Blepharoneura femoralis Wulp, 1899

Norrbom, Allen L. & Condon, Marty, 2010, Revision of the femoralis group of Blepharoneura Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) 2374, Zootaxa 2374 (1), pp. 1-139 : 62-66

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2374.1.1

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5324524

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038687BA-FF87-FFB3-6DC8-FA6FFB52FDA6

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Blepharoneura femoralis Wulp
status

 

Blepharoneura femoralis Wulp

Figs. 27–29 View FIGURES 26–35 , 84 View FIGURES 84–89 , 100–101 View FIGURES 98–101 , 106 View FIGURES 106–108 , 113 View FIGURES 113–118 , 138–142 View FIGURES 136–145 , 176–180 View FIGURES 173–181 , 188–190, 194 View FIGURES 188–195 , 197–197 View FIGURES 196–199

Blepharoneura femoralis Wulp 1899: 411 [in key], 412 [description]; Hendel 1914: 20 [in key], 21 [in catalog]; Aczél 1950: 196 [in catalog]; Foote 1965: 241 [type data and lectotype designation]; Foote 1967: 18 [in catalog]; Norrbom et al. 1999: 106 [in catalog].

Diagnosis. This species and B. cyclantherae , zumbadoi , biseriata , osmundsonae , and nigrifemur comprise the femoralis complex. They differ from other species of Blepharoneura in having the thoracic pleuron largely brown (or at least with a large brown spot medially on the anepisternum), the apical fourth or more of the hind femur entirely dark brown, and the distal part of the wing with marginal hyaline spots in cells r2+3 and r4+5. Species of the complex are difficult to distinguish except by aculeus shape. That of B. femoralis has large, nearly right angle or acute lobes separated by deeper gaps than in other species of the complex. The lobed part is relatively short (no more than half as long as wide) and the medial lobe is convex.

Description. Head ( Fig. 84 View FIGURES 84–89 ): Dark brown area on ocellar tubercle extended more than half distance to postocellar seta or well beyond it, sometimes with small medial spot ventral to postocular seta (usually not extended beyond seta in Mexican specimens (22 of 29), but usually extended beyond it or with spot in South American specimens (26 of 30)). Medial vertical seta in yellow area. Medial occipital sclerite with pair of red brown to dark brown submedial vittae on ventral half, sometimes connected. Occipital suture narrowly dark brown, on lateral side bordered by variably shaped brown area [orange in 4 San Cristobal specimens], extending as band or triangular mark towards postocular setae, sometimes reaching eye margin, with lateral vertical seta in small spot or large yellow area except in some Peruvian and many Brazilian specimens (in Mexican specimens, yellow mark tends to extend ventrally along occipital suture and often along eye margin and postocular setae; in South American specimens it usually extends along the postocular setae).

Thorax ( Fig. 100–101 View FIGURES 98–101 , 106 View FIGURES 106–108 ): Scutum rarely ( Mexico: L. Zempoala ♂) entirely microtrichose, usually nonmicrotrichose at least anteromedially, on posterior part of presutural sublateral vitta, and anterior half of postsutural sublateral vitta, or occasionally mostly nonmicrotrichose (except posterior to dorsocentral seta and laterally); scutum also with 2 pairs of dark brown vittae or rows of spots; submedial vitta strongly narrowed (6 of 29 Mexican, 3 of 4 Peruvian, 1 Bolivian, and 16 of 28 Brazilian specimens) or interrupted posterior to transverse suture and usually separated from mark on posterior margin (connected only in 1 Peruvian, 1 Bolivian, and 3 Brazilian specimens); sublateral vitta interrupted at transverse suture and separated from mark on posterior margin; posterior margin with 1 broad brown mark narrowed medially or rarely with 2 separate marks. Notopleuron rarely (several Chiapas specimens) with medial and posterior brown spots, usually brown on lateral margin to entirely brown, often (especially in South American specimens) brown except for small pale area surrounding posterior seta. Small brown spot anterior to postsutural supra-alar seta often faint, rarely absent. Brown vitta or rarely pair of spots anterior to postalar seta, and brown spot lateral to dorsolateral corner of scutellum present. Scutellum with pair of submedial brown marks or single somewhat inverted Ushaped medial mark usually extended to basal margin, or rarely with separate basal mark (3 marks total); side rarely (1 specimen [USNMENT00213756]) with faint brown spot near base. Subscutellum and mediotergite with pair of dark brown vittae, usually [except 6 San Cristobal specimens] ventral half of lateral margin of mediotergite also narrowly brown, sometimes connected to vittae, or both sclerites mostly brown (usually at least narrow medial vitta and dorsolateral corner of mediotergite yellow). Pleuron usually mostly dark brown, yellow only on propleuron, part or most of anepisternum (at least with large dorsomedial dark brown spot extending ventrally at least 1/3 distance to ventral margin, and narrowly in posteroventral corner, these areas connected in one Brazilian [USNMENT00213767], 1 Bolivian, and 2 Peruvian specimens [USNMENT00213960, -213952]), usually extreme anterior and/or posterior corners of katepisternum, all of katepimeron, greater ampulla, usually narrow dorsal margin and sometimes narrow posterior and ventral margins of anepimeron, and usually narrow dorsal margins of katatergite and anatergite expanding to larger spot posterodorsally on katatergite and anteriorly on anatergite (in 5 San Cristobal, Mexico specimens pleuron is more predominantly yellow, with large dorsomedial spot on anepisternum (extending 1/3 distance to ventral margin), large triangular medial spot on katepisternum, medial spot on anepimeron, large medial spot on meron, medial spot on katatergite, and posteroventral spot on katatergite and anatergite). Basalare brown. Dorsocentral seta aligned with or usually slightly anterior to postalar seta.

Legs: Mostly yellow. Mid femur occasionally with single ventral or separate anteroventral and posteroventral brown marks on apical 1/5–1/4. Hind femur with entire apical 1/5–1/3 dark brown, rarely (3 of 10 specimens from Mexico: San Cristobal, USNMENT00054205, -213780, -213783) with only ventral half of apex dark brown.

Wing ( Figs. 27–29 View FIGURES 26–35 ): Length 5.15–7.50 mm, width 2.55–3.66 mm, ratio 1.87–2.09. Crossvein r-m at 0.54– 0.60 distance from bm-cu to dm-cu. Cell c with 2 broad rectangular hyaline spots, both reaching costa and subcosta, or occasionally with 1 large partially divided hyaline area (spots connected posteriorly); medial brown area almost as dark as to distinctly paler than area of cell r1 posterior to pterostigma, sometimes paler medially, usually distinctly narrower than both hyaline spots, rarely as broad as 1 or both spots. Pterostigma with large subapical hyaline spot [#3] reaching or rarely (4 specimens) almost reaching R1. Cells r1 and r2+3 basally (proximal to apex of R1) with 1–2 and 0–2 pale brown or hyaline spots, respectively. Radial cells medially with 1 broad to very broad quadrate basal hyaline mark [#5 fused with additional spot?] in cell r1, sometimes partially divided anteriorly and/or posteriorly by brown spot, or with 2 narrower hyaline marks; cell r2+3 with 2 hyaline spots or 1 extremely broad hyaline spot aligned with r1 mark(s), proximal spot [#8] small to large, distal spot [#9] large and broad; cell r4+5 with small to large hyaline spot [#14] aligned with middle of r1 mark(s), usually no more than half as wide as cell, rarely ( Peru: San Andrés ♀) almost reaching vein M, and with medial hyaline spot [#15] near anterior end of dm-cu small; sometimes (7 of 26 Mexican, 2 of 5 Andean, 17 of 28 Brazilian specimens) with small to minute anterior hyaline spot [#48] near midlength usually not touching vein R4+5, rarely (some Brazilian and Peruvian specimens) with 2 spots in this area. Distally cell r1 with 1 marginal subapical hyaline spot [#6]. Cell r2+3 with 2 large marginal hyaline marks [#10, #11], proximal mark sometimes constricted medially or divided into marginal and posterior spots. Cell r4+5 with hyaline spot [#16] anteriorly, aligned between apical marks in cell r2+3, rarely (6 specimens) with second more proximal spot; with 1–2 ovoid hyaline spots posteriorly, aligned with or between marks in cell m; and with 2 small ovoid or 1 large usually bilobed marginal or submarginal hyaline spots [#18, #18A]. Cell m without subbasal hyaline spot [#49] near midlength of dm-cu; with 2 large marginal hyaline spots [#27, #29] or rarely (3 Mexican specimens) with third small spot [#28] between them, and 1 or rarely (2 Peruvian and 2 Brazilian specimens) 2 anteromedial spots [#26A, #26], often connected, especially anteromedial and proximal marginal spots, more frequently in non-Brazilian specimens. Cell br usually with subbasal hyaline spot [#12] (absent in 1 Brazilian and 1 wing of 1 Mexican specimen). Cell bm with subbasal and subapical circular hyaline spots [#19, #20] (18 Mesoamerican, 2 Andean specimens), with subapical spot [#20] only (9 Mexican, 3 Andean, 27 Brazilian specimens), or rarely with broad hyaline area [fused spots] (2 Mexican specimens) or no hyaline area (1 Brazilian specimen). Cell bcu with (10 of 29 Mesoamerican, 3 of 5 Andean, 11 of 28 Brazilian specimens) or without hyaline spot in lobe. Posteromedial part of wing with large hyaline spots or marks or broad hyaline area; cell br with subapical hyaline spot [#13] and usually with smaller, more proximal spot [#44]; cell dm medially with 2–3 hyaline spots, 1 subbasal [fused #51, #52], crossing or nearly crossing cell and aligned with more proximal spot [#44] in cell br and proximal hyaline spot or part of mark in cell cu1, 1 anteromedial [#21], usually connected or fused with subbasal mark [latter possibly also including #22 when broad posteriorly], and 1 posteromedial [#24 or fused #23 and #24]), often connected or fused with proximal hyaline area (more commonly in Mesoamerican specimens), when all spots fused resulting large hyaline area tapered distally, extending farther posteriorly than anteriorly; cell cu1 medially with anteriorly bilobed or trilobed and posteriorly 1–2 lobed mark or with more broadly fused area with 0–2 anterior and 1 marginal brown spots [fused #31, #32, #33, #34, #36, #39], proximal anterior spot [#31] and/or marginal mark [#34, #39] across apex of vein A1+Cu2 sometimes isolated, especially in Brazilian specimens; subapical marginal hyaline spot [#37] usually reaching vein Cu1. Cell dm usually with anteromedial subapical hyaline spot [#25], rarely absent (1 Brazilian specimen) or more anterior, touching vein M (1 Brazilian, 2 Peruvian specimens), sometimes (12 Mesoamerican, 1 Peruvian, 4 Brazilian specimens) connected to proximal hyaline area; sometimes (6 Mesoamerican, 2 Peruvian, 11 Brazilian specimens on at least 1 wing) with posterior subapical hyaline spot [#53] aligned with subapical hyaline mark in cell cu1 or with more proximal spot.

Abdomen ( Fig. 113 View FIGURES 113–118 ): Syntergite 1+2 occasionally with pair of isolated submedial brown spots, but usually with spots connected or fused with pair of irregular posterolateral brown marks formed from fused sublateral spots and posterolateral bands. Tergites 3–5 rarely (some Mexican specimens) with 2 pairs of isolated brown spots, anterolateral brown spots, and L-shaped bands or 2 pairs of posterolateral spots, but usually all of these connected to form pair of irregular somewhat W-shaped lateral brown markings, separated medially; anterolateral spots often and submedial spots occasionally isolated.

Female terminalia: Oviscape entirely dark brown; length 0.78–1.00 mm. Aculeus ( Figs. 138–142 View FIGURES 136–145 , 176– 180 View FIGURES 173–181 ) 0.57–0.70 mm long, 1.63–2.10 times as long as wide, with acute scales dorsally and ventrally on membrane medially; tip angular laterally, short to moderately elongate triangular (lobed part 0.29–0.50 times as long as wide), with small, convex medial lobe and 3 pairs of step-like lobes separated by relatively deep gaps; sublateral lobe larger than submedial lobe; lateral gap 0.63–1.36 times as long as wide. Spermathecae subspherical, with straight to moderately convoluted, slender sclerotized neck and large cylindrical basal apodeme ( Figs. 188–190 View FIGURES 188–195 ).

Male terminalia: Medial surstylus with prensisetae subequal, separated by several times width of medial prensiseta, medial prensiseta on long lobe, lateral prensiseta on short lobe ( Figs. 196–197 View FIGURES 196–199 ).

Distribution. Mexico (Chiapas, Distrito Federal, Guerrero, Morelos, Oaxaca, Veracruz), Guatemala, Peru, Bolivia, southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina). The elevations of the collection sites in Mexico and the Andean countries, where provided by the collectors, are greater than 1000 m and usually greater than 2000 m. They are lower for the one southern Brazilian site for which the elevation was indicated (Nova Teutonia, 300–500 m).

Type data. Lectotype ♀ (designated by Foote 1965: 241) ( BMNH), MEXICO: Guerrero: Omilteme [17°30'N 99°40'W], 8000 ft. [2439 m], Jul, H. H. Smith [examined]. The lectotype bears a label with "to be made lectotype RHF" in Foote's writing. We added a lectotype label. GoogleMaps

Other specimens examined. BOLIVIA: La Paz: 8 km S of Chulumani, Apa Apa Reserve , 16°22'S 67°30.4'W, 1950–2100 m, 10 Mar 2001, S. D. Gaimari, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00056460 View Materials ) GoogleMaps . BRAZIL: Paraná: Curitiba, 28 Jan 1965, Centro de Dipterologia , 1♀ ( UFPC USNMENT00213830 ) . Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia , Maromba, [no date], Barretto, 2♂ ( MZUSP) . Santa Catarina: Nova Teutonia , 27°11'S 52°23'W, 300–500 m, 29 Jul 1936, F. Plaumann, 1♂ ( BMNH USNMENT00052308 ) GoogleMaps ; same, 7 Jan 1937, 1♂ ( BMNH USNMENT00052329 ) ; same, 30 Jan 1937, 1♂ ( HNHM USNMENT00213757 View Materials ) ; same, 30 Nov 1937, 4♂ 3♀ ( BMNH USNMENT00052309–14 , USNMENT00213665 ) , 1♂ 1♀ ( FSCA USNMENT00052333–34 View Materials ) ; same, 1 Dec 1937, 1♂ ( HNHM USNMENT00213758 View Materials ) ; same, 15 Dec 1937, 1♂ ( BMNH USNMENT00052330 ) ; same, 24 Mar 1938, 1 ♀ ( BMNH USNMENT00052321 ) ; same, 9 Sep 1938, 2 ♀ ( BMNH USNMENT00052322–23 ) ; same, 5 Oct 1938, 1♀ ( BMNH USNMENT00052325 ) ; same, 11 Nov 1938, 1♂ ( BMNH USNMENT00052332 ) ; same, 18 Nov 1938, 2♂ 1♀ ( BMNH USNMENT00052315–17 ) , 2♂ 2♀ ( USNM USNMENT00052307 View Materials , USNMENT00052318–20 View Materials ) ; same, 24 Nov 1938, 1 ♀ ( USNM USNMENT00052306 View Materials ) , 1♀ ( BMNH USNMENT00052324 ) ; same, 25 Nov 1938, 3♀ ( BMNH USNMENT00052326–28 , USNMENT00213753 ) ; same, 15 Nov 1951, 1♂ ( BMNH USNMENT00052331 ) ; same, 24 Aug 1961, 1♂ ( CNC USNMENT00213765 View Materials ) ; same, Oct 1964, 1♂ ( CNC USNMENT00213763 View Materials ) 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213764 View Materials ) ; same, Apr 1966, 1♀ ( CNC USNMENT00213766 View Materials ) ; same, Oct 1966, 1♀ ( CNC USNMENT00213767 View Materials ) ; same, Nov 1966, 1♀ ( CNC USNMENT00213762 View Materials ) ; same, Aug 1967, 1♂ 1♀ ( MZUSP USNMENT00052336–37 View Materials ) ; same, Sep 1967, 1♀ ( MZUSP USNMENT00052335 View Materials ) ; same, Oct 1968, 1♀ ( MZUSP USNMENT00213760 View Materials ) ; same, 1 Oct 1971, 1♂ ( MZUSP USNMENT00213755 View Materials ) 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213761 View Materials ) ; same, Nov 1971, 1♂ ( MZUSP USNMENT00213756 View Materials ) ; same, Jan 1976, 1♂ ( MZUSP USNMENT00213754 View Materials ) ; same, Aug 1977, 1♀ ( FMNH USNMENT00213833 View Materials ) . São Paulo: Cantareira Chapadão , Sep 1946, Barretto, 1♀ ( MZUSP USNMENT00213759 View Materials ) . GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz: Coban , 22 May 1926, J. M. Aldrich, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213771 View Materials ) . MEXICO: Chiapas: 49 km S of Jaltenango, [Parque Natural] El Triunfo , [15°40'N 92°48'W], 1300–2000 m, 13–15 May 1985, A. Freidberg, 2♀ ( TAUI USNMENT00054206 , USNMENT00213768 ) GoogleMaps 2♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213769–70 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; San Cristobal de Las Casas , 7200 ft. [2195 m], 29 May 1969, W. R. Mason, 3 ♀ ( CNC USNMENT00054205 View Materials , USNMENT00213782 View Materials , USNMENT00213784 View Materials ) 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213783 View Materials ) ; same, 27 Jun 1969, 1♂ ( CNC USNMENT00213780 View Materials ) ; same locality, Malaise trap, 1 Jun 1969, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00054204 View Materials ) 1♀ ( CNC USNMENT00213790 View Materials ) ; San Cristobal de Las Casas , 10 mi NE of, 7500 ft. [2287 m], 22 May 1969, H. J. Teskey, 1♀ ( CNC USNMENT00213781 View Materials ) ; San Cristobal de Las Casas , 3 mi N of, 7000 ft. [2134 m], 29 May 1969, H. J. Teskey, 1♂ 1♀ ( CNC USNMENT00213785–86 View Materials ) . Distrito Federal: Camino de Camarones , 6 Sep 1937, W. E. Stone, 4♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213774–77 View Materials ) ; Mexico City, 16 Aug 1956, R. & K. Dreisbach, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213773 View Materials ) . Guerrero: Omilteme , 8000 ft., Jul, H. H. Smith, 2♂ paralectotypes ( BMNH) , 1♀ paralectotype ( MCZ USNMENT00213568 View Materials ) . Morelos: Lagunas de Zempoala , 9400 ft. [2866 m], 22 Aug 1969, G. W. Byers, 1♀ ( UKaL USNMENT00213772 ) ; Lagunas de Zempoala , 10–11 Aug 1989, A. L. Norrbom, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00052305 View Materials ) . Oaxaca: Río Molinos , 2620 m, 17 Jun 1982, J. Butze, 1♀ ( IEXV USNMENT00213778 ) . Veracruz: Ciudad Mendoza , 27 km W of, 13 Aug 1987, Brown & Powell, 1♀ ( UCB USNMENT00213828 View Materials ) ; Xalapa , 1–6 Aug 1961, R. & K. Dreisbach, 1♀ ( MSUL USNMENT00213787 ) ; same, 28 Sep - 3 Oct 1961, 1♀ ( MSUL USNMENT00213789 ) 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213788 View Materials ) . PERU: Cajamarca, 1 km SE of town, 8000 ft. [2439 m], fertile valley in Andes, shrubs on arid hillside, P. S. & H. L. Broomfield, 1♀ ( BMNH USNMENT00213951 ) ; Chanchamayo , 25 Jul 1960, Salazar & Ramirez, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213960 View Materials ) ; San Andrés , 20 km NE of Cuterra, 18 Jun 1956, W. Weyrauch, 1♀ ( IML USNMENT00213803 View Materials ) ; Cusco: Machu Pichin , 21 Dec 1983, L. Huggert, 1♀ ( ZIL USNMENT00213952 View Materials ) . VENEZUELA: Distrito Federal: Los Venados , Serrania El Avila, 12 Dec 1958, M. Gelbez, 1♂ ( IZAM) .

Remarks. The populations recognized here as one widespread species may comprise several cryptic species. The Mesoamerican populations appear to be isolated from those in South America.

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

HNHM

Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

UCB

University of California at Berkeley

IML

Instituto Miguel Lillo

ZIL

Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Tephritidae

Genus

Blepharoneura

Loc

Blepharoneura femoralis Wulp

Norrbom, Allen L. & Condon, Marty 2010
2010
Loc

Blepharoneura femoralis

Foote, R. H. 1967: 18
Foote, R. H. 1965: 241
Aczel, M. L. 1950: 196
Hendel, F. G. 1914: 20
Wulp, F. M. van der 1899: 411
1899