Solanum juvenale, Thell., Repert., 2015

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn, 2015, A Revision of Solanum Section Lathyrocarpum (the Carolinense Clade, Solanaceae), Systematic Botany 40 (3), pp. 853-887 : 878-880

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1600/036364415x689302

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6339072

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03815163-1449-060E-873F-86140B9118D5

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Solanum juvenale
status

 

7. SOLANUM JUVENALE Thell., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni. Veg. 5: 161. 1908.— TYPE: FRANCE. Herault, Port-Juvénal , près Montpellier (séchoirs à laine), Aug 1894 (fl), J. A. Daveau s. n. ([first-step] lectotype: designated by C. V. Morton, Revis. Argentine Sp. Solanum : 236. 1976 View Cited Treatment ; [secondstep] lectotype, designated here: MPU– MPU022907 !; isolectotypes: CAS – CAS0005763 [scan!], MPU– MPU022904 !, MPU– MPU022905 !).

Solanum meloncillo Parodi, Rev. Fac. Agron. Vet. Buenos Aires 7: 238. 1930.— TYPE: ARGENTINA. Buenos Aires, Azevedo, Pergamino, 1 Oct 1930 (fr), L. R. Parodi 9288 (holotype: BAA–BAA00001177!; isotypes: GH–GH00077719!, K, US!).

Erect to decumbent perennial herb up to 0.5 m tall; stems often branched at the base; roots producing buds. Stems moderately pubescent with sessile stellate hairs 0.2–0.4 mm in diameter with 4–8 lateral rays, the central ray absent or up to 0.3 mm long, moderately to densely armed with straight tapered prickles up to 6 mm long. Sympodial units 2- to 3-foliate, sometimes plurifoliate, the leaves not geminate. Leaves simple, the blades 1.8–5.5 × 1–2.5 cm, oblong-elliptic in outline, somewhat discolorous, densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, sparsely so adaxially with hairs like those of the stems, moderately armed with prickles up to 8 mm long on the major veins abaxially and adaxially; base cuneate; margin sinuate to moderately lobed with 3–6 lobes per side; apex acute; petioles 0.5–3 cm long, moderately to densely stellatepubescent and armed with prickles up to 7 mm long. Inflorescences ca. 1–4 cm long, extra-axillary, unbranched, with 1–3(5) flowers, the axes moderately to densely stellate-pubescent, moderately armed with prickles up to 2.5 mm long; peduncle 2–3 cm long or absent, with the lowermost flower(s) emerging directly from the node; pedicels 1–2 cm long in flower, 1–3 cm long and curved downward in fruit, articulated at the base, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent and armed with prickles up to 3.5 mm long. Calyx 7–8 mm long, the tube 2–4 mm long, the lobes 4–6 × 1.5–3 mm, narrowly deltate, the apex acute-acuminate, densely stellate-pubescent, densely armed with prickles up to 5 mm long abaxially, glabrous adaxially; fruiting calyx somewhat accrescent but not completely covering the fruit, 10–16 mm long, the tube ca. 3 mm long, the lobes 7–12 × 4–5.3 mm, narrowly triangular, moderately stellate-pubescent and armed with prickles up to 4.5 mm long. Corollas 1.2–3 cm in diameter, 15–17 mm long, stellate to stellate-pentagonal, chartaceous, white or bluish, the tube 4–8 mm long, the lobes 4–9.5 × 4–7 mm, deltate to triangular, the apex acute, densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Stamens with filaments 1–1.7 × 0.2–0.3 mm; anthers 5–6.5 × 1.2–1.4 mm, narrowly lanceolate, not connivent, yellow, the pores directed distally. Ovary 1.2–1.5 × 1.3–1.5 mm, subglobose, glabrous; style 7–12 × ca. 1 mm, cylindrical, straight, glabrous, exserted; stigma capitate. Fruits 1–1.9 × 0.8–1.4 cm, ellipsoid, ovoid, or globose, the apex obtuse, green with white stripes when immature, yellow at maturity, glabrous. Seeds ca. 2.4 × 1.9 mm, flattenedreniform, lenticular, yellow, the surface finely foveolate.

Distribution and Habitat — Solanum juvenale is restricted to the central and Pampas provinces of Argentina from 400– 1,100 m in elevation ( Fig. 4 View FIG ). It grows in disturbed areas such as roadsides, borders of cultivated fields, and waste areas, and can become a localized weed. It typically prefers relatively drier sites than the closely related S. aridum .

The type (J. A. Daveau s. n.) was collected near the old Port of Juvénal on the River Lez, near Montpellier, France. The plants were found growing in woolen waste (séchoirs à laine) which was probably imported from the Buenos Aires area. Notes on MPU specimens collected from 1868–1894 indicate that S. juvenale was adventive around the port or bridge at Juvénal and the customs post at Latte near Montpellier. It was growing as a weed in the Jardin des Plantes in Montpellier during 1904–1949, but L. Soudan indicates that it had disappeared from the port and garden by 1970. It was not seen in the Jardin in Montpellier during a visit by LB in 2004.

Phenology — The species flowers between October and March and fruits between November and May.

Conservation Status — While Solanum juvenale is restricted to central and northern Argentina, it nevertheless has a large distribution. It typically grows in highly disturbed habitats, and it is estimated that there will not be any significant reduction in population sizes or locations. With an extent of occurrence of ca. 650,000 km 2 and area of occupancy of 784 km 2, Solanum juvenale is assigned a preliminary conservation status of “least concern” ( LC).

Etymology — The species is named for the old Port of Juvénal on the River Lez, near Montpellier, France.

Vernacular Names — Common names recorded for Solanum juvenale in Argentina are meloncillo de olor, meloncillo del campo, and papa de cuchi ( Matesevach 2002; Barboza 2013). The name “meloncillo” refers to the melon-scented fruits.

Chromosome Number — Chromosome counts have shown Solanum juvenale to be a tetraploid, with a gametophytic count of n = 24 (E. A. Moscone 75; Moscone 1992) and a sporophytic count of 2 n = 48 (F. Chiarini 503; F. Chiarini 504; Chiarini 2007).

Notes — In habit and reproductive characters, Solanum juvenale resembles S. aridum , and intermediate forms can be found where the two species’ ranges overlap ( Morton 1976; Chiarini 2007). Solanum juvenale can be separated from S. aridum by the moderate to dense distribution of prickles on the stem, petioles, leaf blades, inflorescence axes, pedicels, and especially calyces, whereas S. aridum is unarmed or sparsely armed. The prickles on the leaf blades are usually much longer in S. juvenale (up to 8 mm long), whereas in S. aridum they are up to 3 mm long. Solanum juvenale also has smaller leaf blades (1.8–5.5 × 1–2.5 cm) that are more deeply lobed compared to the larger leaf blades of S. aridum (2–10 × 1–5 cm) that are shallowly lobed to sinuate. The ploidy level consistently differs between the two species, with S. juvenale being 2 n = 48 and S. aridum being 2 n = 24. Experimental crosses in the greenhouse between S. aridum and S. juvenale produced triploid plants (2 n = 36; Chiarini 2007).

In the protologue of Solanum juvenale Thellung listed three syntypes. Later, Morton (1976) chose the Daveau s. n. collection at MPU—which consists of three specimens —as the lectotype. When a lectotype refers to a single collection or gathering, but consists of more than one specimen, Article 9.17 of the ICBN ( McNeill et al. 2012) allows for a subsequent (i.e. second-step) lectotypification to narrow the designation to a single specimen. In this case, Morton (1976) designated the Daveau s. n. collection at MPU as the first-step lectotype, and we have further narrowed it via a secondstep lectotypification to the specimen Daveau s. n. ( MPU – MPU022907). This specimen is the most complete of the three bearing several flowers and it was also annotated as “ Solanum juvenale n. spec. ” in Thellung’ s handwriting.

Additional Specimens Examined — ARGENTINA. Buenos Aires: Hurlingham F. C. P., 16 Mar 1945 (fl, fr), R. Alvarez 632 ( NY); Paternal, Nov 1930 (fl), A. E. Burkart 3370 ( CORD); alrededores de La Plata, Facultad de Agronomía, 27 Dec 1932 (fl, fr), A. L. Cabrera 2666 ( NY [2 sheets]); Moreno, Oct 1946 (fl), A. Castellanos 808 ( CORD); La Plata Bosque, 14 Jan 1939 (fl, fr), A. Chichi 18 ( NY); same locality, 23 Jan 1939, A. Chichi 21 ( NY); Campana, 14 Oct 1945, A. Krapovickas 2591 and 2592 ( LIL); La Plata, Feb 1945, P. Boffa 127 ( LIL); Barracas Sud, 20 Feb 1902 (fl, fr), S. Venturi 35 ( CORD). Catamarca: La Paz, La Brea, 14 Jan 1950 (fl), J. Brizuela 472 ( CORD). Córdoba: Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, verano 1891 (fr), L. Anetto 7702 ( CORD); Colón, Sierra Chica, Agua de Oro, 3 Feb 1955 (fl), A. Castellanos 3194 ( CORD); Capital, Barrio Carola Lorenzini, calle Sol de Mayo al 1500, casi ruta 20, 8 Dec 2001 (fl, fr), F. Chiarini 504 ( CORD); Barrio Carola Lorenzini, calle Sol de Mayo al 1400, 11 Dec 2001 (fl, fr), F. Chiarini 510 ( CORD); Sobremonte, cerca de

San Francisco del Chañar, 29°45′52″S, 64°00′02″W, 29 Nov 2001 (fl), F. Chiarini et al. 503 ( CORD); Sobremonte, cerca de San Francisco del Chañar, 29°45′16″S, 64°00′04″W, 28 Feb 2002 (fl, fr), F. Chiarini et al. 553 ( CORD); El Durazno, finca “Tío Rubio”, 1100 m, 5 Nov 1984 (fl), A. A. Cocucci 89 ( CORD); Capital, en las cercanías de Córdoba, 5 Nov 1880 (fl), C. Galander s. n. ( CORD); Colón, Casa Bamba, 27 Oct 1946 (fl), A. T. Hunziker 7056 ( CORD); San Martín, Cárcano, 14 Nov 1950 (fl), A. Krapovickas 7358 ( CORD); Capital, San Vicente, 23 Feb 1885 (fl), F. Kurtz 899 ( CORD); Río Primero, entre Estancia Tomás García y Punta del Arroyo, 21 Feb 1887 (fl, fr), F. Kurtz 4686 ( CORD); Capital, Ciudad, Ciudad Universitaria, Facultad de Ingeniería, 12 Dec 1984 (fr), E. A. Moscone 72 ( CORD); Río Cuarto, Alpa Corral, 21 Jan 1985 (fl), E. A. Moscone 75 ( CORD); Falda del Sauce, ruta 36, 5 km antes de Villa General Belgrano, 800 m, 10 Nov 1985 (fl), E. A. Moscone 110 ( CORD); Falda del Sauce, 2 Feb 1986 (fr), E. A. Moscone 114 ( CORD); Calamuchita, Falda del Sauce, 14 Jan 1990 (fr), E. A. Moscone 190 ( CORD); Cruz del Eje, Dique de Cruz del Eje, 19 Jan 1947, C. A. O ’ Donell 4413 ( LIL); San Alberto, entre Mina Clavero y Nono, 22 Mar 1944 (fl, fr), C. A. O ’ Donell & J. M. Rodriguéz 701 ( CORD); Río Tercero, 26 Mar 1897, T. J. V. Stuckert 2399 ( CORD); Capital, Alto Sur, 15 Dec 1899 (fl), T. J. V. Stuckert 8096 ( CORD); Río Primero, San Teodoro, 16 Jun 1905 (fr), T. J. V. Stuckert 13173 ( CORD); Punilla, La Falda, 30 Dec 1900 (fl), T. J. V. Stuckert 16612 ( CORD); Río Segundo, 8 Mar 1917 (fl), T. J. V. Stuckert 23358 ( CORD); Capital, 13 Oct 1931 (fl), T. J. V. Stuckert 23745 ( CORD); Calamuchita, próximo a Villa General Belgrano, al sur del dique Los Molinos, 15 Mar 1990 (fr), J. A. Zygadlo 42 ( CORD); Cruz del Eje, Pichanas, entre Tuclame y Villa de Soto, en el dique Compensador, 25 Apr 1991 (fr), J. A. Zygadlo 97 ( CORD). La Pampa: Toay, a 3 km hacia el noroeste de la intersección de Avda. Pato Argentino y Avda. Perón (ca. 4 km de Toay), 36°38′51.3″S, 64°22′42.3″W, 19 Feb 2005 (fl, fr), G. E. Barboza et al. 1173 ( CORD); Lihuel Calel, Sierra del Lihuel Calel, 400 m, 30 Dec 1959 (fl), A. E. Burkart s. n. ( SI). La Rioja: Ruta Nac. 38, entre Chamical y Chañar, campo experimental Las Vizcacheras, 9 Feb 1990 (fl), F. N. Biurrun & D. Leguiza 3073 ( CORD); Chamical, RN 79, entre Chamical y Olta, 9 Apr 1988 (fr), F. N. Biurrun & E. Pagliari 2353 ( CORD); Sierra de Los Quinteros, entre Casas Viejas y El Chilcal, paraje La Laguna, 26 Nov 1989 (fl, fr), F. N. Biurrun & E. Pagliari 2655 ( CORD); Sierra de Los Quinteros, El Toro Muerto, rumbo a Las Barrancas, 26 Nov 1989 (fl, fr), F. N. Biurrun & E. Pagliari 2666 ( CTES, CORD); General Belgrano, entre Chañar y Olta, a 15 km del primero, 20 Jan 1997 (fl, fr), F. N. Biurrun & E. Pagliari 4618 ( CORD); Gordillo Polco, finca Francisco Díaz, 10 Mar 1977 (fr), F. N. Biurrun et al. 696 ( CORD); Sierra de Los Llanos, 10 km al SW de Chamical, entre la represa de La Aguadita y las piletas de Obras Sanitarias, 19 Jan 1990 (fl), F. N. Biurrun et al. 3028 ( CORD); Las Huertas, a lo largo del río, ± 1100 m, 2 Dec 1984 (fl), R. Subils & F. N. Biurrun 3759 ( CORD). San Juan: Pocito, La Rinconada, Dec 1876 (fl, fr), D. S. Echegaray s. n. ( CORD). San Luis: Pedernera, Estancia Don Roberto, 42 km al S de Villa Mercedes, 17 Nov 1970 (fl), D. L. Anderson 1816 ( CORD); Estancia Las Tres Marías, 30 km al S de San Luis, 21 Mar 1979 (fr), D. L. Anderson et al. 3642 ( CORD); Pedernera, Estancia La Moneda, al N de Chalanta, 685 m, 7 Jan 1981 (fl), D. L. Anderson et al. 3786 ( CORD); Coronel Pringles, Saladillo, 9 Nov 1940, A. E. Burkart 12118 ( SI); La Capital, Paseo Thays, 3 Apr 1989 (fr), L. A. Del Vitto & E. M. Petenatti 3161, ( CORD); La Capital, entre el Chorrillo y Cruz de Piedra, ruta 20, 2 Dec 1988 (fl), L. A. Del Vitto & E. M. Petenatti 3559 ( CORD); La Capital, Cruz de Piedra, entre el vertedero y ruta 20, 21 May 1972 (fr), Giordano & Guerreiro 21 ( CORD); Ruta 7, salida de San Luis, rumbo a Villa Mercedes, 14 Nov 1956 (fl), A. T. Hunziker 13094 ( CORD); San Martín, entre el Alto Grande y San Martín, camino que viene de Concarán, 16 Jan 1960 (fl, fr), A. T. Hunziker & A. E. Cocucci 14690 ( CORD); Eleodoro Lobos, ruta 7, 17 Jan 1969 (fl, fr), A. Krapovickas & C. L. Cristóbal 14640 ( CORD); San José del Morro, 3 Jan 1892 (fl), C. E. O. Kuntze s. n. ( NY). Santa Fé: San Lorenzo, Carcarañá, Estancia La Carolina , 1886–1887 (fl), Berndt 5256 ( CORD). Santiago del Estero: Capital, Mar 1914 (fl), Castañeda Vega 66 p. p. ( SI); Copo, Obraje Los Tigres, 20 Sep 1971, T. Meyer & Vaca 23275 ( LIL); Los Tigres, 7 Dec 1979 (fl, fr), A. Schinini 19493 ( CTES); Choya, RN 157, alrededores de Frías, 1 Jun 1990 (st), R. Subils et al. 4412 ( CORD). Tucumán: Burruyacú, Cañada Alegre, Feb 1907 (fl, fr), T. J. V. Stuckert 16954 ( CORD); Burruyacú, 31 Dec 1908 (fl, fr), T. J. V. Stuckert 19727 ( CORD); Leales, Chañar Pozo, Oct 1919 (fl), S. Venturi 476 ( SI).

FRANCE. Languedoc-Roussillon: Hérault, Montpellier, au Pont- Juvénal, 30 Jul 1868 (fl), André s. n. (MPU-scan); près Montpellier, May 1870 (fl), André s. n. (MPU-scan); Hérault, séchoir sur la route au le Pont Juvénal, Montpellier, 26 May 1870 (fl), André s. n. (MPU-scan); adventice au Jardin [Montpellier], Oct 1904 (st), L. Soudan s. n. (MPU-scan).

CAS

USA, California, San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences

MPU

Université Montpellier 2

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

CORD

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

LIL

Fundación Miguel Lillo

SI

Museo Botánico (SI)

CTES

Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Solanales

Family

Solanaceae

Genus

Solanum

Loc

Solanum juvenale

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn 2015
2015
Loc

Solanum

1976: 236
1976
Loc

Solanum meloncillo Parodi,

Parodi 1930: 238
1930
Loc

SOLANUM JUVENALE Thell.,

Thell 1908: 161
1908