Solanum hieronymi, Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl.

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn, 2015, A Revision of Solanum Section Lathyrocarpum (the Carolinense Clade, Solanaceae), Systematic Botany 40 (3), pp. 853-887 : 876-878

publication ID 10.1600/036364415x689302


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scientific name

Solanum hieronymi



Revis. Gen. Pl. 3: 226. 1898.—

TYPE: ARGENTINA. Salta: Pasaje del Río Juramento , 21 Feb 1873 (fl), P. G. Lorentz & G. Hieronymus 361 ( lectotype, designated here: NY – NY00172025 !; isolectotypes: B [destroyed], photo of B [F neg. 2778]!, BR– BR00000553968 [scan!], CORD– CORD00004225 !, G– G00343447 !, P– P00335881 !).

Solanum pocote Hieron. ex Millán, Revista Argent. Agron. 12: 117. 1947, nom. illeg. superfl., non S. pocote Hieron. (1881) .—

TYPE: Based on S. hieronymi Kuntze.

Erect to decumbent perennial herb up to 0.4 m tall; stems unbranched or branched near the base; roots usually in the form of a taproot, producing buds and ellipsoid tuber-like swellings ca. 1–2 × 0.5 cm. Stems moderately to densely pubescent with sessile to short-stalked stellate hairs 1.4–2 mm in diameter, with 4–5 lateral rays, the central ray 1–3-celled and up to 3 mm long, also moderately to densely pubescent with short unbranched glandular hairs up to 0.3 mm long, moderately armed with straight tapered prickles up to 7 mm long, these often minutely glandular-puberulent. Sympodial units 2- to 3-foliate, sometimes plurifoliate, the leaves not geminate. Leaves simple, the blades 2.5–12(21.5) × 2–7(16) cm, ovate to elliptic in outline, moderately to densely stellatepubescent abaxially, sparsely to densely pubescent adaxially with sessile stellate hairs up to 2 mm in diameter, with 4 lateral rays, the central ray 1-celled and up to 1.4 mm long, sparsely to moderately armed with prickles up to 7.5 mm long on the major veins abaxially and adaxially; base cordate or less often truncate; margin irregularly lobed; apex obtuse; petioles 2–6 cm long, moderately to densely stellate- and glandular-pubescent with stellate hairs like those of the stem, sparsely armed with prickles up to 3.5 mm long, these rarely with 4–8 rays at the apex. Inflorescences 2–10 cm long, extra-axillary, unbranched, with 5–10 flowers, weakly andromonoecious, the axes moderately to densely stellate- and glandular-pubescent, sparsely armed with prickles up to 5 mm long; peduncle 2–8 cm long; pedicels 1–5.5 cm long in flower and fruit, strongly deflexed downward in fruit, spaced 0.5–2.5 cm apart, articulated at the base, moderately stellate- and glandular-pubescent. Calyx 5–10 mm long, the tube 1–5 mm long, the lobes 3.5–7 × 2–2.5 mm, narrowly triangular, the apex acute, moderately to densely stellate- and glandular-pubescent abaxially, rarely with stellate hairs with stout prickle-like stalks up to 3.5 mm long, glabrous adaxially, moderately to densely armed with prickles up to 4 mm long; fruiting calyx accrescent and covering the lower ⅓ to ½ of the fruit, 7–15 mm long, the tube 1–5 mm long, the lobes 5.5–12 × 5–6 mm, triangular to narrowly triangular, sparsely stellate-pubescent, moderately armed with prickles up to 4 mm long, these sometimes with 4–8 rays at the apex. Corollas 2–4 cm in diameter, 13–22 mm long, rotate to stellate-pentagonal, chartaceous, white, the tube 5–15 mm long, the lobes 2–8 × 4.5–6 mm, deltate, the apex apiculate, moderately stellate-pubescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Stamens with filaments 1.2–1.5 × 0.3–0.5 mm; anthers 4.2–10 × 0.6–2 mm, narrowly lanceolate, not connivent, yellow, the pores directed distally. Ovary 2.3–3.2 × 1.6–2.5 mm, subglobose to ovoid, glabrous; style 7.5–15 × 0.5–1 mm, cylindrical, straight, glabrous, exserted; stigma capitate. Fruits 1.5–2.2 × 1–2 cm, subglobose, the apex obtuse, green to whitish-green and somewhat darker green-striped at the proximal end when immature, yellow at maturity, glabrous. Seeds 1.8–2 × 2–2.2 mm, flattened-reniform, lenticular, yellow, the surface finely foveolate.

Distribution and Habitat — Solanum hieronymi is distributed in northern Argentina, south-central Bolivia, and northwestern Paraguay (Dept. Boquerón) ( Fig. 6 View FIG ). It grows in disturbed areas (e.g. roadsides, borders of cultivated fields, grazed woodlands) often in sandy or clay soils and in chaco vegetation from 400–1830 m in elevation.

Phenology — Flowering between November and April and fruiting between February and June.

Conservation Status — Solanum hieronymi is distributed across a large area in Bolivia, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. It grows in highly disturbed habitats, and it is doubtful that there will be any significant reduction in population size or locations. With an extent of occurrence of ca. 820,000 km 2 and area of occupancy of 1,248 km 2, Solanum hieronymi is assigned a preliminary conservation status of “least concern” ( LC).

Etymology — Solanum hieronymi is named after Georg Hans Emmo Wolfgang Hieronymus (1846–1921) who collected in Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil.

Vernacular Names and Uses — From the Santa Cruz Department in Bolivia, two names recorded on herbarium sheets were papa de zorro (I. G. Vargas C. 414) and tutía-tutía (A. Fuentes & C. Pítare 2400). These common names almost certainly refer to the globose or ellipsoid swellings on the roots (the common name tutia was given to S. aridum , another species with swellings on the roots). Other common names in Argentina include papaquisla, pocota, pocote, and pocotillo ( Matesevach 2002). Barboza (2013) reports that the tuber-like root swellings are edible.

Chromosome Number — Chromosome counts of Solanum hieronymi have shown it to have a variety of ploidy levels: n = 12 (G. Bernardello 505; T. E. Di Fulvio 824), n = 18 (A. T. Hunziker et al. 24847), n = 24 (R. Subils et al. 3859; A. T. Hunziker 24846), and 2n = 24 (G. E. Barboza et al. 1261) ( Moscone 1992; Chiarini 2007).

Notes — In habit and most vegetative and reproductive characters, Solanum hieronymi is similar to S. comptum but can distinguished by its white corolla (vs. light blue in S. comptum ), larger (1.5–2.2 × 1–2 cm) depressed globose fruits with a weakly accrescent fruiting calyx (vs. smaller (0.8–1 × 0.7–1.3 cm) globose fruits completely covered by the accrescent fruiting calyx), and small stellate hairs with central rays of 1–4 cells that are longer than the lateral rays (vs. central rays consisting of 1–2 cells and shorter or equal to the lateral rays). In S. hieronymi , large stellate hairs with stout yellow prickle-like stalks are absent or sparsely distributed on the petioles and calyces. In S. comptum , the same stellae are sparsely to moderately distributed on the stem, petioles, leaf blades, inflorescence axes, and pedicels, and densely so on the calyces. Solanum hieronymi also has short (up to 0.3 mm long) unbranched glandular hairs that are moderately to densely distributed throughout the plant, whereas S. comptum completely lacks glandular hairs.

Among the several duplicates of P. G. Lorentz & G. Hieronymus 361, the B and NY sheets were both annotated “ Solanum Hieronymi OK ” in Kuntze’ s hand (the B specimen was destroyed, but its image is preserved in F neg. 2778). Both the B and NY sheets likely represent original material as Kuntze is known to have worked at B, and the NY sheet was acquired from his personal herbarium. The B specimen has both a mature flower and a fruit, whereas the remaining duplicates contain only immature flowers and fruits. We have chosen the sheet NY–NY00172025 as the lectotype because it is likely to be the only other existing duplicate representing original material examined by Kuntze. Chiarini (2007) and Barboza (2013) incorrectly list the NY specimen as the holotype.

Morton (1976) discusses the convoluted case of the name S. pocote Hieron. Hieronymus intended to apply the name to a species of spiny Solanum , but cited S. tuberiferum var. arenarium Dunal in synonomy without providing any further descriptive details of the plant. This latter name is a synonym of S. montanum L., a non-spiny Solanum , and thus S. pocote Hiern. is also a synonym of S. montanum L. Millán (1947) attempted to rehabilitate the name S. pocote , applying it to a species of spiny Solanum . He cites the earlier name

S. hieronymi Kuntze in synonomy, making S. pocote Hiern. ex Millán a synonym of this name.

Additional Specimens Examined — ARGENTINA. Catamarca: Capayán, 26 Mar 2002 (fl), F. Chiarini 577 ( CORD); Ambato, camino entre Las Juntas y Potrerillos, 1 Mar 1998 (fl), Gil s. n. ( CORD); Belén, Hualfín, 16 Jan 1934 (fl), I. Peirano s. n. ( CORD, LIL); Capayán, Huillapima, Jul 1909 (fl), P. L. Spegazzini s. n. ( SI). Chaco: Dpto. General Güemes, 2 km al SE de Fte. Esperanza en dirección a Castelli, 25°11′S, 61°49′W, 6 Mar 2000 (fl), R. Fortunado et al. 6626 ( NY); Tapenagá, Villa Angela, 7 Mar 1947, M. R. Malvárez 1108 ( LIL); Napalpí, La Clotilde, 6 Mar 1947, M. R. Malvárez 1084 ( LIL). Córdoba: San Javier, Yacanto, s.d. (fl), M. T. Cosa 173 ( CORD); entre Marull y La Para, 6 Jan 1986 (fl), T. E. Di Fulvio 824 ( CORD); Capital, cercanías de Córdoba, 5 Nov 1880 (fl), C. Galander s. n. ( CORD); Río Segundo, s.d., A. T. Hunziker 3674 ( CORD); Colón, La Calera, 31 Dec 1902 (fl), T. J. V. Stuckert 12422 ( CORD); San Justo, Mar Chiquita, 14 Apr 1995, C. R. Volponi 1060 ( LP); San Justo, Ruta 19, Jeanmaire, 13 Feb 1991 (fl), J. A. Zygadlo 109 ( CORD). Corrientes: Dpto. Mataco, Ing. Juárez, a orillas del ferrocarril, 6 Mar 2001 (fl), A. Schinini et al. 35282 ( NY). Formosa: Patiño, 5 km antes de Las Lomitas, 18 Dec 1984 (fl), G. Bernardello 507 p. p. ( CORD); Patiño, RN81, a ± 6 km de Pozo del Tigre viniendo desde Las Lomitas, 24°51′14.5″S, 60°22′16.8″W, 6 Feb 2012 (fl, fr), F. Chiarini & G. A. Wahlert 897 ( CORD, UT). Jujuy: Santa Bárbara, Finca Franzini, Santa Clara, 23 Mar 1983, O. Ahumada & A. Castellón 4859 ( CTES); Ledesma, entre Chalicán y Ledesma, 29 May 1974, A. R. Cuezzo et al. 10231 ( LIL); Dpto. San Pedro, San Pedro de Jujuy, 12 Apr 1945 (fl, fr), C. A. O ’ Donell 3059 ( LIL, NY); Dpto. San Pedro, 2 km SW of La Mendieta, 24°19.87′S, 64°59.02′W, 800 m, 13 Apr 2000 (fl), M. H. Nee et al. 50761 ( NY); Dpto. Valle Grande, road from San Francisco to Valle Grande, ca. 5.5 km N of San Francisco, 23°34.661′S, 64°58.24′W, 1125 m, 21 Apr 2000 (fr), M. H. Nee & L. Bohs 50830 ( NY); Carmen, 6 leguas al S del Dpto. Carmen, Jan 1903 (st), Peña 12287 ( CORD). La Rioja: Chilecito, Puesto Las Trancas, rumbo a Mina La Mejicana, 19 Feb 2003 (fl), G. E. Barboza et al. 569 ( CORD); A. V. Peñaloza, entre Tama y Paca Tala, 28 Feb 1990 (fl), F. N. Biurrun & E. Pagliari 3212 ( CORD); Ulapes, La Dima, 3 Mar 1907 (fl), T. J. V. Stuckert 17115 ( CORD). Salta: Joaquín V. González, 25 Jan 1945 (fl), R. M. Aguilar 287 (LIL-n.v., NY); Anta, por RP N° 5, 15.6 km antes de Las Lajitas viniendo desde Anta, 650 m, 24°49′28.9″S, 64°19′29″W, 21 Mar 2005 (fl), G. E. Barboza et al. 1261 ( CORD); Orán, alrededores de Tabacal, 10 Dec 1955 (fl), A. E. Cocucci 92 ( CORD); San Martín, La Quena, pasando Río Bermejo, 1 Jun 1974 (fl, fr), A. R. Cuezzo et al. 10334 ( LIL); Capital, Ciudad, vías del ferrocarril Mitre, 20 Mar 1989 (fl), A. del Castillo 1142 ( CORD); Campo Santo, Betania, 12 Jan 1949 (fl), R. Filipovich 215 ( CORD); La Viña, Coronel Moldes, 30 Jan 1941 (fl), A. T. Hunziker 1014 ( CORD); Dpto. Rivadavia, 30 km al E de Dragones, 8 May 1999 (fl), A. Krapovickas & J. G. Seijo 47750 ( CTES); Dpto. General Güemes, Camino de Cabeza de Buey a Río Juramento, 27 Feb 1977 (fl), P. R. Legname et al. 5324 ( LIL); Metán, El Rincón, 12 May 1949 (fl), F. E. Luna 1472 ( CORD); Dpto. Rivadavia, J. Solá (Morillos), 10 km al W del pueblo, 23°28′S, 62°53′ W, 12 Jan 1983 (fl), A. Maranta & P. Arenas 90 ( NY); Dpto. Orán, [illegible], 3 Feb 1945 (fl), S. A. Pierotti 194 ( NY); Dpto. Anta, J. V. González, Fca San Javier, 27 Jan 1949 (fl), C. Saravia Toledo 269 ( LIL); Cafayate, De Cafayate a Salta, km 77, entre Casa de Piedra y El Hongo, 19 Aug 1987 (fl, fr) R. Subils et al. 3859 ( CORD). San Juan: Valle Fértil, Ruta Provincial 511, entre Usno y Balde del Rosario, 21 Feb 1996 (fl), F. N. Biurrun et al. 4253 ( CORD). San Luis: Chacabuco, a ± 3 km al N de Concarán, 17 Feb 1989 (fl), A. T. Hunziker 25332 ( CORD). Santiago del Estero: Hill east of Sumampa, ferrocarril Central de Argentina, 31 Mar 1945 (fl), H. H. Bartlett 19837 (GH-n.v., NY, SI-n.v., UC-n.v., US-n.v.); Sumampa, 20 Apr 1945 (fl), P. Garcia 954 ( NY); General Taboada, Tacañitas, 17 Apr 1917 (fl), C. C. Hosseus 236 ( CORD); Río Hondo, Yutuyacu, 15 Jan 1949 (fl), P. R. Legname 51 ( CORD); Matará, cerca de Yuchán, 21 Apr 1977 (fl, fr), T. M. Pedersen 11847 ( CTES); Dpto. Guasayan, El Cimbolar, 31 Mar 1944 (fr), S. A. Pierotti s. n. ( BM); Choya, desde Punta Chiquita hacia Alto Bello, 16 Nov 1984 (fl), R. Subils et al. 3664 ( CORD). Tucumán: Trancas, Ruta 9, 5 km al N de Tapia, 27 Mar 1975 (fl, fr), A. Krapovickas et al. 27866 ( CTES); Trancas, Chulca, 5 Jan 1985, A. T. Hunziker 24846 ( CORD); Burruyacú, Cañada Alegre, 7 Feb 1907 (fl), T. J. V. Stuckert 16955 ( CORD); Tafí, Quilmes, Ruta Nac. 40, entre Amaichá del Valle y Colalao del Valle, 16 Jan 1979 (fl, fr), R. Subils & G. Bernardello 2652 ( CORD); Dept. Cruz Alta, al lado Puente del F.C.C.A., 460 m, 10 Dec 1923 (fl), S. Venturi 2413 ( BM).

BOLIVIA. Cochabamba: 18°15′35″S, 64°49′17″W, 1830 m, 13 Apr 1999 (fl), C. Antezana 1207 ( NY). Santa Cruz: Choreti, 3 mi. from Camiri, above Río Parapetí, 872 m, 16 Sep 1949 (fl), W. M. A. Brooke 5640 ( NY); Prov. Cordillera, Alto Parapetí, 850 m, 8 Jan 1982 (fl), R. de Michel 100 ( NY); Prov. Cordillera, Parque Nacional Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco, Laguna Azul, 20°10′51″S, 62°20′23″W, 400 m, 24 May 1998 (fr), A. Fuentes & C. Pítare 2400 ( NY); Prov. Vallegrande, Pulquina, Jardín Botanico de Pulquina y sus alrededores, lado del oleoducto, 18°04.10′S, 64°24.30′W, 1557 m, 11 Jan 2004 (fl), M. Mendoza & E. Calzadilla 765 ( NY); Prov. Florida, 3.9 km S of Mataral on road to Vallegrande, 18°08′55″S, 64°12′34″W, 1420 m, 20 Jan 2006 (fl), M. H. Nee & J. Wen 53877 ( NY); Prov. Cordillera, along Hwy from Yacuiba to Camiri, 2.2 km by road SE of Salinas and turnoff to Charagua, 20°14′23″S, 63°27′19″W, 915 m, 13 Feb 2006 (fl), M. H. Nee & I. I. Linneo F. 54151 ( NY); Prov. Florida, 1.8 km SW of bridge in Los Negros, 18°04′06″S, 64°07′05″W, 1320 m, 13 Apr 2007 (fl), M. H. Nee et al. 55073 ( NY [2 sheets]); Prov. Cordillera, Las Juntas, 29 Jan 1947, Peredo s. n. ( LIL); Prov. Cordillera, a 16.1 km al N de Boyuibe, camino a Camiri, 20°23′35″S, 63°23′53″W, 909 m, 13 Jan 2005 (fl), J. G. Seijo et al. 3426 ( CORD, CTES); Prov. Vallegrande, Río Mizque, tunilla, 17 km al W de Vallegrande, 18°31′S, 64°18′W, 1200 m, 13 Feb 1990 (fl), I. G. Vargas C. 414 (LPB-n.v., MO, NY, USZ-n.v.); Prov. Cordillera, Cerro Toborochi, 10–12 km por brecha abandonada al SE de Estancia Toborochi, 19°14′S, 62°15′W, ca. 470 m, 5–15 Jan 1993 (fl), I. G. Vargas C. et al. 1923 ( NY, USZ-n.v.). Tarija: Prov. Gran Chaco, 3 km E of center of Villa Montes on road to Paraguay, 21°16′10″S, 63°26′50″W, 391 m, 9 Feb 2006 (fl), M. H. Nee & I. I. Linneo F. 53999 ( NY); Prov. Gran Chaco, canyon of Río Pilcomayo, along road from Villa Montes to Entre Ríos and Tarija, 18.3 km (by road) W of center of Villa Montes, 12.6 km (by road) W of bridge over Río Pilcomayo, 21°13′25″S, 63°34′00″W, 471 m, 10 Feb 2006 (fl), M. H. Nee & I. I. Linneo F. 54044 ( NY); Prov. Cordillera, turnoff to Ivo from Camiri-Villa Montes Hwy, 20°23′59″S, 63°23′27″W, 910 m, 19 March 2007 (fl), M. H. Nee & R. Flores S. 54775 ( NY [2 sheets]); Prov. Gran Chaco, 33.5 km (by Hwy) and 33 km (air) SE of Villa Montes on new highway to Isibobo and Paraguay, ca. 5.5 km N or Río Pilcomayo, 21°22′07″S, 63°09′50″W, 350 m, 20 Mar 2007 (fr), M. H. Nee & R. Flores S. 54794 ( NY [2 sheets]); Prov. Gran Chaco, 24.4 km (by road) SE of Villa Montes on new Hwy to Isibobo and Paraguay, measuring from the intersection in Villa Montes of Boyuibe–Yacuiba Hwy, 21°19′49″S, 63°14′13″W, 355 m, 20 Mar 2007 (fl), M. H. Nee & R. Flores 54810 ( NY); Prov. O’ Connor, 13.4 km S of Palos Blancos on road to Caraparí, then 3.8 km E, 1.2 km E of buildings at Rancho Tres Aguadas, 21°31′15″S, 63°46′40″–55″W, 850 m, 22 Mar 2007 (fl), M. H. Nee & R. Flores 54836 ( NY); Prov. Gran Chaco, 0.5 km E of Chuvere, 21°32′15″S, 63°48′10″W, 870 m, 23 Mar 2007 (fl), M. H. Nee & R. Flores S. 54875 ( NY [2 sheets]); Prov. Gran Chaco, 40 km (by road) NE of Palos Blancos, 21°17′45″S, 63°36′12″W, 1565 m, 26 Mar 2007 (fr), M. H. Nee & R. Flores S. 54945 ( CORD, NY).

PARAGUAY. Boquerón: Misión Santa Rosa, 21°45′S, 61°35′W, Nov 1981 (fl), P. Arenas 1745 ( NY); Ruta de Tte. Pico a Mcal. Estigarribia, 10 Oct 1987 (fl, fr), I. Basualdo 845 ( FCQ); circa Estancia Copagro, 586 km de Asunción, 7 Mar 1980 (fl), L. Bernardi 20206 ( NY); Fortín Nueva Asunción, bosque al termino N del aeropista militar y alrededores, 20°43′S, 61°56′W, 24 Mar 1986 (fl), D. R. Brunner 1607 ( MO, PY); Tyto. Tte. Pico-Mcal. Estigarribia, 13 km N de Mcal., 14 Dec 1993 (fl), R. Degen & F. Mereles 3079 ( FCQ); Teniente Ochoa, 21°45′S, 60°55′W, 11 Dec 1987 (st), A. Schinini & R. A. Palacios 25570 ( FCQ); 7 km NW de Nueva Asunción, 20°38′S, 62°05′W, 12 Dec 1987 (fl), A. Schinini & R. A. Palacios 25689 ( FCQ); Tte. 1° Alfredo Stroessner, asiento 7a. División Infantería (R. I. 10 Sauce), 22°41′S, 61°35′W, 200–210 m, 9 Oct 1987 (fl), R. E. Spichiger et al. 207 8 ( FCQ, G-n.v.); Col. Menno, Lolita, 23°00′S, 59°35′W, 10 Nov 1990 (fl), R. Vanni et al. 1846 ( NY); Fortín Teniente E. Ochoa, 21°43′S, 60°54′W, 21 Jan 1994 (fr), E. M. Zardini & L. Guerrero 38112 (AS-n.v., MO, NY); proposed National Park Medanos del Chaco, 20°41′03″S, 61°57′37″W, 300 m, 12 Dec 1998 (fl), E. M. Zardini & N. Duarte 49546 (AS-n.v., MO, NY).


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Universidad Nacional de Córdoba


Fundación Miguel Lillo


Museo Botánico (SI)


Laboratory of Palaeontology


University of Tehran


Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste


Bristol Museum


Missouri Botanical Garden


Universidad Nacional de Asunción


Centro de Estudios y Colecciones Biológicas para la Conservación














Solanum hieronymi

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn 2015

Solanum pocote Hieron. ex Millán,

Millan 1947: 117

Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1898: 226