P. Mark O’Loughlin, Melanie Mackenzie & Didier Vandenspiegel, 2014, New dendrochirotid sea cucumbers from northern Australia (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida), Memoirs of Museum Victoria 72, pp. 5-23: 10-12

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Sub-family Semperiellinae  Heding and Panning, 1954

Diagnosis (emended from O’Loughlin et al. (2012) and Smirnov (2012)). Dendrochirotid species with 20 dendritic tentacles; calcareous ring composite, comprising a mosaic of small pieces or discrete segments; radials and inter-radials prolonged posteriorly, prolongations frequently merge to create a tubular ring; radials frequently with median division for most of the length creating 2 narrow posterior prolongations that sometimes fuse with inter-radials, distal ends sometimes crosslinked; body wall tables with 2 or 3 or 4 spires.

Remarks. Smirnov (2012) raised the sub-family Thyoninae  Panning, 1949 to family status as Thyonidae  , with a diagnostic emphasis on the mosaic structure of the composite and frequently tubular calcareous ring. He included the two sub-families Thyoninae  (with 10 tentacles) and Semperiellinae  (with 15 or 20 tentacles). O’Loughlin et al. (2012) noted that Rowe and Richmond (2004) judged that Semperiella Heding and Panning, 1954  (in the then new sub-family Semperiellinae  ) is a junior synonym of Thyonidiella Heding and Panning, 1954  (in the then new sub-family Phyllophorinae  ). As a consequence genera of the sub-family Semperiellinae  have 20 tentacles. We have emended the diagnosis of Semperiellinae  to include this fact, to include species with tables that have three pillars in each spire (see new genus and species below), and to provide a more detailed description of the calcareous ring. Michonneau and Paulay (2014) judged that Semperiella  and Thyonidiella  are junior synonyms of Phyrella Heding and Panning, 1954  , and referred Phyrella  to the Phyllophoridae Östergren, 1907  . They suggested that a phylogenetic re-assessment of the family Phyllophoridae  remains unresolved. We recognize that molecular genetic data will be crucial to resolving the many emerging issues.

Massinium Samyn and Thandar, 2003 

Massinium Samyn and Thandar, 2003: 136  .— Samyn et al., 2010: 2.

Diagnosis. Frequently semi-spherical species with oral and anal dorsal orientations; 20 dendritic tentacles arranged in two circles of 10 large outer and 10 small inner (proximal peri-oral); tube feet distributed all over mid-body; calcareous ring elongate, tubular, with both radial and inter-radial plates fragmented into a mosaic of small pieces, and posterior prolongations linked distally to form inter-radial oval non-calcified spaces beneath the water vascular ring; polian vesicles from 1 to 4; ossicles variably include granuliform rods, rosettes, pseudo-buttons and tables; table spires with 1 or 2 or 3 or reduced pillars.

Type species. Massinium maculosum Samyn and Thandar, 2003  (original designation) ( South Africa).

Other species, with distributions. Massinium albicans Samyn et al., 2010  (New Caledonia); M. arthroprocessum ( Thandar, 1989) ( South Africa ); M. bonapartum O’Loughlin  sp. nov. (NW Austraila); M. dissimilis ( Cherbonnier, 1988) (Madagascar); M. granulosum Samyn et al., 2010  (NE Australia); M. keesingi O’Loughlin  sp. nov. (NW Australia); M. magnum ( Ludwig, 1882) (Indonesia); M. melanieae O’Loughlin in O’Loughlin et al., 2012  (S Australia); M. vimsi O’Loughlin in O’Loughlin et al., 2012  (SE Australia); M. watsonae O’Loughlin in O’Loughlin et al., 2012  (SE Australia).

Remarks. We have emended the diagnosis of Massinium  from that in Samyn et al. (2010) to reflect our observations in this review.













P. Mark O’Loughlin, Melanie Mackenzie & Didier Vandenspiegel 2014



Samyn and Thandar 2003: 136