Prionospio (Minuspio) anatolica , Dagli, Ertan & Çinar, Melih Ertan, 2011

Dagli, Ertan & Çinar, Melih Ertan, 2011, Species of the subgenus Minuspio (Polychaeta: Spionidae: Prionospio) from the southern coast of Turkey (Levantine Sea, eastern Mediterranean), with the description of two new species, Zootaxa 3043, pp. 35-53: 37-42

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.206763

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03897F61-C91A-FFB4-6AEF-FE681540FC1F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Prionospio (Minuspio) anatolica
status

sp. nov.

Prionospio (Minuspio) anatolica  sp. nov.

( Figs 2–5View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 5, 13View FIGURE 13. A B)

Material examined: Holotype. ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 398, 10 September 2005, Iskenderun Bay, G 5, 36 º 43 ʹ 44 ʹ N– 35 º 43 ʹ 39 ʹ E, 25 m, sandy mud [salinity: 39.2 psu, temperature: 27.7°C, dissolved oxygen concentration: 5.1 mg/l]. Paratypes. ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 62, 2 specimens, 9 September 2005, Iskenderun Bay, D 9, 36 º 45 ʹ 59 ʹ N– 35 º 48 ʹ 18 ʹ E, 25 m, muddy sand; ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 121, 4 specimens, 10 September 2005, Iskenderun Bay, G 4, 36 º 44 ʹ 8 ʹ N– 35 º 44 ʹ 32 ʹ E, 50 m, mud; ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 237, 6 specimens, 9 September 2005, Iskenderun Bay, G 3, 36 º 51 ʹ 8 ʹ N– 35 º 55 ʹ 42 ʹ E, 25 m, mud; ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 242, 2 specimens, 10 September 2005, Iskenderun Bay, G 4, 36 º 44 ʹ 8 ʹ N– 35 º 44 ʹ 32 ʹ E, 50 m, mud; ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 398, 5 specimens, 10 September 2005, Iskenderun Bay, G 5, 36 ° 43 ' 44 "N– 35 ° 43 ' 39 "E, 25 m, sandy mud; ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 504, 131 specimens, 17 September 2005, Mersin Bay, G 7, 36 º 46 ʹ 41 ʹ N– 34 º 39 ʹ 39 ʹ E, 10 m, mud; ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 757, 1 specimen, 22 September 2005, Anamur, DT 5, 36 º 45 ʹ 54 ʹ N– 35 º 51 ʹ 38 ʹ E, 5 m, mud; ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 1549, 7 specimens, 6 October 2005, Fethiye Bay, G 28, 36 º 37 ʹ 48 ʹ N– 29 º06ʹ 30 ʹ E, 10 m, mud; ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005–2691, 2 specimens, 27 September 2005, Antalya Bay, D 37, 36 º 49 ʹ 53 ʹ N– 30 º 37 ʹ0 8 ʹ E, 25 m, muddy sand; ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005–3248, 5 specimens, 10 September 2005, Iskenderun Bay, G 5, 36 º 43 ʹ 44 ʹ N– 35 ° 43 ʹ 39 ʹ E, 25 m, sandy mud.

Description. Holotype complete, 0.27 mm wide, 9.51 mm long, with 73 chaetigers. Body slender, enlarged anteriorly, gradually tapering to posterior end. Color in alcohol opaque white. Prostomium anteriorly rounded, slightly inflated at middle of prostomium, tapering posteriorly, forming short caruncle, extending to base of chaetiger 2 ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A–B, 4 A, 5 A–C); with three anterior, two latero–marginal and one anterio–dorsal peaks (Figs 4 A, 5 B– C). Eyes absent ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A–B, 4 A). Peristomium partly fused to chaetiger 1, forming moderate lateral wings; palps thickened, as long as 7–9 chaetigers ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A).

Branchiae long, smooth, apinnate, cylindrical, seven pairs on chaetigers 2–8. Pairs one to three longest, extending over nine chaetigers; pairs four to five extending over six chaetigers, and pairs six to seven extending over five chaetigers ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A–B, 5 A, 13 B); all with short ciliae on lateral edges ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A–B), except for last pairs ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 C).

Parapodia of chaetiger 1 reduced, neuropodial lamellae small, bluntly rounded, notopodial lamellae absent; both neurochaetae and notochaetae present ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A–B, 4 A). Notopodial lamellae of chaetiger 2 leaf–like, smaller than those of chaetigers 3–7; neuropodial lamellae smaller, rounded ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A). Notopodial postchaetal lamellae on chaetiger 3 ear–shaped, larger than those on chaetiger 2; neuropodial lamellae largest on chaetiger 3, subrectangular, well developed, ventrally pointed ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A–B, 3 A). Notopodial lamellae largest on chaetiger 4, subrectangular, dorsally pointed; neuropodial lamellae on chaetiger 4 triangular with somewhat pointed tip, smaller than those on chaetiger 3 ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A–B, 3 B). Neuropodial lamellae on following chaetigers progressively decreasing in size ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 B, 3 C); middle parapodia with rounded lamellae ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 D–E), posterior parapodia with finger–shaped lamellae (Fig. 4 B). Notopodial lamellae on chaetigers 5 to 8 triangular with pointed tip, smaller than those on chaetiger 4 ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A–B, 3 C). Notopodial lamellae on following chaetigers progressively decreasing in size; lamellae on middle parapodia subrectangular or rounded ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 D–E), lamellae on posterior parapodia finger–like (Fig. 4 B). Dorsal crests and inter–parapodial pouches absent ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A, 3 E).

4. Prionospio (Minuspio) anatolica  sp. nov.: A. Prostomium and first three chaetigers, dorsal view, paratype ( ESFMAbout ESFM –POL/ 2005 – 1214). B. Posterior end, dorsal view, holotype. C. Neuropodial hooded hook on chaetiger 20. D. Ventral sabre chaeta on chaetiger 15. E. Notopodial capillary chaetae on chaetiger 10. Scale bar: A 0.1 mm, B 0.12 mm, C 11.7 Μm, D 16.7 Μm, E 45 Μm.

Capillary chaetae in anterior region distinctly granulated, with thin sheath (Fig. 4 E); chaetae arranged in two rows; chaetae of anterior row shorter than those of posterior row (Fig. 4 E). Neuropodial hooded hooks present from chaetiger 13 (14–15 in paratypes), up to 8 (range: 5–8) per fascicle. Notopodial hooded hooks present from chaetiger 37 (27–39 in paratypes), up to 4–6 per fascicle ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 D). Hooks with four pairs of small teeth above main fang (Figs 4 C, 5 F), secondary hood conspicuous (Fig, 4 C); hooks accompanied by capillaries throughout. Ventral sabre chaetae first present in neuropodia of chaetiger 11; lightly granulated; without distal flament, one (two in paratypes) per fascicle (Figs 4 D, 5 E).

Pygidium with a long mid–dorsal cirrus and two shorter ventro–lateral cirri (Figs 4 B, 5 D).

Remarks. Prionospio (Minuspio) anatolica  sp. nov., is mainly characterized by having extremely long and thin apinnate branchiae on chaetigers 2–8. The same branchial morphology was reported in the following species; P. (M.) delta Hartman, 1965  from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; P. (M.) lighti Maciolek, 1985  from the coast of California; P. (M.) patagonica Augener, 1923  from west Patagonia; P. (M.) perkinsi Maciolek, 1985  from the Gulf of Mexico to New England; P. (M.) pulchra Imajima, 1990  from the coast of Japan; and P. (M.) yuriel Wilson, 1990  from southern Australian coast.

Prionospio (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., is similar to P. (M.) pulchra  , which was originally described from the coast of Japan (Pacific Ocean) by Imajima (1990) and subsequently from the coast of Galicia, north west Spain (Atlantic Ocean) by Moreira et al. (2000), in the shape of the anterior margin of the prostomium, and the morphology of branchiae, sabre and hooded hooks. However, Prionospio (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., differs from it with respect to some important characters; 1 – eyes [absent in P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., vs. present in P. (M.) pulchra  ], 2 – the number of branchiae [7 pairs in P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., vs. 9–10 pairs in P. (M.) pulchra  ]; 3 – the morphology of branchiae [all branchiae long in P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., vs. last three pairs shorter than first seven pairs (last pair shortest) in P. (M.) pulchra  ]; 4 – dorsal crests [absent in P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., vs. present in P. (M.) pulchra  ]; 5 – first occurrence of hooks on parapodia [neuropodial hooded hooks first appeared on chaetigers 13–15 in P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., vs. on chaetigers 16–17 in P. (M.) pulchra  ]; 6 – morphology of sabre chaeta [without filament in P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., vs. with filament in P. (M.) pulchra  ].

Prionospio (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., is also similar to P. (M.) delta  in that the branchiae are apinnate, extremely long and thin. These two species differ considerably, however, in the shape of the prostomium. The prostomium of P. (M.) delta  is broadly triangular, flared on anterior margin and often has a small median peak, whereas that of P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., is anteriorly rounded, slightly inflated at middle part, and has three anterior and two lateral marginal peaks. Prionospio (M.) delta  has six pairs of branchiae, whereas P. (M.) anatolica  has seven pairs of branchiae. Dorsal crests absent in P. (M.) anatolica  , whereas present dorsal crests on several post–branchial chaetiger in P. (M.) delta  . The sabre chaetae first occur on chaetiger 12 in P. (M.) delta  vs. on chaetiger 11 in P. (M.) anatolica  . The hooded hooks of P. (M.) delta  have three pairs of teeth above the main fang, whereas those of P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., have four pairs of teeth above the main fang. Finally, the pygidium of P. (M.) delta  has a short mid–dorsal cirrus (as long as ventro–lateral lobes) and two short and broad ventro–lateral lobes, whereas that of P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., has a long mid–dorsal cirrus (ca. 2.5 times longer than ventro–lateral cirri) and two short ventro–lateral cirri. Prionospio (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., also ecologically differs from P. (M.) delta  . The former species was found at depths ranging from 5 to 50 m on the coast of Turkey, whereas the latter was previously reported at depths ranging from 520–2200 m off South, West (Oregon) and East (Delaware) America, West Africa, Gulf of California ( Hartman 1965; Maciolek 1985).

Prionospio (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., is closely related to P. (M.) lighti  , which was first described from the coast of California (Pacific Ocean) by Maciolek (1985), in the morphology of the prostomium, branchiae and chaetae, and the absence of dorsal crests. However they differ from each other in a number of characters. Prionospio (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., has no eyes [four small eyes in P. (M.) lighti  ], 7 pairs of branchiae [6–12 pairs (usually 10) of branchiae in P. (M.) lighti  ], notochaetae on chaetiger 1 [absent in P. (M.) lighti  ] and ventral sabre chaetae that are lightly granulated and present from chaetiger 11 [moderately granulated and present from chaetigers 12–14 in P. (M.) lighti  ].

Prionospio (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., is also similar to P. (M.) perkinsi  . However, Prionospio (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., differs in having five prostomial peaks [seven in P. (M.) perkinsi  ], no eyes [two distinct eyes in P. (M.) perkinsi  ], 7 pairs of branchiae [10 pairs of branchiae in P. (M.) perkinsi  ] and inferior sabre chaetae [absent in P. (M.) perkinsi  ].

Prionospio (M.) patagonica  was originally described from the west Patagonia by Augener (1923), and subsequently from Chile and the western Patagonia by Blake (1983) and Radashevsky et al. (2006). Augener (1923) noted that P. patagonica  had two pairs of black eyespots and up to 12 pairs of cirriform branchiae. Hartmann– Schröder (1962) determined that this species had two pairs of reddish eyes and up to ten pairs of branchiae. Blake (1983) noted that P. patagonica  had no eyes and hooks with external and distinct internal hoods. Radashevsky et al. (2006) noted that this species had two pairs of dark red eyespots, sabre chaetae beginning from segment 7, and up to 14 pairs of branchiae. Prionospio (M.) anatolica  is easily distinguished from P. (M.) patagonica  in having no eyes, seven pairs of branchiae, peaks on the prostomium, and sabre chaetae beginning from chaetiger 11.

The other species that shows a close morphological affinity with P. (M.) anatolica  is P. (M.) yuriel  , which was originally described from the southern Australia ( Wilson, 1990). However, these two species are easily separated from each other with respect to the following characters; 1 – the shape of the prostomium [anteriorly rounded, slightly inflated at middle part, with five peaks in P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., vs. narrow and elongate anteriorly, without peaks in P. (M.) yuriel  ]; 2 – eyes [no eyes in P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., vs. one pair of red eye in P. (M.) yuriel  ]; 3 – nuchal organs [no nuchal organ in P. (M.) anatolica  vs. a pair of nuchal organs surrounding the caruncle in P. (M.) yuriel  ]; 4) number of branchiae [seven pairs in P. (M.) anatolica  sp. nov., vs. six to nine pairs in P. (M.) yuriel  ].

Reproduction. Specimens of Prionospio (Minuspio) anatolica  sp. nov., collected in September had eggs in the coelomic cavities between chaetigers 18 and 39; egg diameters were 25–40 Μm (mean: 31.5±5.08 SD, N= 20).

Habitat. The highest population density (1310 individuals.m– 2) of this species was found in 10 m depth on muddy substratum at station G 7 (Mersin Bay).

Distribution. Eastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, southern coast of Turkey).

Etymology. The species name refers to type locality, Anatolia (Anadolu in Turkish).

ESFM

Museum of Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Polychaeta

Order

Spionida

Family

Spionidae

Genus

Prionospio