Solanum reineckii, Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot.

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn, 2015, A Revision of Solanum Section Lathyrocarpum (the Carolinense Clade, Solanaceae), Systematic Botany 40 (3), pp. 853-887 : 883-884

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1600/036364415x689302

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6339078

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03815163-144E-060A-8751-84EE0D531A3E

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Solanum reineckii
status

 

11. SOLANUM REINECKII Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 3: 167. 1899.— TYPE: BRAZIL. Rio Grande do Sul: entre Navegantes et São João, 25 Sep 1897 (fl), E. M. Reineck & J. Czermak 45 (lectotype, designated here: G–G00070158 [scan]!; isolectotypes: FR–FR0031973 [scan]!, JE–JE00004771 [scan!]).

Sprawling decumbent herb up to ca. 0.7 m tall. Stems moderately to densely pubescent with sessile to long-stalked stellate hairs 0.4–0.8 mm in diameter, with 4–8 lateral rays, the central ray absent or 1-celled and up to 0.4 mm long, the stalks up to 2 mm long, moderately to densely armed with straight tapered prickles up to 6 mm long. Sympodial units 2- to plurifoliate, the leaves not geminate. Leaves simple, the blades 3–11 × 1.2–6.5 cm, narrowly ovate to oblong, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent abaxially and adaxially with hairs like those of the stems, moderately to densely armed with prickles up to 5 mm long on the major veins abaxially and adaxially; base rounded or truncate, often with one side offset up to 0.8 cm from the other; margin lobed to irregularly serrate; apex rounded; petioles 1–2.4 cm long, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent, moderately to densely armed with prickles up to 5 mm long. Inflorescences up to 12 cm long, extra-axillary, unbranched, with up to 10 flowers, the axes moderately to densely stellate-pubescent, moderately armed with prickles up to 5 mm long; peduncle up to 6 cm long; pedicels 0.5–2 cm in flower, weakly articulated at the base, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent, moderately to densely armed with prickles up to 4 mm long. Calyx 4–8 mm long, the tube 1–1.4 mm long, the lobes 3–5 × 1.2–1.8 mm, triangular-lanceolate, the apex acute, moderately to densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially, moderately to densely armed with prickles up to 3.5 mm long; calyx of immature fruit spreading to reflexed, ca. 7 mm long, the tube ca. 1 mm long, the lobes ca. 6 × 2 mm, narrowly triangular, moderately stellate-pubescent, moderately to densely armed with prickles up to 3.5 mm long. Corollas up to 2.4 cm in diameter, ca. 13 mm long, rotate to stellate-pentagonal, chartaceous, white to rose, the tube ca. 2.5 mm long, the lobes 8–10 × 2–5 mm, deltate-triangular, the apex acute, moderately stellate-pubescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Stamens with filaments 1.5–2 × 0.2–0.4 mm; anthers 5–6 × 1–1.3 mm, narrowly lanceolate, weakly or not connivent, yellow, the pores directed distally. Ovary ca. 1 × 1–1.2 mm, ovoid to globose, glabrous; style 5–7 × ca. 0.4 mm, cylindrical, straight, glabrous, exserted; stigma capitate. Immature fruits ca. 1 × 0.8 cm, subglobose to ovoid, the color when ripe unknown, glabrous. Seeds unknown.

Distribution and Habitat — Solanum reineckii occurs in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states in southernmost Brazil. It grows in grasslands and restinga vegetation near the coast at elevations of ca. 0–5 m ( Fig. 8 View FIG ).

Phenology — The species flowers between September and January; a single specimen had an immature fruit in October.

Conservation Status — Solanum reineckii has been documented at 10 localities in the coastal areas of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states in Brazil. With none of the documented localities currently protected and a historical range size comprising an extent of occurrence of 11,134 km 2, S. reineckii can be assigned a preliminary conservation status of vulnerable: VU B1ab(iii).

Etymology — The species is named after Eduard Martin Reineck (1869–1931) who collected the lectotype specimens.

Vernacular Name — Smith and Downs (1966) report joá-chicote as a common name.

Chromosome Number — None recorded.

Notes — Solanum reineckii is most similar to S. flagellare in its decumbent habit, leaf shape, and unbranched inflorescences. It differs by its stellate-pubescent stems, petioles, leaves, and inflorescence axes with sessile to long-stalked hairs, the stalks often prickle-like and up to 2 mm long, and calyces that are moderately to densely armed with prickles. Solanum flagellare has stems, petioles, leaves, and inflorescence axes that are stellate-pubescent with sessile or short-stalked stellate hairs, the stalks up to 0.2 mm long, and calyces that are unarmed or sparsely armed with prickles. The two species are also disjunctly distributed, with Solanum reineckii occurring in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states whereas S. flagellare is restricted to São Paulo state.

In the protologue of Solanum reineckii, Briquet cited E. M. Reineck & J. Czermak 45 as the type, but did not indicate an herbarium. We have chosen the sheet at G (G–G00070158) as the lectotype from among the known duplicates at G, FR, and JE. Even though the sheet at G was not annotated by Briquet, it likely represents the sheet from which he described the species because the G was his home institution; the G sheet is also the most complete specimen. The duplicates of E. M. Reineck & J. Czermak 87 at B [F neg. 2847], GOET, and S are incorrectly annotated as type material.

Additional Specimens Examined — BRAZIL. Rio Grande do Sul: Pelotas, 27 Feb 1958 (st), J. da Costa Sacco 925 (F, PACA-n.v., PEL-n.v.); entre Navegantes et São João, 25 Sep 1897 (fl), E. M. Reineck & J. Czermak 87 (B [F neg. 2847], GOET [scan], K [scan], P [2 sheets], S [scan]); São Leopoldo, 10 Nov 1946 (bud), E. Henz 35492 ( MO, NY, PACA-n.v.); Garopaba, Perto da Cidade, 5 m, 31 Oct 1970 (fl, imm. fr), R. M. Klein & A. Bresolin 8837 (FLOR-n.v., HBR-n.v., US); vicinity of São Leopoldo, Oct 1946 (fl), E. Leite 657 ( NY); Guaíba, Fazenda São Maximiano, 4 Nov 2013 (fl), N. I. Matzenbacher s. n. ( NY, UT); Navegantes, prope Porto Alegre, 11 Nov 1949 (fl), B. Rambo 44355 (P); estero prope São Leopoldo, 20 Nov 1950 (fl), B. Rambo 49167 (ICN-n.v., US); ao norte da lagoa de Tramandaí, 15 Nov 1983 (fl), J. R. Stehmann 193 ( BHCB, ICN-n.v.). Santa Catarina: Laguna Mar Grosso, 24 Jan 1994 (fl), M. T. Cosa 153 ( CORD); Cabo Santa Marta, Mun. Laguna, 3–5 m, 14 Nov 2001 (fl), G. G. Hatschbach et al. 72691 ( NY); Laguna, Morro do Farol de Santa Marta, 14 Jan 1996 (fl), L. A. Mentz 228 (ICN-n.v., NY); Laguna, 22 Dec 1951 (bud), P. R. Reitz & R. M. Klein 167 (HBR-n.v., US); Massiambú, Palhoça, 5 m, 5 Nov 1953 (fl), P. R. Reitz & R. M. Klein 1318 (HBR-n.v., US).

Doubtful and Excluded Names —

Solanum multispinum N. E. Br., Trans. & Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh. 20: 65. 1894.—TYPE: ARGENTINA. Prov. Formosa, Río Pilcomayo, cerca del Fortín Page, 1890–1891 (fl), J. G. Kerr s. n. (holotype: K–K000590012 [scan!]).

In his synopsis of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum , Whalen’ s (1984) informal S. multispinum group included S. multispinum as well as five other species treated in this work ( S. aridum [as S. conditum ], S. flagellare , S. hieronymi , S. juvenale , and S. reineckii ). Nee (1999) also included S. multispinum in his circumscription of S. subsect. Lathyrocarpum . However, the species differs morphologically from the others in the section by its dense indumentum of minute simple glandular hairs and stellate hairs often with a glandular central ray ( S. hieronymi has simple glandular hairs, but none of the species treated here have glandular stellate hairs). In addition, it has large globose fruits up to 3.2 cm in diameter, whereas species in section Lathyrocarpum have ellipsoid, ovoid, subglobose, or globose fruits up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Also, S. multispinum is excluded from S. sect. Lathyrocarpum based on molecular phylogenetic evidence. The three accessions of S. multispinum sampled in Wahlert et al. (2014) were recovered as a clade in an unresolved position outside of the Carolinense clade ( Fig. 3 View FIG ).

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

UT

University of Tehran

BHCB

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

CORD

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Solanales

Family

Solanaceae

Genus

Solanum

Loc

Solanum reineckii

Wahlert, Gregory A., Chiarini, Franco E. & Bohs, Lynn 2015
2015
Loc

SOLANUM REINECKII Briq.,

Briq. 1899: 167
1899