Parodon apolinari Myers, 1930

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro, Román-Valencia, César & Taphorn, Donald C., 2011, Taxonomic review of Colombian Parodon (Characiformes: Parodontidae), with descriptions of three new species, Neotropical Ichthyology 9 (4), pp. 709-730 : 713-714

publication ID 10.1590/S1679-62252011000400003

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Parodon apolinari Myers, 1930


Parodon apolinari Myers, 1930

Fig. 3 View Fig

Parodon apolinari Myers, 1930: 66 (type locality: Guaicaramo, Guavio River, Orinoco basin, Colombia, Holotype: CAS- SU 23725). Schultz, 1944: 289 (key, diagnosis, table with morphometric data). Wiley & Collette, 1970: 165 (discussion of nuptial tubercles as first described by Myers [1930]). Géry, 1977: 202, 208 (key, assignation to subgenus Parodon ; live photograph identified as P. suborbitalis ). Pavanelli, 2003: 48 (distribution; localization of type material; maximum size, common names).

Parodon (Nematoparodon) apolinari .- Fowler, 1943: 226 (monotypic subgenus Nematoparodon described with P. apolinari designated as type-species, redescription, illustration of body and head).

differs from that species by the distance from the isthmus to the union of the maxilla with the anterior part of the dentary; by the distance from the snout to the isthmus; by the greater number of preanal scales (27-30 vs. 24-27); by the lower number of cusps on premaxillary teeth (11-14 vs. 15-17); and by the lower number of branched pectoral-fin rays (12-14 vs. 14-16). Its distribution suggests that this population from the Tucuy River was once connected to the Maracaibo Lake basin, before the uprising of the Perija Mountains, when the Magdalena and Maracaibo formed one hydrological system.

One specimen of P. alfonsoi had 25 preanal scales, but for most specimens the count is useful to distinguish this species. One specimen of P. caliensis had 29 preanal scales, but that species is not present in any portion of the Magdalena Basin. Diagnosis. Parodon apolinari differs from all congeners in having 14-17 dark vertical bars on sides of body, 1-2 scales wide, not in contact with each other, (vs. non-touching vertical bars and vertically elongate spots absent, except in P. caliensis ); in adult males first dorsal-fin rays longer than others, sometimes reaching adipose fin when depressed (vs. not that long, never reaching the adipose fin); sexually mature males with nuptial tubercles large and numerous, especially abundant on snout (vs. tubercles absent, or greatly reduced and small).

Description. Morphometric and meristic data given in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. Body stout. Dorsal profile of trunk convex from snout to adipose-fin origin, then concave to caudal fin. Ventral profile straight. Dorsal profile of head slightly convex from tip of snout to tip of supraoccipital process. Ventral profile of head straight; snout prominent. Isthmus located at vertical through anterior margin of opercle; branchial membranes united to each other but free from isthmus. Eyes lateral; nares at height of eye, elongate ovals, sometimes with flap of skin separating orifices, anterior nare larger than posterior. Mouth ventral, upper lip absent. Ventral profile of trunk rounded from isthmus to anal-fin origin, then convex to caudal fin. Caudal peduncle compressed.

Premaxillary hemiseries with four teeth, their inferior margin straight and with 14-26 small cusps. Teeth fitting into space provided in lower jaw. Maxilla with 1-2 teeth, smaller than those of premaxilla, usually half buried in surrounding soft tissue and often hard to see. Dentary with 2-3 laterally positioned teeth without cusps that curve outward, larger than those of premaxillary, and not visible when mouth closed.

Pectoral fin usually long ( Table 2), in some individuals reaching vertical through dorsal-fin origin (in this case, fin rays of other fins usually elongate as well) but not reaching pelvicfin insertions, truncate, with insertion at vertical through second predorsal scale posterior to tip of supraoccipital process; fifth branched ray longest. Pelvic fin just reaching genital pore, but not anal-fin origin; truncate with insertions at vertical through or anterior to middle of dorsal-fin base, second branched ray longest. Longest anal-fin rays reaching caudal fin. Anal fin truncate; its origin at vertical through second or third scale anterior to adipose fin, its first two branched rays longer than others. Dorsal fin truncate, origin at vertical through point half way between pectoral and pelvic-fin insertions, sometimes reaching adipose when depressed, first two branched rays longer (sometimes twice as long) than others.Adipose-fin origin at vertical through posterior anal-fin base. Caudal fin bilobed, with lobes of equal length, basal third scaled, with scales extending farther out lower lobe, usually to cover half.

Lateral line with 35-38 pored scales, sometimes extending onto scaled portion of caudal fin. Scales distributed regularly in predorsal and ventral areas. Axillary scale present, two to three normal scales in length.

Color in alcohol. Dorsal surface of snout and head dark brown but without melanophores, lighter brown below horizontal through ventral margin of eye. Dorsum of body crossed by 14-17 dark transverse bars separated by spaces of yellow or light brown; first bar at tip of supraoccipital process, last near of caudal fin.

Base body color dark brown from dorsum to pectoral fin bases, sides with 14-17 vertical bars, each one or two scales wide, extending both dorsally and ventrally, sometimes united with dorsal transverse bars. Lateral stripe absent.

Pectoral fin with distal tips of first five rays dark brown, but not forming spots or bands. Ventral, anal, dorsal, and adipose fins hyaline. Caudal fin with middle rays dark brown to their tips, scales on basal half of lower lobe appearing as dark blotch on its center. Ventral part of body dark yellow, completely lacking chromatophores or spots.

Sexual dimorphism. Breeding tubercles found in all males examined, located from ventral part of snout to tip of supraoccipital process; in those above 100 mm SL tubercles also present on pectoral-fin bases. First two branched dorsal-fin rays longer than rest, especially notable in males over 75 mm SL in which these rays usually reach to adipose fin when depressed.

Distribution. Río Orinoco basin, in Colombia and Venezuela ( Fig. 2 View Fig ).

Comments. Fowler (1943) proposed Nematoparodon as a subgenus of Parodon , with P. apolinari as type species of this monotypic unit, based primarily on the filamentous extensions of the first two branched dorsal-fin rays, and the larger number of nuptial tubercles. These characteristics according to Wiley & Collette (1970), Géry (1977), and Zanata & Vari (2005) are sexually dimorphic characters present in a few Characiformes and many Cypriniformes ( Myers, 1930; Parenti, 1981). In this study we observed them only in adult, male specimens, especially those collected in February (INHS 34711; ICN 1032) which corresponds to the dry season. These characters do not warrant recognition of a distinct subgenus according to Pavanelli (2003) who also noted that P. apolinari shares its peculiar pigmentation pattern only with P. caliensis . Elongate dorsal-fin rays have also been observed in Cypriniformes ( Myers, 1930; Géry, 1977) and theAfrican family Alestidae (Zanata & Vari, 2005) .Zanata & Vari (2005) also report the prolongation of the dorsal-fin rays from several alestid genera, notable among them Bryconaethiops Günther , possibly suggesting a phylogenetic relationship with Parodontidae .

Material examined. Colombia. CAS-SU 23725 View Materials , holotype, 89.0 mm SL, Meta, Guaicaramo, Orinoco basin, río Meta drainage, at junction of río Guavio and río Upia , SU 40203 , 3 , 68.1-95.1 mm SL, same data as the holotype . IAvH 3438 , 7 , 72.6-88.7 mm SL, Meta, río Cravo Sur, río Túa / Unete drainage, 4°42’N 71°36’W GoogleMaps . IAvH 7896 , 10 , 45.3-62.1 mm SL, Casanare, río Chiquito at bridge on Villao- Yopal road, 5°6’35.6”N, 72°36’31.6”W, 316 masl GoogleMaps . IAvH 8640 , 7 , 56.4-72.5 mm SL, Casanare, Creek near entrance to CPF Cupiagua, Sogamoso road, 5°12’35.5”N 72°36’48”W, 440 masl GoogleMaps . IAvH 9533 , 6 , 45.6-78.1 mm SL, Casanare, creek near entrance of CPF Cupiagua, Sogamoso road, 5°12’35.5”N, 72°36’48”W, 440 masl GoogleMaps . IAvH 9534 , 5 , 55.9-100.4 mm SL, Casanare, La Aguatoca Creek at bridge on Morro road, 5°26’21.2”N, 72°27’9.7”W, 357 masl GoogleMaps . IAvH 9537 , 2 , 47.5-63.8 mm SL, Casanare, rio Túa , 4°54’30.6”N, 72°53’33.1”W, 449 masl GoogleMaps . IAvH 9542 , 2 , 43.7-46.4 mm SL, Casanare, rio Tocaría , 5°30’47”N, 72° 13’ 2”W, 310 masl GoogleMaps . IAvH 9544 , 3 , 61.6-70.3 mm SL, Casanare, rio Túa at bridge on Villao-Yopal road, 4°53’8.7”N, 72°54’17.2”W, 418 masl GoogleMaps . IAvH 5517 , 2 , 70.3-73.2 mm SL, Meta, Sardinata Creek at Bocas, La Carmpa road, Puerto Caldas Inspectorate, 3°28’30.8”N, 73°43’12”W GoogleMaps . IAvH 5519 , 2 , 77.5-83.6 mm SL, Meta, rio Ariari at “Guillermo León Valencia” bridge, Puerto Caldas Inspectorate, 3°29’1.8”N, 73°43’15.8”W GoogleMaps . ICN 1032 View Materials , 6 View Materials , 65.7-89.8 mm, Meta, rio Meta / Casanare drainage, rio Ariporo at Paz de Ariporo . ICN 15734 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 56.6-61.1 mm SL, Meta, Acacias, rio Orotog , oil company bridge . ICN 12201 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 99.4 mm SL, Meta, rio Ariari, Villavicencio . ICN 3327 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 66.4 mm SL, Meta, Cayaguara creek , Casanare, Aguazul . MCZ 32168 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 68.0 mm SL, Meta, Guaicamo . MCZ 47682 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 54.2 View Materials -78.0 mm SL, Meta, “ Probably from small streams of Sierra Azul, easternmost range of Andes ” . Venezuela, UF 45865 , 49 , 44.9-94.3 mm SL, Barinas, creek that runs into rio Paguey , ca 6 km N of Hwy 5 . UF 36144 , 4 , 45.7-59.1 mm SL, Portuguesa, Guanare 2 kms from bridge on Guanare-Barinas Hwy . UF 80559 , 1 , 80.9 mm SL, Guarico, Parque Nacional Aguaro-Guariquito about 39 km SE of Palenque, tributaries of rio Agua Blanca (Cano Yagrumito) . INHS 31807 View Materials , 6 View Materials , 47.9-97.4 mm SL, Barinas, Arenosa Creek ( rio La Yuca / Masparro drainage) 14 km N of Barinas . INHS 34711 View Materials , 5 View Materials , 55.2-71.1 mm SL, Barinas, rio Curito ( rio Suripa drainage) 8 km NE of San Antonio on Hwy 5 . INHS 34913 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 41.2 -75.3mm SL, Yaracuy, Caripial creek ( rio Aroa drainage) 13 km SE of Yumare. INHS 59892 View Materials , 1, 102.8 mm SL, Portuguesa, rio Are (rio Guache / Portuguesa drainage) Aparición, at Hwy 5 bridge . INHS 69488 View Materials , 7 View Materials + 1 c&s, 32.6-42.2 mm SL, Guanare, rio Orinoco / Apure drainage, rio Guanare at bridge in Guanare .


Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural


Museum of Comparative Zoology














Parodon apolinari Myers, 1930

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro, Román-Valencia, César & Taphorn, Donald C. 2011

Parodon (Nematoparodon) apolinari

Fowler, H 1943: 226

Parodon apolinari

Gery, J 1977: 202
Schultz, L 1944: 289
Myers, G 1930: 66