Leucania pampa Schaus, 1894,

Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo, Casagrande, Mirna Martins, Specht, Alexandre, Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik, Legrain, Albert, Zilli, Al, 2019, Taxonomy of the rivorum species-group of Leucania Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Zootaxa 4711 (3), pp. 545-560: 550-553

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Leucania pampa Schaus, 1894

stat. rev.

Leucania pampa Schaus, 1894  stat. rev.

( Figs 9–12View FIGURES 1–16, 19, 23View FIGURES 17–24, 27View FIGURES 25–28, 31View FIGURES 29–32, 35, 39View FIGURES 33–40, 41View FIGURE 41)

Leucania pampa Schaus, 1894: 233  .— Hampson 1905: 527 [as a junior synonym of L. rivorum  ].— Poole 1989: 583, 595 [as a junior synonym of L. rivorum  ].

Cirphis rivorum  [misidentification possibly based on Hampson (1905)]; Draudt 1924: 165 (in part).— Köhler 1947: 98.

Diagnosis. Leucania pampa  is immediately distinguished from other New World Leucania  by the presence of only two transverse black bands crossing the patagium ( Figs 17–18View FIGURES 17–24), versus the three bands in congeners ( Figs 13–16View FIGURES 1–16). The combination of other diagnostic features of this species includes the reddish-rust coloration of the forewing upperside, white-lined veins, absence of a postdiscal row of black dots over the veins, the beige area beyond the discal cell not extending up to R 5, and the uniformly white hind wing ( Figs 9, 11View FIGURES 1–16). Male genitalia are distinctive in the short and rounded cucullus, not narrowed basally as in most American Leucania  ; inner margin of sacculus with a patch of long setae; ventral margin of valva distinctly produced into short acute process before indentation differentiating the cucullus; large, sub-rectangular clasper, produced into a stout spine at the postero-ventral corner; and vesica with a row of long straight, broader-based cornuti with finely rounded tips ( Figs 23–24View FIGURES 17–24, 31–33, 38–39View FIGURES 29–32View FIGURES 33–40).

Redescription. Head: As in L. rivorum  .

Thorax: As in L. rivorum  , but patagium lighter and with two darker brown transverse bands, proximal band narrowest.

Forewing: Length 15.7–17.0 mm in males (n = 5), 16.0–17.7 mm in females (n = 4). Upper side as in L. rivorum  , but with black dot at end of discal cell poorly defined or absent; black dot below origin of CuA 2 reduced or absent; beige area beyond discal cell not extending beyond R 5; anal area with a thick black line. Underside as in L. rivorum  .

Hind wing: As in L. rivorum  , but outer margin slightly angled near CuA 1. Upper side white, sometimes rust at apical area; outer margin with small dark brown dots in space between veins Sc+R 1 and CuA 2; fringe white. Underside as in upper side, except with rust and black scales covering costa, extending along part of outer area until CuA 2; fringe rust at apex, replaced by white towards tornus.

Abdomen: As in L. rivorum  .

Male genitalia: Tegumen and saccus as in L. rivorum  . Valva almost rectangular, very wide, about twice as long as wide, with ventral margin produced into distinct short acute spine before indentation with cucullus; sacculus with a patch of long setae at base of inner margin; editum triangular, longer than in other species of group; clasper about same size as cucullus, with postero-ventral tip produced into stout thorn-like projection; ampulla finger-shaped, uniformly slender and shorter than digitus; digitus sickle-shaped, about as long as clasper, slightly curved, tapered into pointed tip; costal sensory plate very narrow and long, reaching ventral indentation between main section of valva and base of cucullus; cucullus rounded, about one fourth of length and half of width of valva, not narrowed at base. Poma similar in shape to that of L. rivorum  but markedly smaller. Uncus slender, almost completely covered by setae, sharply curved ventrally, narrowed from terminal quarter to apically pointed hook. Fultura inferior small, roughly triangular and smooth, without projections. Aedeagus similar to that of L. rivorum  , but distal margin less projected laterally; vesica simple, tubular, with about 60–70 long narrow cornuti with minutely rounded tips ar- ranged in a row, decreasing in size along vesica towards gonopore. Subscaphium joined to tegumen by membrane.

Female genitalia: As in L. rivorum  , but with appendix bursae slightly longer and corpus bursae slightly short- er.

Geographical distribution and phenology. This species is restricted to natural open environments such as grasslands in Brazil and Argentina ranging from 600 to 1000m in elevation ( Fig. 41View FIGURE 41). The apparently disjunct distribution of some populations of L. pampa  may be due to under-sampling, as the habitats of this species are sometimes neglected by collectors. Its distribution includes biomes such as Cerrado and Caatinga to the north, Southeastern Atlantic Forest to the south, and Chaco to the west. The record of L. rivorum  from Tucumán by Köhler (1947) probably refers to L. pampa  .

This species has been recorded in January, February, June, September, October and November.

Comments. Leucania pampa  is rarely mentioned in the literature. As noted, Hampson (1905) considered it a junior subjective synonym of L. rivorum  soon after its description, and this was followed by subsequent authors ( Draudt 1924; Poole 1989). The absence of systematic studies on South American Leucania  perpetuated this interpretation for more than a century. Although related to L. rivorum  , L. pampa  is supported as a distinct species by features of the habitus (patagium and forewing pattern) and morphology of the male genitalia; for this reason, its status as a valid species is revised.

The reddish-rust forewing, with lined-white veins and near absence of black dots of L. pampa  is uncommon among the South American Leucania  . In addition, the configuration of the male genitalia of L. pampa  is unique to this fauna, particularly the thick patch of setae at the base of the sacculus. The configuration of the clasper and the spine on ventral edge of valva before constriction with cucullus is also unique among American Leucania  .

In the description of L. pampa, Schaus (1894)  mentioned the presence of only one dark transverse line on the patagium, which probably refers to the thicker distal band. This character is unique among the members of the rivorum  species-group, three dark patagial bands being the norm for the genus. To our knowledge, only L. sonroja Adams, 2001  , an endemic species from Dominican Republic, has two transverse bands crossing the patagium. However, the absence in its description of details concerning the development and position of these bands leaves us unable to consider their homology with those of L. pampa  . On the other hand, the general aspect of the forewing color pattern and the male and female genitalia of L. pampa  are consistent with its inclusion in the rivorum  species - group of Leucania  , whereas the male genitalia of L. sonroja  suggests its inclusion in a distinct and more diverse group of American Leucania  exemplified by L. subpunctata  , where the cucullus is club-shaped and fused to the valva by a long narrow area.

Type material. Leucania pampa  was described from an unspecified number of specimens from Castro, Paraná, Brazil. Three males and one female from the type locality were found at the USNM, all from the Schaus collection, with the exception of a male from the Dognin collection. Only one male bears a handwritten label “ Leucania pampa  Type Schs.” This specimen is here designated lectotype in order to ensure nomenclatural stability in this complex of closely looking similar species. It has the following labels: / Castro. Parana. [ Brazil] / Collection W m Schaus / Type No. 10484 U.S. N.M. / Leucania pampa  Type. Schs. / Genitalia slide ♂ MS Adams USNM 50176 / USNMENT 00973011 /, and the following labels will be added: / LECTOTYPUS / Lectotype Leucania pampa Schaus, 1894 Dolibaina et al.  des. 2019 /. The remaining two males and one female from Schaus collection are therefore paralectotypes and will be labeled similarly.

Material Examined. 19♂ and 18♀. BRAZIL  : Bahia: Jequié , 600‒750m, 11‒22.XI.1995, 1♂, V. O. Becker leg. 105493 ( VOB)  . Distrito Federal: Planaltina , 1000m, 10.II.1976, 1♀, V. O. Becker leg. 18782 ( VOB)  . São Paulo: Salto Grande ( Paranapanema ), 3♂, E. D. Jones leg. 010915320, 010915321, 010915323 ( NHMUK)  . São Paulo, 2♂ and 4♀, E. D. Jones leg. 010915102, 010915103, 010915104, 010915307, 010915319 ( NHMUK), ( USNM)  . Paraná: 1905, 2♂, Jason leg. 010915311, 010915312 ( NHMUK)  , 1♂, E. D. Jones leg. 010915322 ( NHMUK)  . Castro , 1♂, lectotype designated above ( USNM)  , 1♂ and 4♀, E. D. Jones leg. 010915304, 010915309, 010915310, 010915324, 010915325 ( NHMUK)  , 7♂ and 5♀ 010915305, 010915306, 010915308, 010915313, 010915314, 010915315, 010915316, 010915317, 010915318 ( NHMUK), ( USNM)  . Curitiba  , 920m, 8.I.1975, 1♀, 5.VI.1975, 1♀, V. O. Becker leg. 3354 ( VOB, USNM)  . Rio Grande do Sul: São Francisco de Paula , 24.IX.1997, 1♀, 24.X.1997, 1♂, A. Specht leg. 9962, 9958 ( MCTP)  . ARGENTINA: Tucumán, no locality, 1♀, J. Steinbach leg. 010915105 ( NHMUK)  .


Natural History Museum, London


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Museu de Ciencias














Leucania pampa Schaus, 1894

Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo, Casagrande, Mirna Martins, Specht, Alexandre, Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik, Legrain, Albert, Zilli, Al 2019

Leucania pampa Schaus, 1894: 233

Poole, R. W. 1989: 583
Hampson, G. F. 1905: 527
Schaus, W. 1894: 233

Cirphis rivorum

Kohler, P. 1947: 98
Draudt, M. 1924: 165