Dusmadiores elgonensis, Jocqué, 2017

Jocqué, Rudy, 2017, A new Afromontane species of the ant-eating spider genus Dusmadiores and description of the male of D. deserticola (Araneae: Zodariidae), Zootaxa 4318 (3), pp. 548-560 : 550-556

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4318.3.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0Fb712Bf-C092-4392-9B82-Ae166480Ecb9

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6000671

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038687A8-3309-FF8A-74EB-FBE4F785FEEF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Dusmadiores elgonensis
status

sp. nov.

Dusmadiores elgonensis sp. nov.

( Figures 1 View FIGURE 1 , 4 View FIGURE 4 A–F, 5A–E, 6A–C, 7A–F, 8A–F)

Material examined. Holotype ♂: UGANDA, Manafwa, 1619 m, N 0.8796 E 34.3776, coffee garden, pitfall, 8/ VIII/2014, K. Vanderhaegen ( MRAC 244687 View Materials ) GoogleMaps . Paratype ♀: UGANDA, Manafwa, 1619 m, N 0.8796 E 34.3776, coffee garden, pitfall, 8/VIII/2014, K. Vanderhaegen ( MRAC 244686 View Materials ) GoogleMaps . Other material examined: UGANDA, all collected by K. Vanderhaegen in coffee gardens: 10♂ 2♀: Bulambuli, 1640 m, N 1.2928 E 34.3664, pitfall, 20/ VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244688 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 4♂ 1♀: Bulambuli, 1397 m, N 1.2484 E 34.3379, pitfall, 30/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244689 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Bulambuli, 1996 m, N 1.2845 E 34.3803, litter sieving, 25/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244690 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Bulambuli, 1905 m, N 1.2888 E 34.3781, litter sieving, 26/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244691 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Bulambuli, 2129 m, N 1.2804 E 34.3903, pitfall, 25/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244692 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 2♂: Bulambuli, 1636 m, N 1.2942 E 34.3699, pitfall, 27/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244693 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 3♂ 2♀: Bulambuli, 1658 m, N 1.2936 E 34.3669, pitfall, 27/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244694 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 3♂ 2♀: Bulambuli, 1640 m, N 1.2917 E 34.3676, litter sieving, 20/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244695 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Bulambuli, 1640 m, N 1.2917 E 34.3676, pitfall, 20/VIII/2 0 14 ( MRAC 244696 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 2♂: Bulambuli, 1580 m, N 1.2574 E 34.3367, pitfall, 28/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244717 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 2♂: Bulambuli, 1580 m, N 1.2574 E 34.3367, pitfall, 28/ VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244717 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 2♀: Bulambuli, 1608 m, N 1.2582 E 34.3376, pitfall, 29/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244697 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Bududa, 1578 m, N 1.0551 E 34.3861, pitfall, 6/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244698 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 4♂ 1♀: Bulambuli, 1397 m, N 1.2484 E 34.3379, litter sieving, 30/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244699 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 7♂ 1♀: Bulambuli, 1338 m, N 1.2552 E 34.328, pitfall, 29/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244700 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Bulambuli, 1693 m, N 1.2968 E 34.3746, pitfall, 22/VIII/ 2014 ( MRAC 244701 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Bulambuli, 1616 m, N 1.2962 E 34.3726, litter sieving, 22/VIII/2 0 14 ( MRAC 244702 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Bulambuli, 1781 m, N 1.2981 E 34.3804, litter sieving, 23/VIII/2 0 14 ( MRAC 244703 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♀: Manafwa, 1619 m, N 0.8796 E 34.3776, litter sieving, 8/VIII /2 0 14 ( MRAC 244704 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 5♂ 1♀: Manafwa, 1619 m, N 0.8796 E 34.3776, pitfall, 8/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244687 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 3♂: Manafwa, 1579 m, N 0.8809 E 34.3743, pitfall, 12/ VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244706 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Manafwa, 1501 m, N 0.8978 E 34.3488, pitfall, 15/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244707 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♀: Manafwa, 1515 m, N 0.9024 E 34.3551, pitfall, 17/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244708 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Manafwa, 1525 m, N 0.9005 E 34.355, pitfall, 18/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244709 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♀: Manafwa, 1515 m, N 0.9024 E 34.3551, litter sieving, 17/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244710 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 8♂: Manafwa, 1442 m, N 0.8929 E 34.3437, pitfall, 8/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244711 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Sironko, 1298 m, N 1.1553 E 34.3539, pitfall, 2/IX/2014 ( MRAC 244712 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂: Sironko, 1297 m, N 1.1545 E 34.3632, pitfall, 3/IX/2014 ( MRAC 244713 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 4♂: Manafwa, 1530 m, N 0.9024 E 34.3554, pitfall, 16/ VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244714 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♀: Bulambuli, 1616 m, N 1.2962 E 34.3726, pitfall, 22/VIII/2014 ( MRAC 244702 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♀: Sironko, 1297 m, N 1.1545 E 34.3632, litter sieving, 3/IX/2014 ( MRAC 244716 View Materials ) GoogleMaps .

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective referring to the type locality, Mount Elgon.

Diagnosis. Males of D. elgonensis sp. nov. differ from other species in the genus by the conspicuous retrolateral group of spines on the cymbium just in front of the RTA. Females can be distinguished by the wide epigyne with poorly delimited posterior plate and small atria visible in transparency between the widely separated oval spermathecae. The species is further diagnosed by the femoral organ setae with a combination of grooves and barbs.

Description. Male (Holotype, MRAC 244687). Total length: 1.76. Carapace: length 0.89, width 0.65, height: 0.47. Colour ( Figs 4 View FIGURE 4 A –C): Carapace medium brown with darker radiating pattern; region around AME black. Chelicerae, mouthparts and sternum medium brown. Abdomen dorsally dark sepia, sides pale with dark areas around epigastric fold and around spinnerets venter and spinnerets pale cream. Legs uniform pale brown. Carapace: thoracic area granulated as in female ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B).

Eyes: AME large, round, dark; other eyes pale. AME: 0.066; ALE: 0.058; PME: 0.056; PLE: 0.057; AME- AME: 0.032; AME-ALE: 0.015; PME-PME: 0.075; PME-PLE: 0.018.

Clypeus height: 0.18. Sternum length: 0.55, width: 0.52. Abdomen with dorsal scutum ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A). Sperm pore wide ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 F). Legs: Femoral organ in shallow alveolus with small openings overhung by three grooved and branched setae on all legs as in female ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 C–F). Anterior tarsi fusiform ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 E).

Leg measurements:

F P T Mt t TOtal I 0.75 0.23 0.65 0.60 0.53 2.76 II 0.62 0.22 0.54 0.55 0.49 2.42 III 0.59 0.19 0.49 0.56 0.49 2.32 IV 0.81 0.22 0.70 0.77 0.61 3.11 Male palp ( Figs 5 View FIGURE 5 A –C, 6 A, B, 8C–E): RTA divided, dorsal prong short, with pointed tip, ventral prong longer, narrow, curved outwards, tapered to sharp tip. Cymbium with conspicuous vertically oriented, retrolateral group of spines just in front of RTA; with series of uniseriate modified setae along prolateral margin. Embolus in centre of tegulum, sickle-shaped, roughened with field of tiny grain shapes in median part, distal part twisted, strongly tapered to elongate sharp tip. MA large, with hook shaped extension at base, back-folded flap at distal extremity. Conductor fairly large, broad, transverse across distal part of bulbus, wrapped around embolus.

Female. (Paratype, MRAC 244686). Total length: 2.41. Carapace: length 1.14, width: 0.60, height: 0.55. Colour ( Figs 4 View FIGURE 4 D–F): Carapace dark brown with two paler oval areas on either side of fovea. Region around AME black. Chelicerae, mouthparts and sternum medium brown, distal extremity of endites cream. Abdomen dorsally dark sepia, sides and venter as in male. Spinnerets cream. Legs medium brown. Carapace ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 A, B): with granulations in thoracic area. Eyes: AME: 0.08; ALE: 0.07; PME: 0.06; PLE: 0.06; AME-AME: 0.045; AME- ALE: 0.026; PME-PME: 0.087; PME-PLE: 0.020. Clypeus height: 0.24. Sternum: length: 0.64, width: 0.57. Abdomen without scutum.

Leg measurements:

F P T Mt t TOtal I 0.82 0.28 0.61 0.53 0.53 2.77 II 0.71 0.22 0.52 0.53 0.50 2.48 III 0.68 0.23 0.52 0.54 0.51 2.48 IV 0.86 0.31 0.77 0.88 0.57 3.39 Female palp ( Figs 8 View FIGURE 8 A, B): with prolateral row of modified uniseriate setae, chemoreceptors and pectinate claw. Epigyne ( Figs 5 View FIGURE 5 D, E, 6C) fairly wide with poorly delimited posterior suboval area; with pair of central atria visible in transparency in front of darker area; spermathecae oval, far apart near posterior margin.

Biology. Out of the 74 surveyed coffee gardens, Dusmadiores elgonensis sp. nov. was present in 24 gardens, spread over 4 districts ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Our knowledge on the phenology of D. elgonensis is limited since sampling was done only in August and September 2014. We did not find a significant direct correlation between the amount of ants collected in the pitfall traps per plot and the abundance of D. elgonensis . However, plots with presence of D. elgonensi s had lower ant abundances (collected by pitfall trapping) than the other plots (70 ± 11 ants versus 111 ± 14 ants, t = 1.8736 P = 0.065). Of the 85 identified D. elgonensis adults, 82% were males and 18% females, juveniles were not identified D. elgonensis seems not too sensitive to disturbance as the soil of half of the plots where it was observed was recently dug and most of the plots were in close vicinity of the farmers’ homesteads. In 90% of the gardens with D. elgonensis , crop residues were left or added as mulch and 60% contained large shade trees (> 30 cm diameter). The 24 coffee gardens out of 74 where D. elgonensis was found were less intensively managed gardens with older coffee shrubs and higher shade levels (74% ± 14% crown closure). These observations suggest that even if D. elgonensis tolerates some disturbance it still prefers less disturbed habitats. The average horizontal distance between the gardens with D. elgonensis and the national park is 3.3 km. The observed altitudes range from 1296 to 2126 m a.s.l..

Distribution. D. elgonensis is known from the mid-altitude slopes on the Uganda side of Mount Elgon ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ).

MRAC

Mus�e Royal de l�Afrique Centrale

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Zodariidae

Genus

Dusmadiores