Parodon buckleyi Boulenger, 1887

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro, Román-Valencia, César & Taphorn, Donald C., 2011, Taxonomic review of Colombian Parodon (Characiformes: Parodontidae), with descriptions of three new species, Neotropical Ichthyology 9 (4), pp. 709-730 : 717-719

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1590/S1679-62252011000400003

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038887A6-1B06-FF8F-FC67-FE7D2F06FBF3

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Parodon buckleyi Boulenger, 1887
status

 

Parodon buckleyi Boulenger, 1887

Figs. 5-6 View Fig View Fig

Parodon buckleyi Boulenger, 1887: 279 (type locality Canelos, Ecuador, 1°35’N 77°44’W, elevation 456 masl; original description; meristic data tables, Holotype: BMNH 1880.12.5.125). Böhlke, 1958: 83 (description; synonymy with P. suborbitalis ; tables with counts and measurements; lateral view photo). Géry, 1977: 202 (diagnosis in key). Ortega & Vari, 1986: 11 (distribution in Peru). Pavanelli, 2003: 48 (distribution; localization of type material; maximum size, common names).

Diagnosis. Parodon buckleyi differs from all congeners in having (in adults) 3-4 dark lateral spots anterior to dorsal fin origin that unite across dorsum with spots from opposite side (vs. spots not dorsally united), juveniles have rounded or elongated dark lateral blotches, that are divided in two, not continuous (vs. dark spots of juveniles elongate and always continuous, except in P. nasus ); by the greater number of cusps on the premaxillary teeth (16-22 vs. fewer than 17, except in P. apolinari and P. suborbitalis that have 14-26 and 15-17, respectively); higher pored lateral-line scales (39-40 vs. 38 or fewer, except in P. caliensis with 39-40); more post-anal scales (4-5 vs. 4 or fewer); longer axillary scale (three scales in length vs. 1-2). Parodon buckleyi can be distinguished by its greater caudal peduncle depth (10.7- 13.9% vs. 13.3- 16.3 % in P.alfonsoi and 12.2 -16.1% in P. magdalenensis ); by the number of cusps in premaxillary teeth (16-22 vs. 7-12 in P. bifasciatus ; 9-12 in P. pongoensis ). It differs from P. guyanensis by the number of teeth on the premaxilla (4 vs. 5); from P. pongoensis and P. moreirai by the presence of a lateral band with projections above and below (vs. absence of projections in such band); from P. moreirai by the number of scales in the lateral line (39- 40 vs. 40-42); and normal sized teeth in the maxilla (vs. minute or absence of teeth). It can be distinguished from P. carrikeri by the number of scales in the lateral line (39-40 vs. 38-39), and the dark coloration along the body including most of the head (vs. ground and general color of body, light not dark in P. buckleyi ); and from P. hilarii by the high number of scales on the lateral line (39-40 vs. 37-39) and the higher number of cusps in premaxillary teeth (16-22 vs. 11- 16; 13-15 in P.nasus ).

Description. Morphometric and meristic data given in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. Body stout. Dorsal head profile straight from snout to tip of supraoccipital process. Ventral head profile straight from snout to isthmus. Isthmus located at vertical

718 Taxonomic review of Colombian Parodon through tip of supraoccipital process. Dorsal trunk profile convex from tip of supraoccipital process to dorsal-fin origin, straight from there to caudal fin. Branchial membranes united to each other, free from isthmus. Eyes lateral; nares at level of eye, separated by projecting membrane of skin. Mouth ventral, upper lip absent. Ventral body profile straight from isthmus to caudal fin. Caudal peduncle compressed.

Premaxillary hemiseries with four teeth in straight line that have straight ventral margins and 16-22 small cusps that fit into space in lower jaw. Maxillary with 1-2 teeth. Lower jaw with three unicuspid, outwardly curved lateral teeth half covered with soft tissue and not visible when jaw closed.

Pectoral fin short, not reaching pelvic-fin insertions. Pectoral insertions at vertical through one scale posterior to tip of supraoccipital process, truncate in shape, with fourth branched ray longest. Pelvic fin not reaching anal-fin origin, and only in individuals less than 95 mm SL reaching genital pore, but not surpassing it. Pelvic fin located at vertical through middle of dorsal-fin base. Dorsal fin truncate located at vertical through midpoint between pectoral and pelvic fin insertions; first and second branched rays longest.Anal fin falls two scales short of lower caudal-fin lobe. Anal fin located at vertical through point three scales anterior to adipose fin. Adipose fin not reaching caudal fin, located at vertical through posterior margin of anal-fin base; caudal fin with upper lobe longer than lower. Proximal third of caudal fin covered with scales.

Lateral line with 39-40 pored scales that extend on to scaled portion of caudal fin. Scales regularly distributed in predorsal and ventral areas. Axillary scale present, three normal scales in length.

Color in alcohol. Body and head dark brown dorsally, lighter in color below horizontal line that passes below nares and eye. Dorsum with series of 8-10 brown transverse bands that begin near tip of supraoccipital process or two scales posterior to it, and continue to upper caudal-fin lobe, bands three scale widths long and one scale wide, and delimited by two dorsal longitudinal stripes of one half scale in width that originate at tip of supraoccipital process and continue posteriorly to unite with band of opposite side at upper caudal-fin lobe.

Base color of body dark brown, darker than that of congeners, especially in adults (except P. carrikeri and P. magdalenensis ). Lateral stripe with 14 dorsal and ventral projections forming zigzag, but projections only easily visible in smaller specimens less than 85 mm SL, in which projections rounded or elongated but divided in two not complete as observed in other species with projections from lateral stripe. Above this stripe dorsal projections of anterior portion (to just before dorsal-fin origin) unite with dark bands of dorsum, forming continuous band from one side to other (in specimens greater than 66.3 mm SL) ( Fig. 6 View Fig ). Lateral band extending to tips of middle caudal-fin rays. Distal most part of pectoral fins with few, disperse chromatophores (black in one specimen 81.6 mm SL). Pelvic, anal and adipose fin hyaline. Dorsal fin with first five rays dark, diffuse black, but not forming distinct spot or band. Caudal fin with middle rays dark brown to tips; no disperse chromatophores present on rest of fin. Ventral part of body of same base color but lighter than rest of body, no spots.

Sexual dimorphism. Breeding tubercles observed in males from lower part of snout to tip of supraoccipital process, easily visible and numerous.

Distribution. Middle Amazonas, Caquetá River drainage in Colombia; upperAmazonas in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia ( Fig.2 View Fig ).

Comments. Fowler’s (1945a) records of P. suborbitalis from the Morelia River (which is part of the Caquetá River system), for which he gave the following counts: “Scales 32 to 35 + 3 in lateral line; 13 or 14 predorsal”, are P. buckleyi .

Böhlke (1958) used the number of cusps on premaxillary teeth to identify P. buckleyi which coincides with the original description by Boulenger (1887) but stated that it might not be distinct from P. suborbitalis Valenciennes of the Maracaibo basin. But we have found ample differences in color pattern and meristics (see above). According to Pavanelli (2003) this species is present in Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Bolivia in upper Amazon tributaries. Specimens examined from upper Amazon tributaries of Bolivia and Peru coincide with ours from the Caquetá River in Colombia (middle Amazon basin). We thus report P. buckleyi as a new record for Colombia and note its presence in upper and middle Amazon tributaries from Colombia through Bolivia.

Material examined. Ecuador. BMNH 1880.12 .8.125, 1, holotype, 111.4 mm SL, upper Amazon, río Canelos, east Ecuador , 1°35’N 77°44’W, elevation 456 masl GoogleMaps . Colombia. IUQ 1055 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 81.6 mm SL, Caquetá, río Fragua . ICN 5481 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 80.4-97.4 mm SL, Caquetá, Rumiyaco creek, río Inchiyaco drainage, upper Caquetá . IUQ 977 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 108.9 View Materials - 131.2 mm SL, Caquetá, río Inchiyaco, Villa Garzón-San José del Fragua road . Perú. ZMUC 24991 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 94.9 mm SL, upperAmazon, Las Pavas creek . Bolivia. AMNH 233262 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 66.3 mm SL, Santa Cruz, Ichilo Province, Amboro National Park, río La Chonta , La Chonta camp, 17°39’52”S, 63°42’28”W GoogleMaps . AMNH 233263 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 66.9 mm SL, Santa Cruz, Ichilo Province, Amboro National Park, río La Chonta , La Chonta camp, 17°39’52”S, 64°42’28”W GoogleMaps . AMNH 233303 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 99.8 mm SL, Santa Cruz, Ichilo Province, Amboro National Park, río Macunucu , Macunucu camp, 17°44’72”S, 63°36’47”W . UF 38169 , 2 , 62.0- 66.2 mm SL, Cochabamba, Chapare Province, río Espíritu ( río Chapare-Mamoré ), brook at Villa Tunari, elevation 350 masl . UMMZ 66507 View Materials , 8 View Materials , 53.8-87.6 mm SL, La Paz, Tumupasa (village 30 mi NW of Rurrenabaque ); Amazon drainage .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Characiformes

Family

Parodontidae

Genus

Parodon

Loc

Parodon buckleyi Boulenger, 1887

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro, Román-Valencia, César & Taphorn, Donald C. 2011
2011
Loc

Parodon buckleyi

Gery, J 1977: 202
Bohlke, J 1958: 83
Boulenger, G 1887: 279
1887