Stygothelphusa antu , Ng, Peter K. L. & Grinang, Jongkar, 2014

Ng, Peter K. L. & Grinang, Jongkar, 2014, A new species of troglobitic crab of tHe genus Stygothelphusa Ng, 1989, from Sarawak, Malaysia (Crustacea: Decapoda: BracHyura: Gecarcinucidae), Zootaxa 3774 (1), pp. -1--1: -1

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3774.1.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3A63AA4B-9ED6-46B2-A848-2C4BB26F76A0

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038B87B2-FFE2-2B32-FF34-D2962A7CFF7E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Stygothelphusa antu
status

new species

Stygothelphusa antu  new species

( Figs. 1–4View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4)

Material examined. Holotype: male (19.6 × 16.0 mm) ( ZRC 2014.0012), muddy passage, Rembus Cave, Temurang, Sarawak, 1 o 12 ’ 34.4 ”N 110 o 16 ’ 10.1 ”E, 63 m asl, Padawan-Penrissen limestone formation, coll. J. Grinang et al., 17 August 2009. Paratype: 1 male (19.2 × 15.6 mm) ( ZRC 2014.0013), same data as holotype.

Comparative material. See list of comparative material of Stygothelphusa bidiensis ( Lanchester, 1900)  and S. cranbrooki Ng, 2013  , in Ng (2013).

Diagnosis. Carapace subovate, distinctly broader than long; antero- and posterolateral regions covered with strong oblique striae, granules ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, B). Branchial regions not prominently inflated when viewed frontally ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C); frontal margin conspicuously broad, almost straight in dorsal view ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C); anterolateral margin strongly convex; epibranchial tooth small but distinct; external orbital angle broadly triangular, outer margin ca. 3 times length of inner margin, epigastric cristae distinct but not sharp; postorbital cristae low, not clearly demarcated ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, B). Eye reduced, filling only about half of orbit; distal part of ocular peduncle tapering; cornea rounded, relatively small, pigmented ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C); chelipeds distinctly elongated ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A); ambulatory legs very long, distal edge of merus of fourth leg extends beyond frontal margin when folded against carapace ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A, 2 D); male abdomen distinctly T-shaped; G 1 subterminal segment with concave inner margin, outer margin with distinct hump on distal third; terminal segment conical, tapering towards rounded tip, ca. 0.3 times subterminal segment, distal part with numerous minute scale-like spinules ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A-D); G 2 ca. 1.6 times length of G 1, distal segment slightly shorter than basal segment ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 E).

Description of holotype male. Carapace subovate, distinctly broader than long; regions distinct; dorsal surfaces gently convex, rugose to smooth; antero-, posterolateral regions covered with strong oblique striae, granules; cervical grooves broad, shallow ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, B). Pterygostomial, suborbital, subhepatic, sub-branchial regions distinctly rugose to granulose ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C). Branchial regions gently inflated dorsally, laterally, not prominently inflated when viewed frontally ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C). Frontal margin very broad, distinct, almost straight in dorsal view, below level of tip of external orbital tooth, gently deflexed downwards, margin forming very narrow, poorly defined median pseudo-frontal triangle ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C). Anterolateral margin strongly convex, clearly demarcated from posterolateral margin; epibranchial tooth small but well demarcated, separated from external orbital angle by small but distinct cleft; external orbital angle broadly triangular, outer margin ca. 3 times length of inner margin, lined with small granules; striae on anterolateral regions strong; epigastric cristae distinct, raised, rugose but not sharp, separated by deep median Y-shaped groove, just anterior of postorbital cristae; postorbital cristae low, not well demarcated, separated from epigastric cristae by end of cervical groove ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, B). Posterior margin of carapace gently convex ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, B). Epistome wide; posterior margin with distinct median triangular lobe with rounded tip, lateral margins gently sinuous ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C). Eye distinct but reduced, filling only about half of orbit; distal part of ocular peduncle tapering; cornea rounded but relatively small, pigmented ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C). Antennular fossa transversely narrow, rectangular in shape; flagellum folding transversely ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C). Third maxilliped quadrate; ischium quadrate, with shallow oblique median sulcus; merus quadrate, length and width subequal, with slightly auriculiform anteroexternal margin; exopod reaching beyond distal edge of ischium to submedian part of merus; flagellum distinct, longer than width of merus ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C).

Thoracic sternum relatively smooth, relatively narrow transversely, sternites 1–4 completely fused, without distinct median sutures visible; sternoabdominal cavity reaching to the level of the junction between sternites 2, 3, on imaginary line connecting anterior margins of coxae of the chelipeds ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A, B).

Chelipeds distinctly elongated; left larger; outer surfaces, margins gently rugose, without sharp spines or spinules; dorsal margin of long, slender merus with low, uneven granules; carpus with low inner distal spine, posterior margins lined with small granules; outer surface of palm gently rugose ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A). Chelae unequal; minor chela with fingers subequal to palm, cutting edges of fingers with numerous denticles ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 E); major chela with fingers shorter than palm, cutting edge of pollex with 2 large teeth, numerous denticles, cutting edge of dactylus with submedian tooth, denticles ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 F).

Ambulatory distinctly long, slender; second pair longest; distal edge of merus of fourth leg extends beyond frontal margin when folded against carapace; merus unarmed, dorsal margin gently serrated but not spiniform, with low subdistal angle; outer surfaces in first to third pairs rugose; carpus elongated with subdorsal groove on outer surface; propodus conspicuously long, with row of short ventral spines; dactylus elongated, gently curved on distal half, tip corneous, with 2 rows of spines on dorsal, ventral margins ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A, 2 D).

Male abdomen distinctly T-shaped; telson elongated, longer than broad, lateral margins gently concave, tip rounded, as long as somite 6 ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A, B); somites 3–6 progressively narrower, trapezoidal ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 B); somite 3 widest, covering most of thoracic sternite 8 ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 B); somites 1, 2 longitudinally narrow, reaching coxae of last pair of ambulatory legs.

G 1 curved; subterminal segment with concave inner margin, outer margin with distinct hump on distal third; terminal segment conical, tapering towards rounded tip, ca. 0.3 times subterminal segment, minute, scale-like spinules ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A –D). G 2 ca. 1.6 times length of G 1; basal segment long, distal segment flagelliform, slightly shorter than basal segment ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 E).

Life colour. The carapace is pale to yellow-orange, with the chelipeds and ambulatory legs white ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4).

Variation. The other male specimen agrees very well with the holotype male in all respects except for its smaller size.

Habitat. The type habitat, Rembus Cave, is a limestone cave with a variety of different passages. The cave entrance is about 15 m above the ground with a narrow and high passage with water flowing throughout the year. Aquatic organisms present near the entrance of the cave include fishes like Rasbora  spp. ( Cyprinidae  ) and Silurichthys  sp. ( Siluridae  ) as well as shrimps like Atyopsis moluccensis  ( Atyidae  ) and Macrobrachium  sp. ( Palaemonidae  ). Stygothelphusa antu  new species was found deeper inside the cave where it was entirely dark and humid, with the substrate moist and/or muddy.

Etymology. The name is derived from the Iban word antu  for “ghost” alluding to the pale coloration and habitat of the species. The name is used as a noun in apposition.

Remarks. Stygothelphusa antu  new species is interesting as it is the most highly cave-adapted of the four species now known from the genus. Compared to the other three species, the eyes of S. antu  new species are clearly reduced in size; with the distal part of the ocular peduncle relatively more slender, the cornea relatively smaller, and the eye fills only about half of the orbit ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B, C). In the other three species, the eyes are normal, with a stout ocular peduncle, large cornea and the eye fills most of the orbit (cf. Ng 2013). As has been discussed at length by Ng (1989, 2013), the normal condition of the eye argues against S. bidiensis  , S. nobilii  and S. cranbrooki  being obligate troglobites. Stygothelphusa antu  new species is a true troglobite as its eyes have started to degenerate.

Other than the condition of the eyes, S. antu  new species is also very different from its congeners in several other key characters. Its carapace is proportionately the broadest, with the anterolateral margins prominently convex ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, B) (versus margin gently convex to almost straight), the frontal margin is relatively the widest ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, B), the external orbital tooth is broadly triangular ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, B) (versus acutely triangular), the branchial regions are relatively the lowest, appearing almost flat from frontal view ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C), the ambulatory legs are proportionately the longest ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A, 2 D), the outer margin of the G 1 subterminal segment is humped ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A, B), the G 1 terminal segment is more slender and evenly conical in shape ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A –D); and the distal part of the G 1 terminal segment has relatively fewer and smaller scale-like spinules ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 C, D) (cf. Ng 2013 for figures of the three congeners).

ZRC

Zoological Reference Collection, National University of Singapore