Chrysogorgia tuberculata, Cordeiro, Ralf T. S., Castro, Clovis B. & Pérez, Carlos D., 2015

Cordeiro, Ralf T. S., Castro, Clovis B. & Pérez, Carlos D., 2015, Deep-water octocorals (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) from Brazil: Family Chrysogorgiidae Verrill, 1883, Zootaxa 4058 (1), pp. 81-100 : 89

publication ID

https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4058.1.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BA3DD6C8-38B0-4EE0-80B4-C316E814C3D1

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5626196

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038887EF-9C09-FF94-1F84-FE0DB501F843

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chrysogorgia tuberculata
status

sp. nov.

Chrysogorgia tuberculata sp. nov.

( FigS. 2 View FIGURE 2 B, 4, 5)

Holotype: MNRJ 8565, 04° 34 ’09”S, 36 ° 41 ’ 36 ”W, Potiguar Basin, 902–1355 m depth.

Paratypes: MOUFPE-CNI 208, same collection data as the holotype (5 colonies); MOUFPE-CNI 206, 04° 37 ’ 51 ”S, 36 ° 30 ’00”W, Potiguar Basin, 995–1006 m depth (3 colonies); MOUFPE-CNI 207, 04º 40 ’ 11 ”S, 36 ° 23 ’ 52 ”W, Potiguar Basin, 960–1202 m depth (2 colonies); MOUFPE-CNI 205, 04° 44 ’ 11 ”S, 36 ° 24 ’ 56 ”, Potiguar Basin, 415–448 m depth (1 colony); MOUFPE-CNI 204, 04° 45 ’ 56 ”S, 36 °08’02”W, Potiguar Basin, 1040–1216 m depth (3 colonies).

Diagnosis: Chrysogorgia with wiry bottlebrush shaped colonies up to 23 cm, branches long up to 80 mm. Calcareous holdfast with root-like projections. Branches long, up to 5 th order, with 3 to 5 internodes per branch. Branching sequence 2 / 5 R. Polyps cylindrical, arranged in pairs or up to four zooids on first internodes. Spindles of polyp body wall with acute and sparse warts and usually acute ends, 0.18–0.53 mm in length, longitudinally arranged. Scales of tentacles 0.08–0.24 mm long. Coenenchymal scales 0.18–0.36 mm long with prominent tubercles on branches, but densely covered with small warts on the main stem, with a grainy aspect, especially near to the base of the colony.

Description of the holotype: Colony bottlebrush shaped, 23 cm in height, branches to 80 mm long ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B), arranged in ascending spiral on the main branch. Basal diameter of the axis 1.5 mm. Calcareous holdfast with rootlike projections up to 24 mm long. Branches to fifth order, bifurcations between 90 ° and 110 °. Branching sequence 2 / 5 R. Internodes per branch 3–5. Distance between adjacent branches 3–7 mm. Orthostiche interval from 8 to 23 mm. Polyps cylindrical ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A), 2.0– 2.5 mm long, arranged in pairs or up to four zooids on first internodes. Spindles of polyp body wall with acute and sparse warts and usually acute ends, 0.18–0.40 mm long ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B, 5 A), longitudinally arranged. Scales of tentacles ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 E, 5 C) 0.06–0.24 mm long. Coenenchymal scales 0.14–0.36 mm long with prominent tubercles on branches ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 C, 5 C), densely covered with small warts on the main stem, with a grainy aspect ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 D), especially near base of colony.

Variability of Paratypes: Smaller colony 13 cm tall. Body wall spindles 0.20–0.53 mm long and coenenchymal scales with 0.14–0.24 mm long.

Remarks: Chrysogorgia tuberculata sp. nov, C. herdendorfi Cairns, 2001 , C. agassizii ( Verrill, 1883) , C. elegans , and C. spiculosa ( Verrill, 1883) are unique among members of this genus in Western Atlantic in having sclerites longitudinally arranged in the body wall. Chrysogorgia herdendorfi lacks rhizoidal holdfast and has a branching sequence 2 / 5 – 3 / 8 R, only as many as 2 internodes per branch, contrasting with up to five nodes per branch in C. tuberculata sp. nov. Chrysogorgia agassizii differs from the new species because it has scales in the body wall and coenenchyme whereas C. tuberculata has scales in the tentacles, spindles in the body wall and tuberculated scales in the coenenchyme of the branches. The body wall sclerites of C. tuberculata sp. nov. differ from those of C. spiculosa and C. elegans : C. tuberculata has spindles with acute and sparse warts and usually acute ends whereas the other species have rotund rods evenly warted and usually with rounded ends (cucumber shape), although these may be pointed in C. spiculosa . Moreover, the coenenchymal scales of C. spiculosa and C. elegans reach 0.65 mm in length, contrasting with 0.36 mm in the new species. Body wall sclerites of C. spiculosa can be as long as 0.96 mm, whereas those from C. elegans only reach lengths of 0.65 mm and those of C. tuberculata sp. nov. are up to 0.53 mm long.

Etymology: The epithet “ tuberculata ” reflects the distinctive character of the species, coenenchymal sclerites with conspicuous tubercles. Gender female.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality, off Macau, Potiguar Basin, Brazil, 415–1355 m.

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro