Solanum flagellare, Sendtn.

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn, 2015, A Revision of Solanum Section Lathyrocarpum (the Carolinense Clade, Solanaceae), Systematic Botany 40 (3), pp. 853-887 : 875-876

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1600/036364415x689302

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6342737

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03815163-1446-0602-8751-827A0C8C191F

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Solanum flagellare
status

 

5. SOLANUM FLAGELLARE Sendtn. ,

Flora Bras. 10: 68. 1846. —

TYPE: BRAZIL. Without precise locality, s.d. [1836?], (fl), F. Sellow s. n. (lectotype, designated here: P– P00335298 !; isolectotypes: B [destroyed], photo of B [F neg. 2818]!, F–621100 !, P–P00335294 !).

Solanum humifusum Dunal, Prodr. 13(1): 237. 1852.—

TYPE: BRAZIL. San Paolo [São Paulo], 1833 (st), C. Gaudichaud 307 (holotype: P–P00335297!).

Solanum ilicifolium Dunal, Prodr. 13(1): 190. 1852.—

TYPE: BRAZIL. St. Paul [São Paulo], ad Mugi das Cruzei [Mogi das Cruzes] Nov 1833 or 1835 (bud), P. W. Lund 794 (holotype: G-DC–G00145795 [scan]!).

Sprawling decumbent herb up to ca. 0.2 m tall. Stems sparsely to densely pubescent with sessile to short-stalked stellate hairs 0.4–0.7 mm in diameter, with 4–8 lateral rays, the central ray absent or 1-celled and up to 0.4 mm long, moderately armed with straight tapered prickles up to 5 mm long. Sympodial units 2- to plurifoliate, the leaves not geminate. Leaves simple, the blades 3–5 × 1.2–2.8 cm, elliptic to ovate, sparsely to moderately stellate-pubescent abaxially with hairs like those of the stems, slightly less so adaxially, sparsely to moderately armed with prickles up to 4 mm long on the major veins abaxially and adaxially; base rounded or truncate, often with one side offset up to 0.5 cm from the other; margin subentire to shallowly lobed with 3–6 lobes per side; apex rounded; petioles 0.5–1 cm long, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent, sparsely to moderately armed with prickles up to 5 mm long. Inflorescences up to 6 cm long, extra-axillary, unbranched, with 1–6 flowers, the axes moderately to densely stellate-pubescent, sparsely armed with prickles up to 5 mm long; peduncle up to 3.5 cm long; pedicels 0.5–1.8 cm in flower, weakly articulated at the base, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent, unarmed or sparsely armed with prickles up to 4 mm long. Calyx 4–7 mm long, the tube 1–1.3 mm long, the lobes 3–5 × 1.3–1.8 mm, triangularlanceolate, the apex acute, moderately stellate-pubescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially, unarmed or sparsely armed with prickles up to 2.5 mm long. Corollas ca. 2 cm in diameter, ca. 10 mm long, rotate to stellate-pentagonal, chartaceous, white, the tube ca. 2.5 mm long, the lobes 8–9 × 2–4.5 mm, deltatetriangular, the apex acute, moderately stellate-pubescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Stamens with filaments 1.5–2 × 0.2–0.4 mm; anthers 5–6 × 0.9–1.3 mm, narrowly lanceolate, weakly or not connivent, yellow, the pores directed distally. Ovary ca. 1 × 1–1.2 mm, ovoid, glabrous; style 5–6 × ca. 0.4 mm, cylindrical, straight, glabrous, exserted; stigma capitate. Fruits unknown.

Distribution and Habitat — Solanum flagellare is restricted to São Paulo state in Brazil in the coastal area near Mogi das Cruzes ( Fig. 8 View FIG ). One collection (Riedel s. n.) records the habitat as grasslands.

Phenology — The species flowers in November.

Conservation Status — Of the five specimens of Solanum flagellare we examined, only one (Riedel s. n.) had useful locality information; it was not possible to assign post-facto distributions to the other four. The species occurs in areas of São Paulo state that have been heavily impacted by urbanization, and apparently it has not been collected in the last ca. 80 yr. A threatened IUCN status may be justified if new distribution data become available, but in the meantime we have assigned the species to the category of “data deficient” ( DD).

Etymology — The epithet “ flagellare ” is the Latin word for flagellum, or whip. The name refers to the slender, whip-like shape of the stem, which has a sprawling, decumbent habit.

Vernacular Name — None recorded.

Chromosome Number — None recorded.

Notes — Solanum flagellare is similar to S. reineckii in its sprawling, decumbent habit, leaf shape, and unbranched inflorescences. It is differentiated by its stems, petioles, leaves, and inflorescence axes that are stellate-pubescent with sessile or short-stalked stellate hairs with stalks up to 0.2 mm long, and calyces that are unarmed or sparsely armed with prickles. Solanum reineckii has stems, petioles, leaves, and inflorescence axes that are stellate-pubescent with sessile to long-stalked hairs, the stalks often prickle-like and up to 2 mm long, and calyces that are moderately to densely armed.

In the protologue of Solanum flagellare , Sellow’ s collection at the B herbarium is cited, but it has been destroyed. Duplicates of this collection exist, one at F and two at P. Two of these consist of just a few vegetative fragments (F and P–P00335294). We have chosen the other P specimen (P–P00335298) as the lectotype because it has identical labels to the B sheet, the species name is annotated in Sendtner’ s handwriting, and it is the most complete specimen with several leaves and a few flowers.

Additional Specimens Examined — BRAZIL. São Paulo: without precise locality (Catalog C1), 1816–1824 (fl), A. de Saint-Hilaire 1109 (P [4 sheets]); Mugi [Mogi das Cruzes], Nov [1933?] (fl), Riedel s. n. ( NY [3 sheets]).

DD

Forest Research Institute, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Solanales

Family

Solanaceae

Genus

Solanum

Loc

Solanum flagellare

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn 2015
2015
Loc

Solanum humifusum Dunal,

Dunal 1852: 237
1852
Loc

Solanum ilicifolium Dunal,

Dunal 1852: 190
1852
Loc

Sendtn. 1846: 68
1846