Solanum carolinense, VAR. FLORIDANUM Chapm., Fl.

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn, 2015, A Revision of Solanum Section Lathyrocarpum (the Carolinense Clade, Solanaceae), Systematic Botany 40 (3), pp. 853-887 : 869-870

publication ID 10.1600/036364415x689302


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Solanum carolinense



Chapm., Fl. South. U.S. 349. 1860.

TYPE: Based on Solanum floridanum Shuttlw. ex Dunal

Solanum floridanum Shuttlw. ex Dunal, Prodr. 13(1): 306. 1852, non Raf. (1840).—

TYPE: U. S. A. Florida: Wakulla County, prope St. Marks, May 1843 (fl), F. I. X. Rugel s. n. (holotype: G-DC–G00130218!; isotypes: G–G00301662!, G–G00370313!, K, MO–1841550!, MPU–MPU022910 [scan!], NY – NY 00138949!).

Solanum godfreyi Shinners, Sida 1: 108. 1962, nom. nov. for Solanum floridanum Shuttlw. ex Dunal.

TYPE: Based on Solanum floridanum Shuttlw. ex Dunal.

Distribution and Habitat — Solanum carolinense var. floridanum occurs primarily in Florida in the vicinity of the Suwannee, Apalachicola, and Aucilla Rivers in the Gulf Coast region and near the Atlantic coast in the northeastern part of the state. The variety is also known from several localities in the coastal plain of Georgia ( Fig. 5 View FIG ). It often grows in moist areas and on sandy river banks, but also in slash pine–palmetto woodlands and roadsides. The variety grows at elevations from sea level to ca. 10 m.

Phenology — The variety flowers between May and September and fruits between June and November.

Conservation Status — Solanum carolinense var. floridanum is known from ca. 27 locations, several of which are situated in protected areas (Waccasassa Bay State Preserve, Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, Aucilla Wildlife Management Area, Torreya State Park, and St. Mark’ s National Wildlife Refuge). Because it grows in highly disturbed areas such as roadsides, cultivated fields, and grazed pastures, it is estimated that there will not be any significant reduction in population size or locations; with an extent of occurrence of ca. 35,000 km 2 and area of occupancy of 480 km 2, S. carolinense var. floridanum is assigned a preliminary conservation status of “least concern” ( LC).

Etymology — The infraspecific epithet “ floridanum ” refers to the state of Florida, U. S. A. where the type locality of St. Marks is located.

Vernacular name — Commonly known as Florida horsenettle (e.g. J. Scanlon & T. Matthews 138).

Chromosome Number — D’ Arcy (1969) reports a gametophytic chromosome number of n = 12 [D’ Arcy 3500 and 3501 ( FLAS)].

Notes — Solanum carolinense var. floridanum has sometimes been treated as a synonym under S. carolinense var. carolinense or recognized at the rank of species (i.e. as S. godfreyi Shinners ), but we agree with D’ Arcy (1974) and others that the taxon is best maintained the rank of variety. While var. floridanum is very similar to var. carolinense , its deeply lobed leaves and rounded leaf lobes, preference for moist habitats, and mostly distinct distribution from var. carolinense support its continued recognition as a variety. Sometimes intermediates between var. carolinense and var. floridanum occur and a definitive determination cannot be made (e.g. E. West & L. E. Arnold s. n. [ FLAS, GH-n.v.]; R. L. Nichols s. n. [ MO]).

Solanum floridanum Shuttlw. ex Dunal (1852) is an illegitimate later homonym of S. floridanum Raf. (1840) . Shinners (1962) recognized the taxon at the rank of species and provided the replacement name S. godfreyi Shinners. D’ Arcy (1974) mistakenly cited the specimen R. K. Godfrey 60037 as the type of S. godfreyi , but under Art. 7.3 of the ICBN ( McNeill et al. 2012), the type of the replacement name is typified by the type of the replaced illegitimate homonym (in this case, F. I. X. Rugel s. n.). According to Art. 58 of the ICBN ( McNeill et al. 2012), the name S. carolinense var. floridanum Chapm. is correct when this taxon is recognized at the rank of variety. This article states that when the epithet of an illegitimate name is used in a combination at a different rank, the resulting name is treated as a nomen novem and priority does not date back to the publication of the illegitimate name.

Additional Specimens Examined — U. S. A. Florida: Citrus County, Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, 8 Jun 1969 (fr), B. Cook s. n. ( FLAS); Hollins zone 67, monitoring transect C, T17S, R16E, SE ¼ of NE ¼ of S35, 17 Jul 2000 (fl), J. Scanlon & T. Matthews 138 ( FLAS); Clay County, Doctor’ s Inlet, 24 July 1968 (fl), W. G. D’ Arcy 3500 ( FLAS); Doctor’ s Inlet, 14 Apr 1939 (fl), W. A. Murrill s. n. ( FLAS); Duval County, Jacksonville, 23 Apr 1897 (fl), J. H. Barnhart 2003 ( NY); Apalachicola, s.d. (st), A. W. Chapman s. n. ( MO, NY); S. Jacksonville, 18 Apr 1897 (fl), J. R. Churchill s. n. ( MO); University and Santa Monica Blvds., So. Jacksonville, 22 Jul 1965 (fl), D. B. Creager 476 ( FLAS); [Duval County], without precise locality, 21 May 1902 (fl), A. Fredholm 5211 (GH-n.v., NY); So. Jacksonville, May 1896 (fl), L. H. Lighthipe s. n. [382?] ( NY); same locality, Jul 1898 (fl), L. H. Lighthipe 631 ( NY); Flagler County, Middle Haw Draw on Rt. 11, ca. 12 mi. S of Bunnell, 25 May 1981 (fl), D. S. Correll & H. B. Correll 51902 ( NY); Haw Creek, near Deanville, 25 Jun 1942 (fl, fr), E. West & L. E. Arnold s. n. ( FLAS); Gadsden County, N. FL Experiment Station, Quincy, 8 Jun 1936 (fl), H. Foster 25 ( FLAS); Jefferson County, St. Mark’ s National Wildlife Refuge, 0.3 mi. E of Pinhook River bridge on Aucilla Tram Rd., 30.12968 N, 84.01426 W, 24 Jul 2007 (fl), L. C. Anderson 23326 ( FSU); Levy County, Waccasassa Bay State Preserve, T15S, R15E, S1 & S11, Fiber Factory Rd., N of Cow Creek, 9 Jul 1996 (fl), J. R. Abbott 9234 ( FLAS); US Hwy 19, 1 mi. S of Lebanon Station, 11 May 1974 (fl), L. M. Baltzell 6245 ( FLAS); between Co. Rds. 40 and 40A, 1 mi. E of Yankeetown, 21 May 1978 (fl), L. M. Baltzell 10327 ( FLAS); Post office, Yankeetown, 12 May 1948 (fl), C. Jarrish & J. Jarrish 348 ( MO); Gulf Hammock, just W of West Griffin Creek, R14E, T15S, S3 & S17, 22 May 1980 (fl), W. S. Judd et al. 2667 ( FLAS); Gulf Hammock, 18 Jun 1939 (fl), Watson & W. A. Murrill s. n. ( MO); Liberty County, Torreya State Park, on shores of Apalachicola River, 28 Oct 1973 (fr), R. K. Godfrey 73082 ( FSU); Putnam County, Donald Gross Farm, Florahome, 28 Oct 1981 (fr), W. T. Scudder 1468 ( FLAS); E of East Palatka, 7 June 1940 (fl, fr), E. West & L. E. Arnold s. n. ( FLAS); St. Johns County, along FL 214, 5.2 mi. E of Tocoi, T7S, R28E, S27, 16 Jul 1960 (fl), D. B. Ward & T. Myint 2100 ( FLAS); 1.8 mi. N of Switzerland, 29 Apr 1941 (fl), Wilmot & W. A. Murrill s. n. ( FLAS); St. Augustine, May–Sep 1877 (fl), M. C. Reynolds s. n. ( MO, NY); same locality, May 1878 (fl), M. C. Reynolds s. n. ( FLAS, MO); same locality, 1879 (fl), M. C. Reynolds s. n. ( NY); Taylor County, St. Mark’ s National Wildlife Refuge, along Mandalay Rd., 0.15 mi. N of boat landing on Aucilla River, 2.9 mi. S of Hwy 98, 30.11783 N, 83.97737 W, 12 Jul 2007 (fl), L. C. Anderson 23263 ( FSU); W of Perry, US 98, 14.6 mi. E of the Aucilla River, 22 Sep 2001 (fl), C. Edwards & G. Ionta 77 ( FLAS); ca. 5 mi. E of the Aucilla River, E of Newport, 2 Jul 1955 (fl, fr), R. K. Godfrey 53547 ( FSU, NY); vicinity of Nuttall’ s Rise, along the Aucilla River, 7 Jul 1960 (fr), R. K. Godfrey 60037 ( FSU); E side of Aucilla River, E of Newport, ¼ mi. off US Rt. 98, 11 Jun 1980 (fl), R. K. Godfrey 77930 ( FSU); ca. 5 mi. N of Steinhatchee, 14 May 1977 (fl), R. Kral 60053a ( VDB); Taylor County, Aucilla [River] banks, just N of US 98, 30 Jun 1977 (fl, fr), R. Kral & R. K. Godfrey 60548 ( VDB); along dike along Hickory Mount Impoundment in the Aucilla Wildlife Management Area, western section, 5 Jul 1971 (fl), R. L. Lazor 5581 ( FSU); Aucilla Wildlife Management Area near Hwy 14, 3 May 1964 (fl), S. McDaniel & R. K. Godfrey 4297 ( FSU, UNC-n.v., VDB); Wakulla County, Hwy 98 opposite ammunition plant, 0.3 mi. W of Woodville Hwy (Rt. 363), ca. 1.2 air mi. NW of St. Marks, T3S, R1E, NW ½ of SE ¼ of S27, 11 Jun 1988 (fl), L. C. Anderson 11452 ( FSU); Newport, 3 Jun 1968 (fl), W. G. D’ Arcy 2484 (ADW-n.v., FLAS, MO); Wakulla, 21 May 1958 (fl), R. K. Godfrey 56815 ( FSU, GH-n.v.); St. Marks, 29 May 1960 (fl), R. K. Godfrey 59554 ( SMU, FSU [2 sheets]); in area between the Wakulla and St. Marks Rivers at their confluence, in town of St. Marks, 3 Nov 1993 (fr), R. K. Godfrey 84774 ( NY, VDB); Newport, 9 May 1926 (fl), J. K. Small et al. ( NY); roadside to St. Mark’ s lighthouse, St. Mark’ s Wildlife Refuge, 25 May 1958 (fl), L. B. Trott 179 ( FSU, GH-n.v.); at bridge where Hwy 98 crosses Wakulla River, 26 May 1970 (fl), G. S. Wilhelm 171 ( FSU). Georgia: Berrien County, Alapaha Range, 11 May 1982 (fl), Anonymous s. n. ( MO); Lowndes County, along GA 84, 2.5 mi. W of Valdosta, 25 Apr 1970 (fl), R. Krysiak s. n. ( MO); Tift County, Experimental farm of Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College, ca. 0.5 mi. N of Davis Rd., Tifton, 7 July 1983 (fl), C. Swann 3 ( MO, VDB); Worth County, SW of Antioch Baptist Church, jct. Jewel Crowe Rd. and GA 313, Mill Cree, 14 Jun 1983 (fl), R. L. Nichols 2 ( MO).


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Florida Museum of Natural History, Herbarium


Missouri Botanical Garden


Jena Microbial Resource Collection


Vanderbilt University


Sangmiung University














Solanum carolinense

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn 2015

Solanum godfreyi

Shinners 1962: 108

Chapm 1860: 349

Solanum floridanum Shuttlw. ex

Dunal 1852: 306