Solanum dimidiatum, Raf., Autik. Bot.

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn, 2015, A Revision of Solanum Section Lathyrocarpum (the Carolinense Clade, Solanaceae), Systematic Botany 40 (3), pp. 853-887 : 872-874

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1600/036364415x689302

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6339070

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03815163-1443-0603-8481-87570CFC1D1C

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Solanum dimidiatum
status

 

4. SOLANUM DIMIDIATUM Raf., Autik. Bot. 8: 107. 1840. — TYPE: U. S. A. Texas: Van Zandt County, Hill Ranch, ca. 0.5 mi. N of TX State Highway 64, ca. 7.6 mi. W of Jct. of Highways 64 and 49, 32°23.952′N, 95°32.921′W, 166 m, 31 May 2014 (fl), S. Hill 454 (neotype, designated here: BRIT!; GoogleMaps isoneotypes: BM!, G!, MO!, NY!, P!, US!, UT [2 sheets]!).

Solanum anoplocladum Dunal, Prodr. 13(1): 346. 1852.— TYPE: MEXICO. Without precise locality, s.d. (fl), J. M. Sessé & J. Mociño s. n. (holotype: G–G00070145 [scan!]).

Solanum torreyi A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 6: 44. 1862.— TYPE: U. S. A. Texas: 1846 (fl), F. J. Lindheimer 281 (lectotype: A–A00077426!, designated by W. G. D’ Arcy, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 61: 844. 1974; isolectotypes: BM– BM000838186 [scan!], SMU!, LL–LL00372891 [scan!], MO– 3830679!, MO–3830680!, MO–3830681!, P–P00325866!, P–P00325867!, P–P00325868!, P–P00325869!, P–P00336989!, PH – PH 00030492!).

Solanum torreyi f. album Waterf., Rhodora 51: 27. 1949. — TYPE: U. S. A. Oklahoma: Custer County, 1 mi. E of Weatherford, 3 Jul 1947 (fl), U. T. Waterfall 7340 (holotype: OKL–OKL01–0097403 [scan!]; isotype: US – US 00027827!).

Upright perennial herb up to 0.8 m tall, 1- to few-branched. Stems sparsely to densely pubescent with sessile to shortstalked stellate hairs 0.6–1 mm in diameter, with (4–)6–10 unequal lateral rays, the central ray 1-celled and up to 0.8 mm long, unarmed or sparsely armed with straight tapered prickles up to 6.5 mm long. Sympodial units 2- to 3-foliate, sometimes plurifoliate, the leaves not geminate. Leaves simple, the blades 5–16 × 2.5–10 cm, ovate in outline, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, slightly less so adaxially with hairs like those of the stems, unarmed or sparsely armed with prickles up to 8.5 mm long on the major veins abaxially and adaxially; base truncate to cuneate, equal to unequal, often with one side offset up to 0.3–1 cm from the other; margin sinuate or shallowly to deeply lobed with 2–4 lobes per side; apex cuneate, acute or rounded; petioles 1–3 cm long, sparsely to densely stellate-pubescent, unarmed or sparsely to moderately armed with prickles up to 9 mm long. Inflorescences 6–14 cm long, extra-axillary, 1- to several-branched, with up to ca. 20 flowers, weakly andromonoecious, the axes moderately to densely stellatepubescent, unarmed or sparsely armed with prickles up to 4 mm long; peduncle 2–7.5 cm long; pedicels 1–2.5 cm in flower, 1.5–3 cm and curved downward in fruit, weakly articulated at the base, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent, unarmed or sparsely armed with prickles up to 3 mm long. Calyx 6–14 mm long, the tube 1.5–4 mm long, the lobes 3–10 × 2–5 mm, ovate-lanceolate, the apex acuminate to caudate, densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, sparsely so towards the apex adaxially, unarmed or very sparsely armed with prickles up to 3 mm long; fruiting calyx spreading to reflexed, 9–15 mm long, the tube 0.5–3 mm long, the lobes 4–12 × 4.5–7 mm, ovate-lanceolate to triangular, sparsely to moderately stellatepubescent, unarmed or very sparsely armed with prickles up to 2 mm long. Corollas (2–) 3–4.6 cm in diameter, 8–25 mm long, stellate to stellate-pentagonal or rotate-stellate, chartaceous, lavender, pale blue or sometimes white, the tube 3–8 mm long, the lobes 5–17 × 4.5–15 mm, deltate to triangular, the apex apiculate, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, sparsely so towards the apex adaxially. Stamens with filaments 1.2–2.5 × 0.2–0.6 mm; anthers 4.8–9 × 1.2– 2.2 mm, narrowly lanceolate, weakly or not connivent, yellow, the pores directed distally. Ovary 1.3–2 × 1.5–2.5 mm, ovoid, glabrous to sparsely glandular-pubescent with hairs up to 0.3 mm long, or both glandular-pubescent and densely stellate-pubescent; style 10–15 × 0.6–1 mm, cylindrical, straight, glabrous, exserted; stigma capitate. Fruits 1.1–1.8 × 1.3–2.5 cm, subovoid to depressed globose, yellow at maturity, glabrous, the rind tough. Seeds 1.9–3 × 1.7–2.5 mm, flattenedreniform, lenticular, yellow, the surface finely foveolate.

Distribution and Habitat — Solanum dimidiatum is distributed in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, and Kansas with a few outlier populations in Illinois, New Mexico, South Carolina , and Mexico ( Fig. 7 View FIG ). Its native distribution prior to European settlement is not known with certainty because of its weedy, invasive nature and ability to colonize disturbed habitats. It can become a noxious weed locally and has the potential to establish reproducing populations when introduced into suitable habitats. It has been introduced in California and in Australia, but apparently has been successfully eradicated in both areas ( Jepson Flora Project 2014; eFloraSA 2014). The California Department of Food and Agriculture rates S. dimidiatum under category A as “a pest of known... environmental detriment” ( CDFA 2014). It grows in prairies and oak woodlands as well as disturbed areas such as roadsides, grazed and mowed pastures, ditches, cultivated and urban waste areas, and railroad rights of way in sandy soils or on a variety of other soil types at elevations from 200– 600 m.

Phenology — Flowering between April and August and fruiting between July and October.

Conservation Status — The calculations of extent of occurrence (ca. 760,000 km 2) and area of occupancy (1,744 km 2) for Solanum dimidiatum were based on its estimated native distribution (i.e. Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, and Kansas) and excluded the outlying occur- rences in Illinois, New Mexico, South Carolina , and Mexico. Given its weedy habit and preference for disturbed habitats, S. dimidiatum is assigned a preliminary conservation status of “least concern” ( LC).

Etymology — The specific epithet derives from the Latin word for dimidiate, meaning to be so unequally divided in halves that one half appears to be lacking. Rafinesque applied this term to describe the often unequal base of the leaf blades, with one side usually offset 0.3–1 cm from the other side.

Vernacular Names and Uses — Three common names widely used are Torrey’ s horsenettle, western horsenettle, and robust horsenettle. Jordan et al. (2006) report that the Plains Apache Native Americans may have utilized the fruits of S. dimidiatum in some aspects of their material culture; however, all parts of the plant are considered poisonous to humans and livestock. In cattle, it is known to cause “crazy cow syndrome,” a debilitating disease caused by the calystegine alkaloids present in this species ( Menzies et al. 1979; Anderson 2002).

Chromosome Number — Nichols and Hanna (1984) report a sporophytic chromosome number of 2 n = 72, and a gametophyic number of n = 36 was reported from a plant in Oklahoma ( Hardin et al. 1972) and in Queensland, Australia ( Symon 1981; P. Sharp 46241 [ADW]).

Notes — In overall habit and floral and fruit morphology, S. dimidiatum is similar to S. perplexum , but it differs by the indumentum on the stems, petioles, leaves, and inflorescence axes [whitish stellate hairs with (4–)6–10 lateral rays, the

central ray 1-celled and equal to or shorter than the lateral rays in S. dimidiatum vs. golden stellate hairs with (4–)6–8 lateral rays, the central ray 1–2-celled and longer than the lateral rays in S. perplexum ]. It also differs by its smaller prickles on the stems and leaves (up to 6.5 mm vs. up to 15 mm in S. perplexum ) and its smaller leaves (up to 16 × 10 cm vs. 22 × 18 cm). Solanum dimidiatum is also somewhat similar to S. carolinense , but can be differentiated by its larger corollas that are up to 4.6 cm in diameter (vs. corollas up to 3 cm in diameter in S. carolinense ), its inflorescence that is branched once to several times (vs. unbranched or branched once), and its hard, somewhat dry fruit (vs. a softer, mucilaginous fruit).

Solanum dimidiatum was described by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, and as is common with Rafinesque names, typification can be problematic because of his characteristically inadequate diagnoses or descriptions, and due to the fact that much of his personal herbarium—including many holotypes —was discarded after his death ( Merrill 1949). After a thorough search of herbaria, especially of those with specimens from the Rafinesque herbarium (e.g. P, DWC), we were unable to locate any specimens that would constitute authentic material. However, Rafinesque’ s description was sufficiently detailed to allow us to confidently match his taxonomic concept to the species commonly identified as S. dimidiatum . We have designated the collection S. Hill 454 from Van Zandt County, Texas as the neotype in order to match the name to a specimen.

Additional Specimens Examined — MEXICO. Nuevo Leon: E. Monterey, 17–26 Feb 1880 (fr), E. Palmer 933 (P).

U. S. A. Arkansas: Clay County, beside AK 90, ½ mi. SW of Knobel, 8 Jul 1968 (bud), R. D. Thomas 10461 ( SMU); Greene County, 25 May 1893 (fl), H. K. D. Eggert s. n. ( NY); Miller County, Kiblah, 91 m, 11 May 1959 (fl), D. Demaree 40838 ( SMU); Ouachita County, beside AK 24 and railroad tracks in Chidester, 12 May 1988 (fl), N. Taylor & C. Slaughter 104404 ( MO, NY). Kansas: Barber County, vicinity of Kiowa, 9 mi. NW of town, 5 Jul 1929 (fr), P. A. Rydberg & R. Imler 641 ( NY); Rice County, 3 mi. W, 0.5 mi. S of Sterling, 10 Jul 1984 (fl, fr), R. L. McGregor 35641 ( VDB). Illinois: Henry County, Annawan, 19 Jul 1960 (fl), V. H. Chase 16131 ( VDB). Louisiana: Acadia Parish, between unpaved road and railroad S of US 90 ca. 0.5 miles east of Midland and LA 91, 20 Sep 1986 (fl), C. M. Allen 14407 ( LSU); between Southern Pacific Railroad and dirt road S of railroad, 0.1 miles west of jct. of LA 91 and US 90, 7 Aug 1987 (fl), N. M. Gilmore 3273 ( LSU); same locality and date, N. M. Gilmore 3274 ( LSU); same locality and date, N. M. Gilmore 3275 ( LSU); US 90, 1– 2 miles east of Midland, 1 May 1987 (fl), L. M. Smith 2524 ( LSU); S of US 90, 1.5 mi. E of Midland, T10S, R1W, S16, 4 Oct 1986 (fr), R. D. Thomas & C. M. Allen 98388 ( BRIT); Caddo Parish, Shreveport, 10 Apr 1909 (bud), N. F. Petersen s. n. ( LSU); I-20 W, two mi. E of US 79 and US 80 exit at Greenwood and W of Shreveport, T17N, R15W, S21, 1 Jul 1994 (st), R. D. Thomas & K. Cascio 140253 ( BRIT); I-20 W, one mi. E of US 79 and US 80 exit at Greenwood and W of Shreveport, T17N, R15W, S20, 1 Jul 1994 (fl), R. D. Thomas & K. Cascio 140257 ( BRIT, LSU, MO, NY, UNA); Desoto Parish, along Kansas City Southern Railway tracks between LA 175 and Friendship Rd. in Frierson, T15N, R13W, S34, 4 May 1984 (fl), R. D. Thomas & D. Nixon 71240 ( NY, SMU); along LA 175 in Frierson, T15N, R13W, S27 & S35, 15 May 1984 (fl), R. D. Thomas & D. D. Taylor 88670 ( FLAS, L-n.v., LSU, VDB). Missouri: Jackson County, Courtney, 25 Oct 1929 (st), B. F. Bush 11704 ( NY); Courtney, 21 Aug 1930 (st), B. F. Bush 11941 ( NY); St. Louis City, behind O’ Connell’ s Pub, on corner of Kingshighway and Shaw Ave, 38°37′10″N, 90°16′00″W, 149 m, 8 Sep 1998 (fl), G. Yatskievych & B. Summers 98–92 ( MO [2 sheets]). New Mexico: Mora County, roadside of NM 120, 18 mi. W of Roy and 6 mi. E of Wagon Mound, T21N, R22E, S26, 3 Jul 1981 (fl), D. Ward et al. 81–269 ( NY). Oklahoma: Alfalfa County, Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, S of Hwy 11, 1 mi. W of refuge Rd., T27N, R9W, S20, 10 May 1963 (fl), R. J. Baalman 292 ( SMU); Cleveland County, Norman, 2 Aug 1924 (fl), W. E. Bruner s. n. ( SMU); Comanche County, 1 mi. W of Fort Sill in Wachita Mountains [Wildlife Refuge], 15 Jul 1969 (fr), R. L. Lazor & J. Lazor 3708 ( FSU); Fort Sill, 22 May 1916 (fl), E. J. Palmer 11764a ( NY); Geronimo Hill, Ft. Sill Reservation, 21 May 1989 (fl), R. A. Thompson et al. S0465 ( MO, SMU); Cotton County, 7 mi. E of Taylor, ¼ mi. N of jct. US 70, 4 mi. E of Jefferson County line, 34°09′36″N, 98°12′32″W, 274 m, 27 May 1996 (st), R. Burckhalter & M. Blanchard 2721 ( UNA); 4 mi. N and 1 ¾ mi. E of Temple, 8 May 1976 (fl), B. L. Lipscomb 1547 ( SMU); Craig County, Vinita, 18 Jun 1894 (fl, fr), B. F. Bush 394 ( NY); Creek County, Sapulpa, 19 Jun 1894 (fl), B. F. Bush 395 ( NY); Harmon County, breaks along Elm Creek 12–15 mi. S of Erick, 13 Jun 1973 (fl), L. C. Higgins 7287 ( NY); Jefferson County, 4.5 mi. S of Ryan on US 81, 33.938036N, 97.940835W, 11 Aug 2013 (fr), B. L. Lipscomb 3541 ( BRIT, K, MO, NY, P, US, UT); Marshall County, 2¼ mi. S of Kingston and ¼ mi. E of Co. Rd., 20 Jun 1951 (fl, fr), V. L. Cory 58988 ( SMU); Marshall County, 1 mi. W of University of Oklahoma Biological Station, Lake Texoma, 20 Jun 1952 (fl), P. B. Riggs s. n. ( SMU); McIntosh County, Fountainhead State Park, along Eufala Lake, at campground 12 Jun 1982 (fl, fr), M. H. Nee 24377 ( NY); Murray County, 406 S. sixth St., Madill, 5 Jul 1947 (fl), B. Duff 117 ( SMU); W of Guy Campground, 26 May 1994 (fl), F. L. Johnson et al. 112 ( BRIT); Payne County, 2 mi. W of Stillwater, 5 Jun 1946 (fl), T. R. Ferguson 4 ( SMU); 6 mi. N and ½ mi. W of Stillwater, 15 Sep 1938 (fl), W. G. Stoneman 47 ( SMU); 3 mi. N of Stillwater, 11 Jun 1970 (fl), J. S. Wright 82 ( VDB); Pontotoc County, 2 mi. S and 3 mi. W of Roff, 18 Aug 1951 (fl), D. McCoy 1675 ( SMU); State Hwy 19, 7 mi. W of Ada, 18 May 1947 (fl), G. T. Robbins 2490 ( NY); Pottawatomie County, Tecumseh, 16 Jun 1937 (fl), F. A. Barkley 1181 ( SMU); Swanson County, near Mountain Park, 23 Jun 1913 (fl), G. W. Stevens 1257½ (P); Washita County, US 40 and 66, 1 mi. E of Elk City exit, 15 Jul 1976 (fl, fr), C. A. Bennett et al. 381 ( MO, NY); Woods County, ca. 7 mi. SE of Waynoka, 2 Oct 1983 (fr), P. Nighswonger 2091 ( BRIT); Woods County, NW of Alva about 14 mi., 17 Jul 1984 (fr), P. Nighswonger & W. Little 2165 ( BRIT); Woods County, near Alva, 1 Jun 1913 (fl), G. W. Stevens 771 ( NY); Woodward County, Hal and Fern Cooper Wildlife Management Area, NW portion of S pasture, T24N, R22W, SW ¼ of S25, 25 Jul 2006 (fr), S. Winter 1694 ( BRIT). South Carolina: Florence County, Florence RR yards, 24 May 1957 (fl), C. R. Bell 7489 ( FSU). Texas: without precise locality, s.d. (fl), T. Drummond s. n. (P); Bandera County, Hill Country State Natural Area, N area of park, along Trail 4, 23 Apr 1994 (fl), L. Lackey 479 ( BRIT); Hill Country State Natural Area, SE area of park, along Trail 2, 7 May 1994 (fl), L. Lackey 485 ( BRIT); along the roadside of FM 470, about 1.9 road miles east of this highway’ s crossing over Hondo Creek; north of Tarpley, 16 Oct 1982 (fr), A. W. Lievens 82TX35 ( LSU); Bexar County, San Antonio, 5 May 1894 (fl), A. A. Heller 1709 ( NY, P [2 sheets]); Blanco County, above Blanco River ca. 6 mi. W of Blanco, 16 May 1982 (fl), R. Kral 68513 ( VDB); Johnson City unit, S maintenance area near camper sites, 30°16′N, 98°16′W, 1 May 2002 (fl), R. W. Sanders 5132 ( BRIT); Bowie County, Texarkana, 24 Jul 1896 (fr), H. K. D. Eggert s. n. ( MO); Brazos County, Riley Rd. in E part of county, 12 May 1974 (imm. fr), P. A. Fryxell 2391 ( NY); 4.7 mi. S of the intersection of FM 2818 and FM 60 at the Texas A & M Beef Cattle Center, 20 Apr 1994 (fl), L. A. Knox 26 ( MO); College Station, railroad crossing at AAA Building, 13 Jul 1943 (fl), J. B. Paxson 18 ( BRIT); Burleson County, NW corner of Burleson County Rd. 307 and TX 36, 15 Apr 1990 (fl), S. D. Jones & G. Jones 4434 ( VDB); Burnet County, Fairland, 17 May 1920 (fl), F. W. Pennell 10468 ( NY); Callahan County, US 80, ca. 3 mi. E of the Taylor County line, 27 Apr 1963 (fl), N. C. Henderson 63–570 ( FSU, SMU, TEX-n.v.); Coke County, 8 Jun 1970 (fl, fr), D. Demaree 62146 ( SMU); Coleman County, 2 mi. N of Rockwood on Hwy 283, 24 Apr 1976 (fl), M. R. Nixon 309 ( BRIT); US Hwy 283, J. P. Miller Ranch, 5 mi. N of Coleman, 4 Nov 1965 (fr), A. Villarreal s. n. ( SMU); Comal County, New Braunfels, May 1850 (fl), F. J. Lindheimer 1043 ( NY, P); New Braunfels, 12 May 1920 (fl), F. W. Pennell 10424 ( NY); New Braunfels, Jun 1888 (st), F. Rautenberg 1576 ( SMU); Coryell County, above Leon River just N of entrance to Mother Neff State Park, 16 May 1984 (fl), R. Kral 71454 ( VDB); Dallas County, 1½ mi. S of Cedar Hill, 500 ft. off Hwy 67, 24 May 1947 (fl), R. E. Cotten 60 ( SMU); Stults Prairie, SW corner of Coit Rd. and Belt Line Rd., 21 May 1959 (fl), D. S. Correll 22145 ( NY); same locality, 28 May 1959 (fl), D. S. Correll & I. M. Johnston 22447 ( FSU); Duncanville at Mountain View College, 9 May 1993 (fl), E. Lehto L25575 View Materials ( BRIT); E of White Rock Lake, 31 Aug 1942 (fr), C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 11709 (LL-n.v., SMU); E Dallas, East Grand Ave., 30 Jun 1947 (fl), R. E. Niblack 49 ( SMU); Lancaster, Bear Creek Park and Nature Preserve, 30 Apr 2003 (fl), J. Quayle & J. Varnum 306 ( BRIT); same locality, 17 May 2003 (fl), J. Quayle 344 ( BRIT); Dallas, 20 Aug 1901 (fr), J. Reverchon 673 ( MO [2 sheets]); S of Oak Cliff, 5 Jun 1942 (fl), O. Sanders 165 ( BRIT); beside Harry Hines Blvd. at Market Center Blvd and railroad tracks NE of I-35E in Dallas, 22 Sep 1995 (fr), R. D. Thomas 145950 ( NY, UNA); Denton County, 6 mi. NW of Denton, 18 May 1947 (fl), V. L. Cory 53716 ( NY); Edwards County, substation No. 14, 6 Oct 1946 (fl, fr), V. L. Cory 52495 ( NY, SMU); 15 mi. S of road jct. 3.5 mi. W of Rock Springs on Texas route 41, 10 May 1947 (fl), R. McVaugh & A. M. Harvill 8262 (P, SMU); Ellis County, near Murry Gin in Britton, near Mansfield, 24 Apr 1976 (fl), S. Huggins s. n. ( BRIT); E of Waxahachie, 23 Jun 1939 (fl), S. Shackelford 20 ( SMU); Falls County, at crossing of Hwy 6 and Big Creek ca. 3 mi. S of Marlin, 26 Apr 1981 (fl), P. A. Fryxell 3421 ( BRIT, NY, TEX-n.v.); Garza County, Hwy 651, 7.4 air mi. NE of Post, 9 Jun 1966 (fl), B. Hutchins 1187 (LL-n.v., SMU); Goliad County, W of Coleto Creek and N of Hwy 59, 9 May 1976 (fl), G. Ajilvsgi 3344 ( BRIT); Grayson County, Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, ca. 16 km by air S of the Texas- Oklahoma state line, 33°44′16″N, 96°44′54″W, ca. 671 m, 1 Sep 1993 (fr), J. Mazer & G. Diggs 5 ( FLAS); Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Texoma, 9 miles NW of center of Sherman, 1.5 miles SSE of Refuge headquarters buildings, 14.4 km SW of center of Sherman, 33°43′N, 96°45′W, 27 Sep 1993 (fr), M. H. Nee et al. 43970 ( NY); Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, ca. 18 km by air NW of Sherman, ca. 16 km by air S of the Texas-Oklahoma state line, S of headquarters complex, near abandoned trail S of main road into Refuge, 1 Sep 1993 (fr), J. Redmon & G. Diggs 5 ( VDB); Hill County, Aquilla Creek, ca. 2 mi. SSW of Peoria, 7 Jun 1972 (fl), G. H. Hall 71 ( SMU); Hood County, near Center Mills, 14 May 1939 (fl), C. Blackwell 37 ( SMU); Johnson County, Egan, Judith Sear property, under powerline easement on E side, 32°25.991′N, 97°17.090′W, 18 Apr 2006 (fl), J. Quayle 1005 ( BRIT); Jones County, US 277, ca. 6 mi. S of Anson, 20 May 1962 (fl), N. C. Henderson 62–475 ( FSU); Karnes County, Ecleto Creek crossing, 2.5 mi. W of Runge, 24 Apr 1954 (st), J. C. Johnson 1515 ( SMU); Kimble County, South Llano River State Park, along Park Rd. 73, 0.6 mi. NW of Park headquarters, at the day use picnic area, 8 May 1996 (fl), L. Sanchez 1308 ( BRIT); Limestone County, near Tehuacana, 14 May 1939 (fl), J. Miles 6 ( SMU); Fort Parker State Park, Hwy 14 and Park Rd. 29, May 1997 (fl), J. Singhurst et al. 1718 ( BRIT); McLennan County, 1¾ mi. SSW of Robinson, 4 May 1949 (fl), V. L. Cory 55703 ( SMU); Loop 340 at Old Temple Rd., 29 Apr 1970 (fl), M. Mauldin s. n. ( SMU); Speight and Hwy 6, 1 May 1948 (fl), L. D. Smith 1108 ( NY); Waco, vacant lot at 21st St. and Bernard Ave., 26 May 1946 (fl), C. L. York 46113 ( SMU, TEX-n.v.); McCullough County, 5 mi. N of Brady, 28 Apr 1966 (fl), K. L. Boatman 48 ( SMU, TEX-n.v.); Midland County, Midland, 9 May 1902 (fl), S. M. Tracy 8004 ( MO, NY, TEX-n.v.); Mitchell County, 7 mi. ENE of Colorado City, 17 Jun 1945 (fl, fr), R. W. Pohl 4983 ( BRIT); Rains County, 1¾ mi. NW of Alba, 7 Aug 1950 (fr), V. L. Cory 57587 ( SMU); Real County, 1 mi. N of Leakey, 488 m, 27 Jun 1971 (fl), P. A. Fryxell 1779 ( NY); along Texas farm road 337, 3 mi. W of Leakey, 29°27′N, 99°56′W, 690 m, 25 May 1990 (fl), J. S. Miller et al. 5150 ( MO); Refugio County, in Refugio city limits, 24 Mar 1955 (fl), F. B. Jones 1002 ( SMU); Robertson County, SW of Benchley, NW ¼ Bryan W Quad., Spur 231 and railroad, 15 Apr 1982 (fl), T. Starbuck 1771 ( BRIT); Runnels County, 3.2 mi. SW of Ballinger, 9 Jun 1957 (fl), L. H. Shinners 26362 ( SMU); San Patricio County, 2 mi. S of townsite of San Patricio near Nueces River, 18 Oct 1951 (st), F. B. Jones 651 ( SMU); San Patricio County, Welder Wildlife Foundation, N of Sinton, Hackberry Mott., 0.2 mi. N from place where S loop of river road bends W, ca. 6 m above and 40 m back from Aransas River, 14 m, 6 May 1959 (fl), A. Traverse 1268 ( BRIT); San Saba County, Rough Creek Rd., behind Methodist Church at Chappel, 24 Apr 1977 (fl), B. Barnette 272 ( SMU); 0.5 mi. E FM 45 on FM 500, 22 Apr 1976 (fl), P. Burleson 256 ( BRIT); Shackelford County, US 283, ca. 3 mi. S of Albany, 22 May 1963 (fl), N. C. Henderson 63–973 ( FSU, SMU, TEX-n.v.); Sutton County, without precise locality, 29 Aug 1933 (fl), V. L. Cory s. n. ( BRIT); Tarrant County, 2 airline mi. SW of Benbrook, 8 May 1948 (fl), V. L. Cory 54408 ( SMU, LL-n.v.); above Big Fossil Creek just E of TX 183 bridge, Haltom City, N side of Ft. Worth, 26 Apr 1998 (fl), R. Kral 87386 ( VDB); by jct. Beach St. W and N Beach St., E of Belknap, 3 Jun 2001 (fl), R. Kral 91262 ( VDB); S Arlington, 18 Aug 1971 (fr), R. L. Neill 117 ( BRIT); without precise locality, 5 Aug 1921 (fl), A. Ruth 940 ( NY); E of Euless on Bear Creek, 1 mi. N of Hwy 183, 2 Jul 1946 (fl), E. Whitehouse 16147 ( NY, SMU); Taylor County, Hwy 36, 6 mi. SE of Abilene, 9 Oct 1965 (fr), J. Davis 9 ( SMU); ca. 10 mi. S of Abilene, along US 277, 30 Aug 1961 (fl), N. C. Henderson 61–804 ( FSU); along US 80 at the E edge of Abilene, 18 Apr 1963 (fl), N. C. Henderson 63–379 ( SMU, TEX-n.v.); ca. 4 mi. SW of Potosi on Arrant Ranch, 14 Oct 1962 (fl), W. F. Mahler 3079 ( SMU); near Abilene, 9 May 1943 (fl), W. L. Tolstead 7188 ( SMU); Throckmorton County, 5 km S and 6.8 km W of Throckmorton, J. A. Cornelius farm, 29 May 1980 (fl), J. Cornelius 403 ( BRIT); same locality, 22 May 1981 (fl), J. Cornelius 838 [2 sheets] ( BRIT); Titus County, 4 mi. W of Mount Pleasant, 30 Apr 1948 (fl), A. Garcia s. n. ( SMU); Tom Green County, San Angelo, 3 Jul 1917 (fl, fr), E. J. Palmer 12378 ( MO, TEX-n.v.); Travis County, Austin, near Onion Creek near the water filtration plant settling ponds SE of Austin, 27 Apr 1975 (fl), A. W. Lievens s. n. ( LSU); Austin, 19 Aug 1936 (fl), W. L. McCart 482 ( SMU); Austin, 8 Apr 1918 (fl), M. S. Young 122 ( MO); Co. Hwy 920, 10 mi. E of jct. with I-H 35, 20 Apr 1994 (fl), M. F. Zermoglio 26 ( VDB); Uvalde County, ca. 2 mi. S of Utopia, on banks of Sabinal River, 22 Aug 1989 (fr), P. A. Fryxell 4990 ( NY); 1¾ mi. SE of Laguna, 12 May 1938 (fl, fr), V. L. Cory & H. B. Parks 29187 ( SMU); Washington County, 1 mi. SW on Hwy 390 from its jct. with thee AT & SF Railroad in Gay Hill, 3 Apr 1990 (fl), S. D. Jones & J. K. Wipff 4176 ( VDB); Wichita County, Red River above Burkbumett, s.d. (fl), B. C. Tharp 570 ( NY); Wilbarger County, 27.1 mi. W of Electra, 6.8 mi. S of Harrold, turn W 0.6 mi. S on Hwy 25 and N at 20.9 mi., 12 May 1945 (fl), E. Whitehouse 9863 ( NY, SMU); Wise County, access road to US Hwy 287 N, 1 mi. N of Rhome, 33.086676N, 97.471717W, 10 Apr 2013 (fr), B. L. Lipscomb 3540 ( BRIT, G, K, MO, NY, P, US, UT); LBJ Grasslands Unit 23, 33°20′17.20″N, 97°37′45.34″W, 275 m, 2 May 2003 (fl), R. J. O’ Kennon & C. McLemore 18127 ( BRIT); LBJ Grasslands Unit 31, 17 Jun 2004 (fl), R. J. O’ Kennon & C. McLemore 19532 ( BRIT); Wood County, ca. 4 mi. E of Lindale, 7 May 1991 (fl), R. Kral 78616 ( VDB); Young County, 3 mi. S of Newcastle, near Fort Belknap, 13 Apr 1946 (st), E. Whitehouse 15329 ( SMU).

BRIT

Botanical Research Institute of Texas

DWC

West Chester University

SMU

Sangmiung University

VDB

Vanderbilt University

LSU

Louisiana State University - Herbarium

UNA

University of Alabama Herbarium

FLAS

Florida Museum of Natural History, Herbarium

FSU

Jena Microbial Resource Collection

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Solanales

Family

Solanaceae

Genus

Solanum

Loc

Solanum dimidiatum

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn 2015
2015
Loc

Solanum torreyi

Waterf. 1949: 27
1949
Loc

Solanum torreyi A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad.

A. Gray 1862: 44
1862
Loc

Solanum anoplocladum

Dunal 1852: 346
1852
Loc

SOLANUM DIMIDIATUM Raf.,

Raf., Autik. Bot. 1840: 107
1840