Stagmatoptera precaria ( Linnaeus, 1758 )

Rodrigues, Henrique Miranda & Cancello, Eliana Marques, 2016, Taxonomic revision of Stagmatoptera Burmeister, 1838 (Mantodea: Mantidae, Stagmatopterinae), Zootaxa 4183 (1), pp. 1-78: 42-46

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4183.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0E576DCD-49EB-47DD-9CF2-14F3941BA0B5

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03826A4A-FFB7-FF8B-05B4-FCF5768B15B2

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Stagmatoptera precaria ( Linnaeus, 1758 )
status

 

Stagmatoptera precaria ( Linnaeus, 1758) 

Male—Figures 32B, 34B, 36B, 38B, 40B, 42C–48C, 52A. Female—Figures 33B, 35B, 37B, 39B, 41B, 49B–52B,.

Gryllus (Mantis) precarius Linnaeus, 1758  , p.426 (descr.); Linnaeus, 1764, p.426 (redesc.);; Gmelin-Linné, 1790, p.2050 (redesc.).

Mantis precaria, Linnaeus, 1767  , p.691 (redesc.); Fabricius, 1775, p.277 (redesc.); Goeze, 1778, p.25 (redesc.); Fabricius, 1781, p.349 (redesc.); Fabricius, 1787, p.228 (redesc.); Olivier, 1792, p.628 (redesc.); Fabricius, 1793, p.20 (redesc.); Lichtenstein, 1802, p.26 (redesc.); Palisot de Beauvois, 1805, p.61, t.12, f.1 (redesc.); Thunberg, 1815, p.290 (redesc.); Audinet Serville, 1831, p.53 (cit.); Audinet Serville, 1839, p.181 (redesc.); Charpentier, 1841, p.292 (redesc.); Charpentier, 1844, p.302 (cit.).

= Mantis cubitata Goeze, 1778  , p.34 (descr.); Kirby, 1904, p.300 (syn.).

= Mantis octosetosa Goeze, 1778  , p.35 (descr.); Kirby, 1904, p.300 (syn.).

= Mantis ocellata Olivier, 1792  , p.639 (descr.); Kirby, 1904, p.300 (syn.).

= Mantis obsecraria Lichtenstein, 1802  , p.28 (descr.).

= Mantis annulata Stoll, 1813  , p.55, t.18, f.66 (descr.);

= Mantis (Stagmatoptera) praecaria, Burmeister, 1838  , p.539 (redesc.).

= Mantis praecaria, Burmeister, 1864  , p.236 (redesc.); Werner, 1925a, p.167 (redesc.).

Stagmatoptera precaria, Saussure, 1869  , p.67 (cit.); Saussure, 1870, p.232 (cit.); Kirby, 1904, p.300 (cit.); Brunner, 1906, p.144 (cit.); Rehn, 1911, p.13 (cit.); Giglio-Tos, 1914, p.32 (redesc.); Giglio-Tos, 1927, p.598 (redesc.); Terra, 1995, p.65 (cit.); Ehrmann, 2002, p.329 (cit.); Agudelo et al., 2007, p.125 (cit.); Ehrmann & Koçak, 2009, p.12 (cit.).

= Stagmatoptera obsecraria, Saussure, 1869  , p.67 (cit.); Saussure, 1870, p.232 (cit.); Kirby, 1904, p.300 (syn.).

= Stagmatoptera annulata Saussure, 1871b  , p.91, t.1, f.9 (redesc.); Saussure, 1872, p.256 (cit.); Stål, 1877, p.72 (cit.); Borre, 1883, p.66 (cit.); Westwood, 1889, p.15 (cit.); Saussure & Zehntner, 1894, p.187 (redesc.); Kirby, 1904, p.300 (syn.).

= Stagmomantis precaria, Brunner, 1897  , p.3, t.2, f.22; Giglio-Tos, 1927, p.598 (cit.).

Type: Unknown.

Type locality. Unknown.

Diagnosis. Spot on the stigma circular and small, without a spot on the middle of the anterior surface of the foretibia.

Redescription. Male —Prothorax slender, lateral margins slightly crenulated on the prozona, smooth on the metazona. Metazona with a weakly marked central keel ( Fig. 34View FIGURE 34 B). Forecoxae with 6–11 large spines, which alternate with 0–7 smaller spines ( Fig. 36View FIGURE 36 B). Forefemora elongated and broad, the first three discoidal spines black on their anterior surface; 14–17 anteroventral spines, usually 15, the first spine and all the big spines black on their anterior surface, the 8th, 10th and 12th spines may present a small spot of the same coloration on their insertion.

Anterior femoral spot extending from the femoral groove to the 6th anteroventral spine, rectangular, an effaced black color or starting dark on the femoral sulcus and fading towards the apex of the femora ( Fig. 38View FIGURE 38 B). Foretibiae with 10–13 posteroventral spines, usually 11, and 14–16 anteroventral spines, usually 15; tibial spur dark on its anterior surface, the last spine before it may be dark on the anterior surface ( Fig. 40View FIGURE 40 B). Foretarsi with apical black spots on the anterior surface of the tarsomeres I to IV. Discoidal area of the forewings with an opaque-green stripe anteriorly, gradually or suddenly becoming hyaline. Spot on the stigma circular, small sized, with an anterior white spot and a posterior brown spot. Discoidal and anal areas of the hindwings completely hyaline or hyaline with yellow stripes on the crossveins of their anterior halves ( Fig. 52View FIGURE 52 A).

Genitalia. Left phallomere longer than wide; sclerite L4B as long as wide; paa elongated, slightly dilated on the left side of its base, angled approximately 45° from the body axis, apex simple, directed ventrally ( Fig. 42View FIGURE 42 C); pda short, narrow, flattened, sharply bent 90° to the right, apex strongly sclerotized and tapered ( Fig. 45View FIGURE 45 C); afa elongated, parallel to the body axis ( Fig. 43View FIGURE 43 C), right margin smooth and sinuous ( Fig. 44View FIGURE 44 C), posterior apex tumid, with a projection on the right margin, rugged and strongly sclerotized, anterior apex straight, margins very sclerotized and tumid, forming a groove ( Fig. 43View FIGURE 43 C); loa short, bent to the right ( Fig. 42View FIGURE 42 C); membrane adjacent to afa glabrous ( Fig. 43View FIGURE 43 C). Right phallomere with the posterior apex rounded; bm short, with a narrow and high expansion on the middle ( Fig. 46View FIGURE 46 C); pia  elongated, sclerotized ( Fig. 47View FIGURE 47 C–48C); pva short, strongly sclerotized, rectangular apex ( Fig. 48View FIGURE 48 C); an elongated, apex smoothly rounded ( Fig. 47View FIGURE 47 C).

Measuremens. Body length 64–81.9; head width: 7.2–8.1; prozona length: 4.3–5.3; metazona length: 17.6–22.5; prothorax width: 4.5–5.3; forecoxae length: 12.5–14.6; forefemora length: 14.8–17.6; forefemora width: 2.6–3.3; foretibiae length: 7.2–8.6.

Ratios. Head/prothoracic-width: 1.44–1.67; metazona/prozona: 3.74–4.77; metazona length/prothoracic width: 3.59–4.67; metazona/forecoxae: 1.38–1.66; forefemora length/width: 4.88–6.27.

Female —Prothorax slender, lateral margins slightly crenulated. Metazona with a weakly marked central keel ( Fig. 35View FIGURE 35 B). Forecoxae with 7–13 large spines, which alternate with 3–11 smaller spines ( Fig. 37View FIGURE 37 B). Forefemora elongated and broad, the first three discoidal spines black on their anterior surface; 14–20 anteroventral spines, usually 15, the first spine and all the big spines black on their anterior surface, the 8th, 10th and 12th spines may present a small spot of the same coloration on their insertion. Anterior femoral spot extending from the femoral groove to the 6th anteroventral spine, rectangular, an effaced black color or starting dark on the claw sulcus and fading towards the apex of the femora ( Fig. 39View FIGURE 39 B). Foretibiae with 10–13 posteroventral spines, usually 11, and 14–17 anteroventral spines, usually 15; tibial spur dark on its anterior surface, the last spine before it may be dark on the anterior surface ( Fig. 41View FIGURE 41 B). Foretarsi with apical black spots on the anterior surface of the tarsomeres I to IV. Spot on the stigma circular, small sized, with an anterior white spot and a posterior brown spot. Costal area of the hindwings hyaline, discoidal and anal areas hyaline with yellow stripes on the crossveins ( Fig. 52View FIGURE 52 B).

Genitalia. Base of the gonapophysis VIII projecting inwards ( Fig. 49View FIGURE 49 B); bv roughly triangular, apex tumid ( Fig. 49View FIGURE 49 B), the inner surface sculpted ( Fig. 50View FIGURE 50 B); ib sclerotized and sculpted ( Fig. 50View FIGURE 50 B); pe short, sclerotized, with smooth margins ( Fig. 50View FIGURE 50 B); gs sclerotized, smooth ( Fig. 51View FIGURE 51 B); ls roughly rectangular, posterior process elongated, conical ( Fig. 51View FIGURE 51 B).

Measurements. Body length: 68.9–91.3; head width: 8.6–10.8; prozona length: 5.7–7.5; metazona length: 23.3–32.3; prothorax width: 6.3–8.5; forecoxae length: 16.3–20.9; forefemora length: 19.2–25.1; forefemora width: 3.9–5.2; foretibiae length: 9.4–11.8.

Ratios. Head/prothoracic-width: 1.18–1.37; metazona/prozona: 3.55–4.36; metazona length/prothoracic width: 3.13–3.92; metazona/forecoxae: 1.31–1.55; forefemora length/width: 4.31–5.23.

Remarks. After Linnaeus (1758) described Stagmatoptera precaria  it remained as the only known species of the genus for a long time. Due to this fact, we believe that several early researchers misidentified other species of Stagmatoptera  as S. precaria  . This resulted in erroneous geographical records outside the natural distribution of S. precaria  . In their catalogue of the Neotropical Mantodea, Agudelo et al. (2007)  summarized the data available in the literature and indicated the following distribution for S. precaria  : Argentina, Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo), Colombia, French Guiana, Panama, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. However, after our own examination of S. precaria  specimens available in collections, we confirmed that its actual distribution is in Southern and Southeastern Brazil; only one specimen had locality in “Rio Tapajós” (Brazilian Amazon), but we consider this label data doubtful. We concluded that the assumed widespread distribution of this species reported in Agudelo et al. (2007) most likely resulted from multiple misidentifications in the historical literature.

Distribution. Brazil (Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo).

Examined material. BRAZIL: Yersin, 1♀ ( MHNGAbout MHNG)  . 1903, Mme. Cerqueira, 1♂ (MNHN). v.1969, R. Pujol, 2♂ (MNHN). Minas, Abbé David Dedit, 1♀ (MNHN). Rio Tapajós , 1883, Parton, 1♀ ( MNHNAbout MNHN)  ; Espírito Santo—Coll. R. Ebner, 1♂ (NHMW). Linhares , 01.vii.1991, J.S. Santos, 1♀, 2037 ( MCTPAbout MCTP)  . Santa Teresa , iv.1964, C.T. Elias, 1♂ ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  ; Rio de Janeiro—Rivet rec., 1♀ (MNHN). Rivet rec., 1♂, (MNHN). Areal , iv.1986, M.V. Ferraz, 1♂, ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  . Montagne des Orgues, environs de la Tijuca, 500–1000m, 1902, E.R. Wagner, 1♀ ( MNHNAbout MNHN)  . Montagne des Orgues, environs de la Tijuca, 500–1000m, 1902, E.R. Wagner, 1♂ ( MNHNAbout MNHN)  . Sepitiba , 27- 30.iv.1957, M.A. D’Andretta, 1♂ ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  ; Rio Grande do Sul—Imbé , ii.1986, L. Balinski, 1♀, 1223 ( MCTPAbout MCTP)  . Osório , 1969, L. Famer leg., 1♂, 0 522 ( MCTPAbout MCTP)  . Porto Alegre , 27.iii.1967, M. Drummond, 1♂, 0 0 60 ( MCTPAbout MCTP)  . Porto Alegre , 02.x.1975, Silvana Luciano, 1♀, 0 389 ( MCTPAbout MCTP)  . Porto Alegre , 15.ix.1989, R.A. Ramos, 1♀, 1438 ( MCTPAbout MCTP)  . Sta. C. do Sul , 17.ix.1980, L. Jantsch leg., 1♂, 0 470 ( MCTPAbout MCTP)  . São Leopoldo , 10.iii.1965, Celio Valle col., 1♂ ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  . Taquara , 22.iii.1983, R.T. Lupetti leg., 1♀, 0 363 ( MCTPAbout MCTP)  . Viamão , 07.viii.1973, Y.L.B. de Oliveira leg., 1♀, 0 391 ( MCTPAbout MCTP)  ; Santa Catarina—H. Schulz., 2♀ (ZSM). H. Schulz., 1♂ (ZSM). Col. Hansa [Corupá], 1901, Ehrhardt leg., 1♂ (MZSP). Nova  Teutônia , 27.iii.1967, leg. F. Plaumann, 1♀ ( MHNGAbout MHNG)  . Nova  Teutônia , 01.iv.1967, leg. F. Plaumann, 1♂ ( MHNGAbout MHNG)  . Nova  Teutônia , 13.iv.1967, leg. F. Plaumann, 1♂ ( MHNGAbout MHNG)  . Rio Vermelho , xi.1950, Dirings col., 1♀ ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  . [Colônia] Teresópolis, [Águas Mornas], Coll. Br. v. W., 1♂ (NHMW); São Paulo—Ibiúna , 3.v.1977, M.J. Coelho leg. 1♀ ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  . Ilhabela , 03-06.v.1962, Vanzolini col., 1♂ ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  . Piedade , 27.iii.2011, Rodrigues col., 1♀ ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  . Salesópolis , 850m, 13.iv.1966, Rabello col., 1♂ ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  . Bairro do Paúba , São Sebastião, 19.iv.1984, Brandão col., 1♂ ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  . WITHOUT LOCALITY; América do Sul, 2♀ (ZMB). 1♀ (MHNG). 1♀ (NHMW). 1♀ (ZSM). Yersin, 1♀ (MHNG).

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MCTP

Museu de Ciencias

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Mantodea

Family

Mantidae

Genus

Stagmatoptera

Loc

Stagmatoptera precaria ( Linnaeus, 1758 )

Rodrigues, Henrique Miranda & Cancello, Eliana Marques 2016

2016
Loc

Stagmomantis precaria

Brunner 1897

1897
Loc

Stagmatoptera annulata

Saussure 1871

1871
Loc

Stagmatoptera precaria

Saussure 1869

1869
Loc

Stagmatoptera obsecraria

Saussure 1869

1869
Loc

Mantis praecaria

Burmeister 1864

1864
Loc

Mantis (Stagmatoptera) praecaria

Burmeister 1838

1838
Loc

Mantis annulata

Stoll 1813

1813
Loc

Mantis obsecraria

Lichtenstein 1802

1802
Loc

Mantis ocellata

Olivier 1792

1792
Loc

Mantis cubitata

Goeze 1778

1778
Loc

Mantis octosetosa

Goeze 1778

1778
Loc

Mantis precaria

Linnaeus 1767

1767
Loc

Gryllus (Mantis) precarius

Linnaeus 1758

1758