Henneguya

Laamiri, Sayef, 2014, New observations on Myxozoa of the goldline sea bream Sarpa salpa L. 1758 (Teleostei: Sparidae) from the Mediterranean coast of Tunisia, Zootaxa 3887 (2), pp. 157-190: 173-179

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3887.2.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B697D6BA-836B-44E2-A8D9-07661554FE59

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038887C4-FFD4-FFCD-B3BB-F9D986744550

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Henneguya
status

 

Henneguya  sp.

Type host: Sarpa salpa Linnaeus, 1758  goldline sea bream ( Perciformes  : Sparidae  )

Type localities: Mediterranean off Tunisia: Location 1: Gulf of Tunis (36 ° 45 ’N, 10 ° 15 ’E); Location 2: Bay of Bizerte (37 ° 20 ’ N, 9 ° 53 ’ E).

Site of infection: Mesenteric vessels

Prevalence: The overall prevalence is 1.2 % (4 / 330) ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9). At location 1, the prevalence of infection is 1.4 % (3 / 210) distributed as following, 03/ 2012: 0% (0/ 30); 04/ 2012: 10 % (3 / 30); 05/ 2012: 0% (0/ 30); 06/ 2012: 0% (0/ 30); 07/ 2012: 0% (0/ 30); 08/ 2012: 0% (0/ 30); 05/ 2013: 0% (0/ 20); 06/ 2013: 0% (0/ 10). At location 2, the prevalence of infection is 0.8 % (1 / 120) distributed as following, 03/ 2013: 0% (0/ 30); 04/ 2013: 0% (0/ 30); 05/ 2013: 3.3 % (1 / 30); 06/ 2013: 0% (0/ 30) (see Table 4).

Mean intensity: 5 ± 2.5 cysts/infected fish ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 10) (see Table 4).

Type-material: Digitized photos of syntype spores were deposited in the parasitological collection of the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle ( MNHN), Paris, Coll. No. ZS 130.

Description

Vegetative stages. The parasite was found within mesenteric vessel of the host. Cysts were oval to round in shape and unequal in size with development asynchronous. They are measuring from 1.5 to 4 mm in diameter, filled with fluid containing a suspension of mature and immature spores which appear milky white by naked eye ( Fig. 7 AView FIGURE 7 A – F).

Spores (n = 30 fresh spores). Spores typical of the genus Henneguya  . Mature spores were ovoid in side view with slightly attenuated posterior end ( Fig. 7 C –G,JView FIGURE 7 A – FView FIGURE 7 G – K, 8View FIGURE 8 G) and ellipsoidal in sutural view ( Fig. 7 IView FIGURE 7 A – FView FIGURE 7 G – K). Two shell valves smooth and equal in size with wide sutural ridge. Spore body measuring 15.26 ± 1.34 (12.6–16.2) µm in length, 9.94 ± 0.71 (9–10.8) µm in width and 8.6 ± 0.37 (8.2–9) µm in thickness. Two polar capsules were pyriform and equal in size, 5.55 ± 0.20 (5.4–5.78) Μm in length and 2.55 ± 0.1 (2.48–2.65) µm in width (n = 30). The polar filament coiled with five to six turns. Two capsulogenic nuclei located between the polar capsules ( Fig. 7 FView FIGURE 7 A – F). A binucleate sporoplasm situated directly behind two polar capsules, filling almost the entire spore cavity. Ten sutural markings were distinct and usually arranged all around the circumference of the spore and being more spaced in the posterior part than at the anterior one ( Figs. 7 D –EView FIGURE 7 A – F, GView FIGURE 7 G – K). Two caudal projections were filiform and long extending from posterior of spore with 49.32 ± 4.43 (42.3–55.8) µm in total length ( Figs. 7 J –KView FIGURE 7 A – FView FIGURE 7 G – K, 8View FIGURE 8 G). Often, the fine distal portion of the appendage wrapped around the thicker part ( Figs. 7 FView FIGURE 7 A – F, JView FIGURE 7 G – K, 8View FIGURE 8 G). Total length of spores was 64.58 ± 4.62 (58.5–70.2) Μm.

Taxonomic affinities

According to the scientific papers, only one histozoic species belong to genus of Hennguya Thélohan, 1892, H. neapolitana Parisi, 1912  has been described infecting the connective tissue of the renal tubule of kidney of S. salpa  . The comparison between both species provides that current species differs from H. neapolitana  not only by the organ host but also by the shape and the morphometric measurements (see Table 6). According to the study of Parisi (1912), H. neapolitana  found in the connective tissue of the renal tubule of kidney of S. salpa  with small cyst (40 to 50 µm Ø) while present species is found in the mesenteric vessels and forming a big white cysts (1-4 mm Ø) ( Fig. 7 AView FIGURE 7 A – F). Concerning the shape of the spores, H. neapolitana  is more ovoid than the recent form and it polar capsules often cross each other while those of present finding are almost parallel to each other and to the sutural rim. Moreover, the spores of the current species are more longer than those of H. neapolitana  in length and in width of the spore body and especially in the length of caudal projections (see Table 6). Among all the species of Henneguya  found in the Mediterranean Sea, no species found in the mesentery vessels of its host. All the Henneguya  spp. described from the sparids are found especially infecting the heart tissue (arterial bulb), the kidney or the gills. From these known species, the recent isolate shows some similar morphological appearances to H. mbourensis  and H. yoffensis Kpatcha, Faye, Diebakate, Fall & Toguebaye, 1997  infecting the kidney of Dentex canariensis (Steindachner, 1881)  and the gills and heart of P. caeruleostictus (Valenciennes, 1830)  respectively from Senegal, H. pagri Yokoyama, Itoh & Tanaka, 2005  infecting the bulbus arteriosus of Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)  from Japan, H. mauritaniensis Khlifa, Miller, Adlard, Faye & Sasal, 2012  from the arterial bulb of Pagrus caeruleostictus  off Mauritania and Henneguya  sp. Bahri, Benhassine & Marques, 1996 found in the gills of Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758)  from Tunisia that was being the same species observed by Caffara, Marcer, Florio, Quaglio & Fioravanti, 2003 in the bulbus arteriosus and the gills of the same host from Italian fish farm (see Table 6). Although all these species are very similar in shape to current species, they each exhibit one or more distinguishing characteristics. Generally all these species are shorter in total length and have spores smaller in length and width compared to those of present form (see Table 6).

According to the synopsis of Henneguya  ( Eiras 2002, Eiras & Adriano 2012), only 2 species of Henneguya  found infecting the mesentery of their hosts H. visceralis Jakovska & Nigrelli, 1953  found in Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus, 1766)  from Brazil and H. schakletoni Brickle, Kalavati & MacKenzie, 2006  in Eleginops maclovinus (Valenciennes, 1830)  from Off the Falkland Islands (see Table 6). The recent species differs from H. visceralis  by having a larger spores with shorter polar capsules and a very long caudal appendages. Although, most of the morphometric measurements between present finding and H. schakletoni  overlap, the spores of this latter are morphologically quite different. Furthermore, the current species has larger polar capsules and longer caudal projections than those of H. schakletoni  . According to the paper of Brickle et al. (2006) the spores of H. schakletoni  contained one large vacuole (2.0– 3.0 Ø) placed between the posterior ends of the polar capsules and the sporoplasm which is lacking at the present species. Moreover, the cysts of our species are much larger than those of H. schekletoni  (1-4 mm vs 0.5-0.8 mm) and is, therefore, a distinct species. Another species H.

lateolabracis Yokoyama, Kawakami, Yasuda & Tanaka, 2003  found infecting the heart (bulb arteriosus) of the sea bass fish Lateolabrax  sp. This species shows great superficial similarities in shape to our species. However, no measurement range overlap between both species (see Table 6). The recent isolate seems to have spores more bigger with longer caudal appendages compared to the spores of H. lateolabracis  . Furthermore, the difference in site of infection confirms that both species are dissimilar. In light of these differences with closely related species, host organ and locality records, the myxosporean under study is considered as a different species and is reported by the first time infecting the sparid S. salpa  in the Mediterranean Sea.

Ecological notes

In this study, Henneguya  sp. found with very weak overall prevalence 1.2 %. This myxosporean has a parasitic status as scarce species. In Gulf of Tunis, the infection was only observed in April with prevalence 10 % and mean intensity 6 cysts per infected individual host whereas in Bay of Bizerte infection by this parasite was noted only in May with prevalence 3.3 % and mean intensity 4 cysts per infected individual host (see Table 4).

Species Host(s) Locality Spore Polarcapsule PA(°)

SL ST PCL PCW

. arcuata  Kalavati & Mackenzie Pagellus bogaraveo  France ( Monaco), Italy 6.8 ± 0.9 36.2 ± 2.7 3.7 ± 0.7 3.0 ± 0.2 ND

1999) (6.0–9.0) (32.5 –40.0) (2.5 –5.0) (2.5 –4.0)

Present study) Sarpa salpa  Tunisia (Gulf of Tunis) 7.5 ± 0.4 35.6 ± 3.3 3.3 ± 0.4 3 ± 0.4 150.6 ± 4.2 (7–9) (30–40) (3–4) (2.5–3.5) (142–156)

. pallida Thélohan (1895)  Boops  boops  France ( Monaco) 5 25–30 ND ND ND

Sarpa salpa 

Present study) Sarpa salpa  Tunisia (Gulf of Tunis and 7.32 ± 0.61 (6.5– 28 ± 1.5 (26–30) 2.95 ± 0.47 2.92 ± 0.39 160.9 ± 4.6 Bay of Bizerte) 8) (2.5–3.6) (2.5–3.6) (154–170)

. herouardi Georgévitch (1916)  Sarpa salpa  France ( Monaco) ND ND ND ND ND

Present study) Sarpa salpa  Tunisia (Gulf of Tunis and 10.5 ± 1.2 21.6 ± 1.6 3.91 ± 0.25 3.89 ± 0.27 172.5 ± 6.8 Bay of Bizerte) (8–12) (20–24) (3.5–4.5) (3.5–4.5) (165–180)

. sp. 1 (Present study) Sarpa salpa  Tunisia (Gulf of Tunis) 7.32 ± 0.52 67.98 ± 2.44 3.26 ± 0.23 3.26 ± 0.23 α = 35.6 ± 12.3 (6.52–7.92) (64.9–70.1) (3–3.5) (3–3.5) (28–57)

. sp. 2 (Present study) Sarpa salpa  Tunisia (Gulf of Tunis) 9.73 ± 0.63 40.32 ± 3.83 4.2 ± 0.2 3.51 ± 0.39 150.2 ± 2.9 (9–10.5) (35–45) (4–4.5) (3–4) (146–155)

. sp. 3 (Present study) Sarpa salpa  Tunisia (Bay of Bizerte) 7.4 ± 0.8 30 ± 1.8 (28–33) 3 ± 0.41 3 ± 0.41 168.5 ± 4.2 (6.5–8.5) (2.5–3.5) (2.5–3.5) (162–172)

. diplodae Lubat et al. (1989)  Diplodus annularis  Montenegro 6 (5–7) 20 (18–22) 2.25 2 ND

Katharios et al. (2007) Diplodus puntazzo  Greece 6.6 ± 0.5 24.0 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 0.2 2.7 ± 0.2 ND

. sparusaurati Sitja-Bobadilla  et Sparus aurata  Spain 5.65 ± 0.74 15.76 ± 1.01 2.79 ± 0.27 2.79 ± 0.27 ND

. (1995) (4.5–7.5) (14–17.5) (2.2–3.4) (2.2–3.4)

. puntazzi Alama-Bermejo et al.  Diplodus puntazzo  Spain 9.2 ± 0.7 29 ± 2.9 4.1 ± 0.4 4 ± 0.4 166.2 ± 7.4

2011) (8.03–10.72) (23.83–34.5) (2.95–4.77) (2.9–4.6) (146.4–179.2)

. sp. Alama-Bermejo et al. Diplodus annularis  Spain 9.8 ± 0.8 28.8 ± 3.7 4.1 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 1.1 164.8 ± 2

2011) (7.1–13) (21.5–32.7) (3.2–5.2) (3.1–5.1) (147– 176.2)

. sp. 1 Alama-Bermejo et al. Sparus aurata  Spain 5 ± 0.5 17.2 ± 3.4 2.2 ± 0.4 2.1 ± 0.3 175.2 ± 4.1

2011) (3.9–5.6) (13.1–22.5) (1.6–2.7) (1.5–2.5) (166.9–179.9)

. sp. 2 Alama-Bermejo et al. Sparus aurata  Spain 9.9 ± 0.6 20 ± 2.1 3.8 ± 0.3 3.8 ± 0.4 169.2 ± 6.5

2011) (8.7–11.4) (16.7–24.7) (3.2–4.5) (3.2–4.5) (155.4–178.8)

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Myxozoa

Class

Myxosporea

Order

Bivalvulida

Family

Myxobolidae

Loc

Henneguya

Laamiri, Sayef 2014
2014
Loc

diplodae

Lubat et al. 1989
1989
Loc

herouardi Georgévitch (1916)

Georgevitch 1916
1916
Loc

pallida Thélohan (1895)

Thelohan 1895
1895