria  ( Halichondria  ) for the Tropical Western Atlantic ( Muricy 2017).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Suberitida

Family

Halichondriidae

Genus

Halichondria

Loc

Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae

Santos, George Garcia, Nascimento, Elielton & Pinheiro, Ulisses 2018

2018
Loc

Halichondria (H.) marianae

Santos & Nascimento & Pinheiro 2018

2018
Loc

Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae

Santos & Nascimento & Pinheiro 2018

2018
Loc

Halichondria (H.) marianae

Santos & Nascimento & Pinheiro 2018

2018
Loc

Halichondria (H.) marianae

Santos & Nascimento & Pinheiro 2018

2018
Loc

Halichondria (H.) marianae

Santos & Nascimento & Pinheiro 2018

2018
Loc

Halichondria (H.) marianae

Santos & Nascimento & Pinheiro 2018

2018
Loc

Halichondria (H.) marianae

Santos & Nascimento & Pinheiro 2018

2018
Loc

Halichondria (H.) cebimarensis

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (H.) migottea

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (H.) sulfurea

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (H.) tenebrica

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (H.) tenebrica

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (H.) tenebrica

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (H.) tenebrica

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (H.) tenebrica

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (H.) cebimarensis

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (H.) migottea

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

H. (H.) sulfurea

Carvalho & Hajdu 2001

2001
Loc

Halichondria (Halichondria) stylata

Diaz, Pomponi & Van Soest 1993

1993
Loc

Halichondria (H.) corrugata

Diaz, van Soest & Pomponi 1993

1993
Loc

Halichondria (H.) stylata

Diaz, Pomponi & Van Soest 1993

1993
Loc

Halichondria (Halichondria) lutea

Alcolado 1984

1984
Loc

H. (H.) lutea

Alcolado 1984

1984
Loc

Halichondria (H.) lutea

Alcolado 1984

1984
Loc

Halichondria (H.) magniconulosa

Hechtel 1965

1965
Loc

Halichondria (H.) magniconulosa

Hechtel 1965

1965
Loc

Halichondria (H.) melanadocia

de Laubenfels 1936

1936
Loc

Halichondria (Halichondria)

Fleming 1828

1828
Loc

Halichondria

Fleming 1828

1828