Botrodus montserratensis, Jałoszyński & Ślipiński, 2022
treatment provided by
Botrodus montserratensis sp. n.
Type material examined. Holotype (Montserrat): ♂, “ MONTSERRAT: Woodlands / Woodlands Ghaut, 43 m, / 16°45.99’N, 69°13.34’W / 03JAN2002, M.A. Ivie / beating & under bark” ( USNM) GoogleMaps . Paratypes (2 exx): 1 ♀, Cas- sava Ghaut , Beattie House, 190 m, 16°45.91’N, 62°12.95W, 21-30.vi.2002, UV GoogleMaps light trap, M.A. Ivie, leg. (disar- ticulated and mounted in Canada balsam) ( MNHW); 1 ex., Little Bay to Randesvous Bay trail, 7.i.2002, M.A. Ivie, K.A. Marske & K.P. Puliafico leg. ( USNM) .
Diagnosis. Body dark brown; elytra in lateral view distinctly flattened; clypeus with strongly convex, bulging sides and anteromedian triangular impression; lateral elytral margin visible in dorsal view in humeral region and in posterior third of elytra; mesoventrite with lateral longitudinal carinae along mesal margins of mesocoxae; mesoventral plate with anterior margin angulate; each paramere less than 4 times as long as broad at base, with 3–4 long apical setae, a few short setae along mesal margin and 1–2 ventral basal setae.
Description. BL 1.45 mm; BL/EW 2.07. Body elongate ( Figs 35, 37 View FIGURES 35–41 ) and in lateral view distinctly flattened ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 35–41 ); pigmentation dark brown, in one specimen pronotum lighter, dark reddish brown, legs distinctly lighter brown; dorsum covered with moderately sparse, extremely short yellowish setae barely visible under magnification 40 ×; cuticle glossy, on frons distinctly finely microreticulate, on pronotum and elytra smooth.
Head ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 35–41 ) 0.35 mm wide; frons weakly convex, with dense and sharply marked punctures separated by spaces subequal to their diameters; clypeus with sides convex, bulging, and distinct anteromedian triangular impression, covered with shallower punctures than frons; eyes large, strongly convex, coarsely faceted.
Pronotum ( Fig. 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ) strongly transverse, widest at base; PL 0.38 mm, PW 0.65 mm, PL/PW 0.58; lateral margins rounded in anterior third and straight posteriorly, weakly convergent anterad, with narrow lateral carinae; disc along lateral carinae not flattened. Punctures on disc fine but distinct, sharply marked, those on median region separated by spaces subequal to their diameters, gradually reducing in diameter and depth towards sides of pronotum.
Prosternum ( Fig. 36 View FIGURES 35–41 ) finely microreticulate and with fine, inconspicuous punctures; notosternal carinae strongly curved outwards.
Elytra ( Figs 35, 37 View FIGURES 35–41 ) together oval, nearly parallel-sided, EL 1.00 mm, EW 0.70 mm, EL/EW 1.43. Lateral ely- tral margin distinctly visible in dorsal view in humeral region and in posterior third of elytra; elytral base anteriorly convex; humerus with distinct, bulging callus; disc covered with punctures similar to those on pronotum but slightly larger and distinctly sparser.
Hind wings fully developed.
Mesoventral plate ( Fig. 39 View FIGURES 35–41 ) with lateral longitudinal carinae anteriorly joining complete submarginal carina, anterior margin of plate broadly subtriangular, angulate at middle.
Metaventrite ( Fig. 39 View FIGURES 35–41 ) uniformly, finely punctate, discrimen externally not discernible.
Aedeagus ( Figs 40–41 View FIGURES 35–41 ) 0.45 mm long, with parameres in lateral view nearly straight, each ~3.5 × as long as broad at base, with 3–4 long apical setae, row of 3–4 short ventral setae along mesal margin, and 1–2 ventral basal setae; penis inconspicuous, slender, nearly tubular and in distal half weakly curved.
Remarks. The type specimens have been collected during the West Indian Beetle Fauna Project by Montana State University, Bozeman, USA.
Distribution. Caribbean ( Montserrat).
Genus Murmidius Leach
Ceutocerus Germar, 1823: 85. Type species: Ceutocerus advena Germar, 1823 (monotypy); synonymized by Jaquelin du Val, 1857: 227.
Emended diagnosis. Body rounded to elongate oval; moderately to strongly convex; dorsum asetose or with short setae; labrum entirely or nearly entirely covered by clypeus and not visible dorsally and anteriorly; clypeus with deep and narrow lateral constriction and strongly expanded laterad; antennal sulci along mesoventral margins of eyes absent; ocular carinae along dorsomesal margins of eyes present; mentum subtrapezoidal with rounded sides; ligula at most with slightly concave anterior margin, not bilobed; antenna composed of ten antennomeres, with strongly modified scape with subtriangular, strongly projecting anterad anterior margin and elongate antennomere 9; antennomeres 2–9 symmetrical or nearly so, club oval or elongate, in some species subdivided by step-wise circumferential submedian ridge; prothoracic antennal cavities visible in dorsal view (in a few species indistinctly); prosternal plate with anterior margin in lateral view projecting far beyond level of anterior margin of pronotum; submedian prosternal carinae present (in rare cases restricted to short posterior portion of prosternum but still discernible); notosternal carinae sinuate or straight; prosternal process about twice as wide as width of procoxa, subtrapezoidal; mesoventral plate with anterior margin rounded or angulate and with or without submarginal carina; metaventrite with discrimen externally visible or not, but always developed on entire or nearly entire metaventral length; elytra with lateral margins not flattened above epipleural carinae; elytral epipleural carinae in dorsal view entirely or largely hidden; tegmen lacking articulated parameres.
Redescription. Body of adults 1.02–1.70 mm long, oval or (less frequently) circular, moderately to strongly convex, light brown to nearly black, dorsum glabrous or covered with short setae.
Head ( Figs 42–45 View FIGURES 42–50 ) prognathous, strongly declining and in natural position largely retracted into prothorax. Occiput ( Fig. 42 View FIGURES 42–50 ; occ) strongly transverse and demarcated from frons by step-wise vertexal ridge ( Figs 42, 45 View FIGURES 42–50 ; vr) which extends laterad on each side and becomes indistinct near posterodorsal margin of each eye or, in some species, extends toward and connects with lateral portions of gular ridges. Vertex ( Fig. 42 View FIGURES 42–50 ; vt) strongly transverse and moderately convex, with posterior margin anteriorly concave, vertex anteriorly confluent with transverse, convex frons ( Fig. 42 View FIGURES 42–50 ; fr); clypeus ( Figs 42, 44–45 View FIGURES 42–50 ; cl) longer than frons and subequal in width, transverse and strongly broadening anterad so that adocular frontal region is demarcated from clypeus by deep subtriangular constriction; frontoclypeal impressed line marking site of internal ridge present, anterior margin of clypeus rounded and smooth, or microserrate (in three species only; Figs 42, 44 View FIGURES 42–50 ), entire clypeus strongly declining, subvertical. Gular region demarcated from submentum and genae by fine gular ridge ( Figs 43, 45 View FIGURES 42–50 ; gr) laterally extending to above middle of head height, in some species connecting with vertexal ridge.
Antennal fossae ( Figs 44–45 View FIGURES 42–50 ; anf) small, situated near mesal margin of each eye, not visible in dorsal view, exposed in lateral view. Antenna ( Figs 46–48 View FIGURES 42–50 ) composed of 10 antennomeres, only slightly longer than head; inserted in such a way that in resting position pedicel is directed ventrad and club is inserted into prothoracic antennal cavity. Scape ( Figs 42, 47 View FIGURES 42–50 ; sc) strongly enlarged, with small sub-basal and sublateral articulating ‘stalk’ inserted into antennal foramen, modified, strongly asymmetrical and subtriangular, matching the shape of constriction at base of clypeus; pedicel ( Fig. 47 View FIGURES 42–50 ; pd) much shorter and narrower than scape, subcylindrical and indistinctly asymmetrical; antennomeres 3–8 ( Fig. 47 View FIGURES 42–50 ; an 3–8) each distinctly narrower than pedicel, subequal in width or indistinctly reducing in width, symmetrical; antennomere 9 ( Fig. 47 View FIGURES 42–50 ; an7) strongly elongate, subcylindrical and its distal portion countersank into basal cavity of club (in Fig. 46 View FIGURES 42–50 connecting membrane between antennomere 9 and club is exposed due to maceration in KOH, so that club was pushed distad by osmotic pressure); antennal club ( Fig. 47 View FIGURES 42–50 ; clb; Fig. 48 View FIGURES 42–50 ) oval, weakly to strongly elongate and about as broad as scape, with slightly more than basal half showing transverse annulate microsculpture and distal portion lacking microsculpture but with uneven, slightly granulate surface and bearing several strongly elongate basiconic sensilla in addition to setae; in two species with strongly elongate club border between these regions is marked by abrupt, step-wise narrowing of distal portion, presumably indicating site of fusion between two antennomeres.
Labrum ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 42–50 ; lbr) in most species not visible externally, completely covered by clypeus, strongly transverse and short; usually only anterior margin of labrum is visible under clypeus in ventral view. Mandibles ( Figs 49–50 View FIGURES 42–50 ) symmetrical, subtriangular, each with short basal region bearing massive, darkly sclerotized oval, plate-shaped mola ( Figs 49–50 View FIGURES 42–50 ; mo) with microtuberculate surface, in resting positions molar grinding surfaces touch at middle; prostheca ( Fig. 49 View FIGURES 42–50 ; pst) present, membranous and in anterior half setose; distal mandibular region with three blunt teeth; external mandibular margin with several short erect setae. Maxilla ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ) with semioval cardo ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; cd); basistipes ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; bst) short, triangular, with group of several short setae; mediostipes ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; mst) subrectangular; lacinia and galea ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; lac, gal) each elongate, flat and with dense mesal and apical fringe of setae; maxillary palp tetramerous, with conspicuously small palpomere 1 ( Figs 43, 45 View FIGURES 42–50 ; mxp1) which is minute and inserted on poorly differentiated palpifer, palpomere 2 ( Figs 43, 45 View FIGURES 42–50 ; mxp2) large, slightly asymmetrical, weakly elongate and sparsely setose, with external margin long and rounded and mesal margin slightly shorter, also rounded, palpomere 3 ( Figs 43, 45 View FIGURES 42–50 ; mxp3) distinctly shorter but only slightly narrower than palpomere 2, subcylindrical and transverse, with several setae, palpomere 4 ( Figs 43, 45 View FIGURES 42–50 ; mxp4) about as long as mxp2 or slightly shorter, much longer than mxp3, slightly narrowing distad and truncate at apex. Submentum ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; smn) short, transverse with straight anterior margin. Mentum ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; mn) at base slightly broader than submentum, weakly broadening anterad and near middle gradually, strongly narrowing toward relatively long and concave anterior margin, general shape subtrapezoidal with rounded sides, ventral surface sparsely covered with short setae. Ligula ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; lig) large suboval or subtrapezoidal with anterior margin indistinctly concave or nearly straight, with dense setae on most of its ventral surface. Labial palps inserted laterally at base of ligula, trimerous; labial palpomere 1 ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; lp1) minute, about as long as broad or weakly elongate, subcylindrical; palpomere 2 ( Fig.43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; lp2) as large as maxillary palpomere 2 or even larger and similarly shaped; palpomere 3 ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; lp3) as terminal maxillary palpomere but distinctly smaller.
Tentorium lacking corporatentoria, with W-shaped tentorial bridge ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; tb) bearing anterior median projection; posterior tentorial arms ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; pta) fused with ventral wall of head, but posterior tentorial pits not marked; anterior tentorial arms ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 42–50 ; ata) long and slender, lacking submedian lateral projections.
Prothorax strongly transverse; pronotum anteriorly shallowly emarginate with variously projecting, obtuseangled anterior corners; sides rounded or nearly straight with complete lateral carinae ( Fig. 52 View FIGURES 51–57 ; lc); posterior corners distinct, obtuse-angled; pronotal base strongly projecting towards scutellar shield. Antennal cavities ( Figs 51–52 View FIGURES 51–57 ; anc) exposed in dorsal view, large. Pronotal disc with or without lateral longitudinal impressions or sulci extending from antennal cavities; in some species another pair of less pronounced sublateral longitudinal impressions are present. Prosternum ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 51–57 ; pst) much longer than half length of prothorax, laterally fused with hypomera anteriorly, and posteriorly demarcated by straight, curved or sinuate notosternal carinae ( Figs 51–52 View FIGURES 51–57 ; nsc) externally marking sites of reduced notosternal sutures; submedian prosternal carinae ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 51–57 ; psc) always developed, but in some species (or some individuals) reduced and marked only near posterior margin of prosternum; prosternal process ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 51–57 ; psp) subtrapezoidal, narrowing posterad, with concave posterior margin, about as broad as twice width of procoxa width of procoxa or slightly broader. Hypomeron ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 51–57 ; hy) broad and weakly impressed, with well-defined postcoxal process. Profurcal arms ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 51–57 ; pf) long, profurcal foveae not visible externally.
Fore legs ( Fig. 53 View FIGURES 51–57 ) with subglobose coxae; elongate and subrectangular or subtriangular trochanters; broad, short and dorso-ventrally flattened femora; tibiae about as long as femora or slightly longer, gradually and usually strongly broadening distad and with external subapical elongate flattened expansion; tarsi subcylindrical, distinctly, often much longer than half length of tibia, with tarsomere 4 about as long as 1–3 combined or slightly longer; tarsal claws long.
Mesonotum ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–57 ) with strongly transverse mesoscutum ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–57 ; sc2) and mesoscutellum ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–57 ; scl2) demarcated by weakly marked scutoscutellar suture; mesoscutellum with strongly sclerotized scutellar shield ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–57 ; scs), its posteromedian triangular portion exposed between elytral bases.
Elytra ( Fig. 56 View FIGURES 51–57 ) together suboval with truncate bases; epipleura visible in lateral view and demarcated from elytral disc by complete, sharp carina largely hidden in dorsal view; elytral apex with ventral field of cuticular projections arranged in rows, interlocking with crenulation of abdominal ventrite 5. Elytral punctures arranged in distinct rows or randomly scattered.
Mesoventrite ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ; v 2 View FIGURES 1–7 ) with transverse, approximately hexagonal posteromedian mesoventral plate ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ; mvp) with its posterior margin in dry-mounted specimens usually poorly marked, plate with or without anterior submarginal carina ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ; smc); mesoventrite in front of plate situated more dorsally, interlocking with prothorax in such a way that in natural position prosternal process and procoxae overlap anterior portion of mesoventrite and medially tightly fit to anterior margin of mesoventral plate. Mesanepisterna and mesepimera large, in natural position subvertical (in Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 artificially ‘unfolded’ laterad).
Middle legs ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ) with subglobose coxae; elongate, subtriangular trochanters; broad and short, flattened dorso-ventrally femora; tibiae slightly longer than femora, gradually thickening distad, with subapical external flattening; tarsi subcylindrical, longer (usually much longer) than half length of tibia, tarsomere 4 about as long as 1–3 combined, tarsal claws long.
Metanotum ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–57 ) in winged species with large metascutum ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–57 ; sc3) divided at middle by median membranous area ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–57 ; mma); alacristae ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–57 ; alc) complete; postnotum ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–57 ; pn3) short, with rounded posterior margin. In brachypterous species metanotum less sclerotized and shorter.
Hind wings (not shown) well-developed and functional in most species, rarely shortened and apparently nonfunctional.
Metaventrite ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ; v 3 View FIGURES 1–7 ) strongly transverse, with entire discrimen ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ; dsc) in dry-mounted specimens often not discernible externally; sides with metaventral femoral lines ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ; mfl) mesally and posteriorly demarcating impressed mesofemoral rests; posteromedian margin of metaventrite straight or nearly so. Metanepisterna ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ; aest3) and metepimera (not shown) narrow, in natural position subvertical.
Metendosternite with elongate, divergent metafurcal arms ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ; mtfa), each with additional submedian lateral projection, each arm ending with small plate for muscle attachment close to posterior margin of metanotum.
Hind legs ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ) with transverse, weakly convex and suboval coxae; elongate, subtriangular trochanters; broad and short, flattened dorso-ventrally femora; tibiae slightly to distinctly longer than femora, gradually thickening distad and usually with subapical external flattening; tarsi subcylindrical, distinctly longer than half length of tibia, tarsomere 4 about as long as 1–3 combined, tarsal claws long.
Abdomen ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ) with five visible ventrites, of which first is as long (or nearly so) as 2–4 combined and bears abdominal femoral lines ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 51–57 ; afl) bordering slightly impressed metafemoral rests; ventrite 5 with posterior margin crenulate, bearing transverse row of peg-like cuticular projections interlocking with ventral apical trichial fields of each elytron.
Aedeagus (e.g., Figs 64–66 View FIGURES 59–66 ) with tubular penis, sheath-like tegmen with elongate median strut, lacking articulated parameres, but in some species tegmen emarginate apically, in most species with apical setae. Aedeagus relatively diverse; species clearly differ in shape and length of penis and in shape of tegmen (especially its distal margin and setation).
Immature stages. Larva ( Fig. 58 View FIGURE 58 ) onisciform, with head hidden under anteriorly projecting pronotum; body covered with long brachyplumose (barbed) setae; tergal plates weakly sclerotized, covered with sparse asperities forming reticulate pattern on thorax and transverse rows on abdomen; body with rounded lateral lobes (three pairs on pronotum; two pairs on meso- and metanotum; and one pair on abdominal segments 1–9); pronotum with posterior margin angulate, strongly projecting posterad at middle; abdominal segment 9 subtriangular, with anterior margin angulate and strongly projecting medially anterad; endocarina present; mouthparts unspecialized, with symmetrical mandibles bearing large mola, hyaline fixed prostheca and tridentate apex, maxilla with trimerous palps; hypostomal rods short and subparallel; gula transverse; abdomen lacking urogomphs.
Composition and distribution. Cosmopolitan genus comprising 23 nominal species distributed worldwide: Holarctic (widely distributed adventive species in stored food products); Oriental and sub-Oriental: presumably tropical China, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Okinawa-jima, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Australia: New South Wales, Queensland; Pacific: Hawaiian Islands; Afrotropical: Cameroon, DR Congo, Ivory Coast, Republic of South Africa, Zambia; Indian Ocean: Mascarene Islands; Neotropical: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Venezuela). Females of undescribed species were seen, mostly from other Central and South American and SE Asian countries.
Key to species groups of Murmidius
4 - Pronotum with a pair of distinct lateral longitudinal grooves or impressions extending posterad or posterolaterad from mesal margins of antennal cavities (e.g., Fig. 60 View FIGURES 59–66 )................................................................. 2 Pronotum lacking lateral longitudinal grooves or impressions (e.g., Fig. 150 View FIGURES 149–155 )...................................... 4 Metaventrite extremely short, so that distance between mesocoxae is wider than between meso- and metacoxa, and lateral regions between metaventral femoral line and metacoxa is strongly transverse (e.g., Figs 83, 85 View FIGURES 81–87 ); antennal club strongly elongate, nearly twice as long as broad (e.g., Fig. 109 View FIGURES 109–115 ); tarsomeres 1–3 with conspicuously long setae (e.g., Fig. 99 View FIGURES 96–102 )...............
...................................................................... Murmidius campbelli species group Distance between mesocoxae shorter than between meso- and metacoxa (e.g., Fig. 61 View FIGURES 59–66 ), and lateral regions of metaventrite subquadrate (e.g., Fig. 139 View FIGURES 135–141 ) or elongate (e.g., Fig. 63 View FIGURES 59–66 ); antennal club weakly elongate, at most 1.5 × as long as broad (e.g., Fig. 69 View FIGURES 67–73 ); tarsomeres 1–3 with short, unremarkable setae.......................................................... 3 Elytral punctures arranged in longitudinal rows (e.g., Fig. 60 View FIGURES 59–66 ); pronotum with sublateral impressions (in some cases indistinct) (e.g., Fig. 75 View FIGURES 74–80 ); lateral regions of metaventrite between metaventral femoral lines and metacoxae elongate (e.g., Fig. 63 View FIGURES 59–66 ); anterior clypeal margin microserrate ( Fig. 44 View FIGURES 42–50 )............................................ Murmidius ovalis species group Elytral punctures not arranged in rows ( Fig. 136 View FIGURES 135–141 ); pronotum lacking sublateral impressions ( Fig. 136 View FIGURES 135–141 ); lateral regions of metaventrite between metaventral femoral lines and metacoxae subquadrate ( Fig. 139 View FIGURES 135–141 ); anterior clypeal margin smooth.........
....................................................................... Murmidius globosus species group Elytral punctures arranged in longitudinal rows ( Fig. 150 View FIGURES 149–155 )....................... Murmidius rectistriatus species group Elytral punctures not arranged in rows (e.g., Fig. 156 View FIGURES 156–162 )............................ Murmidius convexus species group
Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History
Departamento de Biologia de la Universidad del Valle
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