Knoelle clara ( L. Koch, 1877 ), L. Koch, 1877

Framenau, Volker W., 2006, Knoelle, a new monotypic wolf spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Lycosidae), Zootaxa 1281, pp. 55-67: 58-65

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.173409

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CC685A21-E923-42F5-8F89-EF3AB9349D59

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038C8784-FFAE-C042-FECF-F95FE870E6B9

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Knoelle clara ( L. Koch, 1877 )
status

comb. nov.

Knoelle clara ( L. Koch, 1877)   comb. nov.

( Figs 1–11 View FIGURE 1 – 3 View FIGURES 4 – 10 View FIGURE 11 )

Lycosa clara L. Koch 1877: 912   –914, plate 79, figs 1, 1a –b. Rainbow 1911: 266; Bonnet 1957: 2638; McKay 1973: 379; 1979: 249–252, figs 3 a –l; 1985: 75; Platnick 1989: 370.

Allocosa clara (L. Koch)   . Roewer 1955: 206; Roewer 1961: 2; Rack 1961: 37.

Material examined

Syntypes. Female, Bowen [20 °00’S, 148 ° 14 ’E, Queensland, Australia], Museum Godeffroy No. 14559 [ ZMH, Rack (1961) ­catalogue 449]. Female, same locality (NHM 1919.9.18.219).

Other material examined. AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: 1 female, Boomi Nature Reserve, 2km E of Boomi, 28 º 43 ' 31 ''S, 149 º 36 ' 14 ''E (AM KS 76739). Northern Territory: 1 male, “mulga gradient”, no exact locality ( NTMAG A 928); 1 male, Alice Springs, 35 km S, 24 º00'S, 133 º 53 'E (AM KS 69246); 1 male, Berrimah, CSIRO, 12 º 26 'S, 130 º 56 'E ( NTMAG A 796); 1 female, Cahills Crossing, 12 º 26 'S, 132 º 58 'E ( WAM T 51339 View Materials ); 1 female, Casuarina Beach, Darwin   , 12 º 21 ' 45 ''S, 130 º 52 '02''E ( WAM T 56517 View Materials ); 1 male, Daly River, 13 º 18 'S, 130 º 15 'E ( NTMAG A 3438); 5 males, 2 females, same locality ( NTMAG); 1 male, Darwin, 12 º 27 'S, 130 º 52 'E ( NTMAG); 2 females, 1 juv., near Darwin, 12 º 27 'S, 130 º 52 'E (MV K 8203); 1 male, Dingo Creek, Victoria Highway near WA Border, 16 º04'S, 129 º05'E (AM KS 32792); 2 males, 1 female, East Point, Darwin, 12 º 24 'S, 130 º 49 'E (QM S 45582 View Materials ); 1 male, 3 females, 13 juv., Harriet Creek, 16 mi N of Pine Creek, 13 º 31 'S, 132 º03'E ( WAM T 51345 View Materials , QM S 71360 View Materials ); 1 female, Humpty Doo, Sunter Road, Beatrice Hill, 12 º 39 'S, 131 º 20 'E (QM S 46363 View Materials ); 1 female, Illamurta Spring, 24 º 18 ' 30 ''S, 132 º 41 ' 10 ''E ( SAM NN 16622); 1 male, Kakadu National Park, Nourlangie Camp, 12 º 51 'S, 132 º 48 'E (QM); 7 females, Kapalga, 12 º 36 'S, 132 º 25 'E ( WAM T 58372 View Materials – 5, T 58349 View Materials ); 1 female, Pickertaramoor, 7km W, Melville Island, 11 º 46 'S, 130 º 52 'E ( SAM NN 16529); 6 males, 4 females, 3 juv., Radon Creek, Kakadu National Park, 12 º 45 'S, 132 º 53 'E (QM S 45581 View Materials ); 1 male, Ranger Uranium Mine Site, 12 º 40 'S, 132 º 55 'E ( NTMAG); 2 females, Rimbija Island, Wessel Islands, 11 º01'S, 136 º 45 'E ( ANIC); 1 male, 4 females, Tennant Creek, 19 º 39 'S, 134 º 11 'E (QM S 21384 View Materials – 5, S 21387 View Materials ); 3 males, Victoria River crossing near Victoria River Downs, 16 º03'S, 131 º05'E (AM KS 32793); 9 males, 7 females, 2 juv., West Alligator Mouth, 12 º 11 'S, 132 º 16 'E (QM S 45579 View Materials – 80). Queensland: 1 female, no exact locality (labelled Q 3209) (QM S 45583 View Materials ); 1 female, no exact locality (labelled Q 3033) (QM S 71926 View Materials ); 3 males, 1 juv., Amber Station, 17 º 47 'S, 144 º 22 'E (QM S 45567 View Materials ); 1 male, 1 female, 2 juv., Aurukun, 13 º 36 'S, 141 º 48 'E (QM S 45562 View Materials ); 2 males, 2 females, Bluewater township, N of, 19 º 10 'S, 146 º 32 'E (QM S 45572 View Materials ); 1 female, Burlington Station, 17 º 49 'S, 144 º 24 'E (QM S 45568 View Materials ); 1 female, Camp Milo, Cooloola, 26 º02'S, 153 º03'E (QM W 5648); 1 male, 2 juv., Canal Creek Crossing, Cape York, 11 º 25 'S, 142 º 23 'E (QM S 45552 View Materials ); 2 males, 1 female, 13 juv., Cape Flattery, Cape York, 14 º 56 'S, 145 º 21 'E (QM S 45504 View Materials , S 45564 View Materials ); 3 females, 1 juv., Cape Flattery, S of, Cape York, Mt Ivor Road, 14 º 56 'S, 145 º 21 'E (QM S 45566 View Materials ); 2 females, 1 juv., Cape York, Cholmondeley Creek to “Three Ways” Heathlands Reserve, 15 º00'S, 145 º00'E (QM S 45556 View Materials ); 1 male, 1 female, 1 juv., Charleville Airport, 26 º 24 'S, 146 º 14 'E (QM S 45576 View Materials ); 1 female, Claudie River, 12 º 50 'S, 143 º 21 'E (MV K 8189); 1 male, 1 juv., Cockatoo Creek, 11 º 39 'S, 142 º 27 'E ( ANIC); 3 females, Coen, N of, 13 º 48 'S, 143 º 12 'E (QM S 45563 View Materials ); 1 female, Coleman River Crossing, 15km W of Musgrave Homestead, 14 º 48 'S, 143 º 21 'E (AM KS 45541); 1 male, 4 juv., Considine Bay, North Keppel Island, 23 º04'S, 150 º 53 'E (QM S 21383 View Materials ); 3 males, 1 female, Dulhunty River, Cape York, 12 º00'S, 142 º07'E (QM S 45559 View Materials ); 1 female, Fraser Island, 25 º 33 'S, 152 º 59 'E (AM KS 86331); 2 females, Heathlands Reserve, Cape York, road to Cockatoo Creek, 23 º 46 'S, 149 º 38 'E (QM S 45555 View Materials ); 1 male, 1 female, Hibbett Point­Evans Landing, Weipa, 12 º 37 'S, 141 º 52 'E (QM S 45560 View Materials ); 1 male, 1 female, 3 juv., Hibbett Point­ Evans Landing, Weipa, 12 º 39 'S, 141 º 51 'E (QM S 45561 View Materials ); 1 female, Horseshoe Bay, Bowen, 20 º00'S, 148 º 14 'E (QM S 45574 View Materials ); 1 male, 1 juv., Jardine River, Cape York, 10 º 58 'S, 142 º 35 'E (QM S 45554 View Materials ); 1 female, Lake Bronto, Cape York, 10 º 46 'S, 142 º 34 'E (QM S 45551 View Materials ); 1 female, Leichhardt River East Branch, 8km W, 20 º 42 'S, 140 º 30 'E (QM S 71928 View Materials ); 1 female, Leichhardt River East Branch, 8km E, Cloncurry to Mt Isa, 20 º 42 'S, 140 º 30 'E (QM S 21386 View Materials ); 1 male, 2 females, 1 juv., Lizard Island, 14 º 40 'S, 145 º 27 'E (AM KS 682, KS 12627; WAM T 55319 View Materials ); 4 males, 4 females, Lucinda, 18 º 32 'S, 146 º 20 'E (QM S 21382 View Materials ); 7 males, Moranbah, 6km S, 22 º02'S, 148 º03'E (QM S 31709 View Materials , S 44331 View Materials ); 2 females, Musgrave Station, 10km E, 14 º 47 'S, 143 º 30 'E (QM S 47); 1 male, North Stradbroke Island, 27 º 36 'S, 153 º 27 'E (QM S 45577 View Materials ); 6 males, 3 females, Peak Downs, 22 º 56 'S, 148 º05'E (QM W 3916); 2 males, Rosella Plains, 18 º 25 'S, 144 º 28 'E (QM S 45570 View Materials ); 2 males, 1 female, Sailor Creek Crossing, Cape York, 13 º 34 'S, 142 º 25 'E (QM S 45553 View Materials ); 2 males, 1 juv., South Percy Island, Lagoon area, 21 º 46 'S, 150 º 18 'E (QM S 40787 View Materials – 8); 2 males, South Percy Island, NW Bay, 21 º 45 'S, 150 º 18 'E (QM S 71330 View Materials ); 2 males, 1 female, Springfield, 27 º 40 'S, 152 º 53 'E (QM S 45569 View Materials ); 1 male, Taroom district, Rock Wallaby Hill, 25 º 25 'S, 149 º 58 'E (QM S 37225 View Materials ); 1 female, 1 juv., Thargomindah, 27 º 59 'S, 143 º 49 'E (QM W 4670); 6 males, 2 females, Townsville, 19 º 15 'S, 146 º 49 'E (QM S 45573 View Materials ); 1 male, Undara Lava Tunnels, 100 Mile Swamp, 18 º 12 ' 40 ''S, 144 º 34 '05''E (QM S 45571 View Materials ); 1 female, 5 juv., White Point, near Shelburne Station, Cape York, 12 º02'S, 142 º 58 'E (QM S 45557 View Materials ); 1 female, Woodgate National Park, 25 º08'S, 152 º 58 'E (QM S 71927 View Materials ). South Australia: 1 female, 3 juv., Amata, 35km SE, 26 º 16 ' 10 ''S, 131 º 28 ' 17 ''E ( SAM NN 11084); 1 female, Amata, 36km SE, 26 º 16 ' 12 ''S, 131 º 28 ' 36 ''E ( SAM NN 11085); 1 female, Cuddapan turnoff on Birdsville Road, 25 º 24 'S, 141 º 33 'E (QM W 6407); 2 males, Donald Well Hill, 0.7km WNW, 26 º 12 ' 17 ''S, 132 º 19 ' 42 ''E ( SAM NN 11082 – 3); 2 males, 1 female, Indulkana, 19.9km WNW, 26 º 53 ' 56 ''S, 133 º07' 22 ''E ( SAM NN 11069 – 71); 1 female, 1 juv., Maryinna Hill, 9.4km NE, 27 º01' 12 ''S, 131 º 17 ' 27 ''E ( SAM NN 11064); 3 females, Mimili, 26km ENE, 26 º 54 ' 50 ''S, 132 º 56 ' 54 ''E ( SAM NN 11065 – 67); 1 male, 2 juv., Mimili, 31.5km ENE, 26 º 53 ' 45 ''S, 132 º 59 ' 58 ''E ( SAM NN 11068); 1 female, Mt Hoare, 3km WSW, 27 º03' 51 ''S, 129 º 40 ' 16 ''E ( SAM NN 21548); 1 male, Relief Bore, Tallaringa Conservation Park, 72.2km W, 28 º 14 'S, 133 º 20 'E ( SAM NN 16101); 5 males, 2 females, 2 juv., Sentinel Hill, 10.4km SW, 26 º08' 19 ''S, 132 º 22 '01''E ( SAM NN 11075 – 81); 1 male, Sentinel Hill, 3.2km WNW, 26 º04' 22 ''S, 132 º 25 ' 9 ''E ( SAM NN 11072); 2 males, 1 juv., Sentinel Hill, 8.2km ESE, 26 º07' 13 ''S, 132 º 31 ' 11 ''E ( SAM NN 11073 – 4). Western Australia: 1 male, Barrow Island, 20 º 47 ' 24 ''S, 115 º 27 ' 22 ''E ( WAM T 58762 View Materials ); 1 female, Derby, 17 º 18 'S, 123 º 37 'E (QM S 45584 View Materials ); 1 male, Drysdale River Station, 15 º 42 'S, 126 º 23 'E ( WAM T 56241 View Materials ); 1 female, Giles River, 71km NE of Warburton, 26 º08'S, 126 º 35 'E ( WAM T 62490 View Materials ); 1 female, Irrunytju Rockhole, 26 º07'S, 128 º 58 'E ( WAM T 53380 View Materials ); 1 male, Little Sandy Desert, 23.1km ESE of Burranbar Pool, 23 º 52 ' 58 ''S, 120 º 38 ' 34 ''E ( WAM T 53423 View Materials ); 1 male, 1 juv., Little Sandy Desert, 23.3km ESE of Burranbar Pool, 23 º 52 ' 58 ''S, 120 º 38 ' 40 ''E ( WAM T 53425 View Materials ); 2 females, 3 juv., Maitland River, 20 º 46 'S, 116 º 30 'E ( WAM T 53513 View Materials , T 51340 View Materials ); 1 male, Manning Gorge, 16 º 44 'S, 125 º 57 'E ( WAM T 62643 View Materials ); 1 male, 3 juv., Mitchell Falls, 14 º 49 'S, 125 º 41 'E (AM KS 27867); 5 males, 5 females, Mt Elizabeth Homestead, 5km ESE, 16 º 18 'S, 126 º 11 'E ( SAM NN 17230 – 9); 1 male, 3 females, 5 juv., Munda, 20 º 33 'S, 118 º 42 'E ( WAM T 47613 View Materials , T 51341 View Materials – 2, T 51417 View Materials ); 3 males, 1 female, Nita Downs Station, 19 º05'S, 121 º 40 'E ( WAM T 53629 View Materials , T 64063 View Materials ); 1 female, Old Lissadell Station, Ord River, 16 º 40 'S, 128 º 33 'E ( WAM T 51343 View Materials ); 2 males, Waramboo, 52.1km W Pannawonica, 21 º 39 ' 49 ''S, 115 º 49 ' 10 ''E ( WAM T 65665 View Materials ); 9 males, 1 female, 1 juv., Well 46, Canning Stock Route, 20 º 39 'S, 126 º 17 'E ( WAM T 51344 View Materials ); 2 females, Woodstock Station at 21 º 40 ' 15 ''S, 119 º02' 30 ''E ( WAM T 51349 View Materials , T 62501 View Materials ); 1 female, Woodstock Station at 21 º 36 ' 35 ''S, 119 º01' 17 ''E ( WAM T 51348 View Materials ); 1 female, Woodstock Station at 21 º 36 ' 34 ''S, 118 º 58 ' 28 ''E ( WAM T 51347 View Materials ).

Diagnosis. Medium sized Lycosidae   ; males with large patch of macrosetae on cymbium tip ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 1 – 3 , 6– 7 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ), females with median septum that widens anteriorly ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ).

Redescription

Male (from Kapalga, Northern Territory; WAM T 56241 View Materials ):

Prosoma, dorsal shield ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 – 3 , 4– 5 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ). Dorsal profile in lateral view straight ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ); brown; distinct dark radial pattern; light brown median band narrowing posteriorly and with minor restriction in front of fovea; distinct light but irregular submarginal bands and irregular dark brown marginal band ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 – 3 ); brown setae, but white setae in median and submarginal bands; dark brown macrosetae around eyes; one long bristle between AME, six bristles below ALE.

Eyes ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ). Row of AE slightly procurved and narrower than row of PME.

Sternum. Shiny brown; brown setae, especially centrally, and brown macrosetae, which are denser and longer towards margins.

Labium. Dark brown; front end truncated and white.

Chelicerae. Dark reddish­brown; covered with white setae, brown macrosetae basally; three promarginal teeth, the median largest and the apical very small and close to the median; three retromarginal teeth with the basally smallest and the median largest.

Pedipalp ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 1 – 3 , 6– 8 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ). Cymbium with large patch of macrosetae; tegular apophysis with two distinct hooks and a lamellar process between these hooks ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ); embolus slender, terminal apophysis and pars pendula sickle­shaped ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ).

Opisthosoma. Mottled olive­grey and centrally lighter, distinct darker heart mark in anterior half ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 – 3 ); silver­grey setae which are very dense laterally, brown macrosetae less dense. Venter yellow­brown with large black patch covering ca. three quarter behind epigastric furrow. Spinnerets light brown.

Legs. Leg formula VI>I>II>III; light brown, with the distal segments darker; dense scopulate setae ventrally on tarsi and metatarsi of leg I and II. Spination of leg I: femur: 3 dorsal, 2 apicoprolateral, 1 small prolateral (right leg only), 2 retrolateral, 1 apicoretrolateral; patella: 1 prolateral, 1 retrolateral; tibia: 2 dorsal, 3 ventral pairs, 2 prolateral, 2 retrolateral; metatarsus: 3 ventral pairs, 2 prolateral, 2 retrolateral, 1 apicoprolateral, 1 apicoretrolateral, 1 apicoventral.

Female (from Kapalga, Northern Territyory; WAM T 58372 View Materials ):

Prosoma, dorsal shield. As male but slightly darker, median and submarginal bands more irregular; eight bristles below ALE.

Labium. Dark reddish­brown, front end truncated and white.

Sternum. Dark brown; setae as male.

Chelicerae. As male, but less white setae and more grey macrosetae.

Opisthosoma. As male, but darker and heart mark less indistinct. Venter and spinnerets as male.

Epigyne. Median septum inverted T­shaped and widening anteriorly ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ); spermathecal heads globular, spermathecal stalks bent basally ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 4 – 10 ).

Legs. Leg formula IV>I>II>III; colouration as male but slightly darker; dense scopulate setae on tarsi and metatarsi of all legs. Spination of leg I: Femur: 3 dorsal (one additional apical one on right leg), 2 retrolateral, 2 apicoprolateral; patella: 1 retrolateral; tibia: 3 ventral pairs, 2 retrolateral (left leg only); metatarsus: 3 ventral pairs, 1 apicoventral.

Measurements. Male WAM T 56241 View Materials (female WAM 58372 View Materials ): TL 12.23 (19.02), PL 7.16 (11.12), PW 5.19 (8.03). Eyes: AME 0.46 (0.57), ALE 0.20 (0.30), PME 0.83 (1.24), PLE 0.65 (0.93). Row of eyes: AE 1.41 (2.13), PME 2.22 (2.84), PLE 1.91 (3.46). Sternum (length/width) 3.21 / 2.59 (4.32 / 3.33). Labium (length/width) 0.83 / 0.83 (1.20 / 1.30). OL 5.56 (8.40), OW 3.71 (6.18). Legs: Lengths of segments (femur + patella/tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = total length): Pedipalp 3.09 + 2.96 + ­ + 2.47 = 8.52, I 6.30 + 7.78 + 5.06 + 3.09 = 22.23, II 5.93 + 7.16 + 4.94 + 2.96 = 20.99, III 5.56 + 6.55 + 5.43 + 2.84 = 20.38, IV 6.79 + 8.77 + 7.04 + 3.83 = 26.43 (Pedipalp 4.20 + 4.64 + ­ + 3.09 = 11.93, I 8.28 + 10.50 + 6.18 + 3.58 = 28.54, II 7.66 + 10.37 + 6.18 + 3.33 = 27.54, III 7.04 + 9.02 + 6.67 + 3.33 = 26.06, IV 8.65 + 11.12 + 9.02 + 4.32 = 33.11).

Variation. Males (females) (range, mean ± s.d.): TL 10.74 – 16.06, 13.62 ± 1.94; PL 6.05 – 9.14, 7.52 ± 1.00; PW 4.20 – 7.04, 5.42 ± 0.85; n = 11 (TL 11.24 – 22.97, 18.21 ± 3.49; PL 7.41 – 11.98, 9.71 ± 1.52; PW 5.56 – 8.65, 7.12 ± 1.14; n = 14).

Distribution. Northern parts of Australia north of ca. 30 °S latitude (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia) ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ).

Life history and habitat preferences. Mature males and females were mainly collected from September to April, with single records for May and June. Male numbers peaked in October, females one month later in November. A female carrying spiderlings was collected in the Northern Territory in April ( WAM T 58374 View Materials ).

Knoelle clara   comb. nov. appears to tolerate a variety of microhabitats, but seems to prefer sandy habitats near freshwater, such as creeks, springs or lakes. It has been found in open woodlands, for example amongst River Red Gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis   ) or other eucalypts and Acacia   vegetation, such as Ironwood ( Acacia estrophiolata   ), Needleleaf Wattle ( A. orthocarpa   ), Ranji Bush ( A. pyrifolia   ), or Mulga ( A. aneura   ). Some records are from open grasslands, in particular from spinifex and tussock grasslands and buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris   ). In Queensland, Knoelle clara   comb. nov. has been collected in sand dunes near beaches.

Remarks. I have examined the specimens from Goolwa, South Australia, listed by Hogg (1905) as Lycosa clara   ( SAM NN 453 – 6; 4 females). They belong to Venator spenceri Hogg, 1900   as already suggested by McKay (1979). The specimens listed by Hogg (1914) from Montebello and Hermite Islands, Western Australia (NHM 1924.3.1.1018– 27; 1 female, 9 juveniles; examined) are an undescribed species illustrated as Lycosa meracula Simon, 1909   by McKay (1979). Lycosa meracula   has recently been established as junior synonym of Tetralycosa oraria (L. Koch, 1876)   and is not conspecific with the species illustrated by McKay (1979) (Framenau et al. in press).

The mating sequence of male K. clara   comb. nov. is unknown, but the presence of a strong, sclerotised ridge dorso­apically on the pedipalp tibia in males suggests the presence of a stridulatory component in the mating signal of males, possibly coupled to the substrate via the large patch of macrosetae on the cymbium tip ( Rovner 1975). The preference for sandy substrates that may provide only limited resistance to the macrosetae on the cymbium tip may have facilitated the evolution of a relatively large patch of setae in comparison with other species. To elucidate the particular function of the macrosetae in K. clara   comb. nov., detailed experiments with a manipulation of the size of the macrosetae patch and substrate composition are required.

ZMH

Zoologisches Museum Hamburg

CSIRO

Australian National Fish Collection

WAM

Western Australian Museum

SAM

South African Museum

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Lycosidae

Genus

Knoelle

Loc

Knoelle clara ( L. Koch, 1877 )

Framenau, Volker W. 2006
2006
Loc

Allocosa clara

Roewer 1961: 2
Rack 1961: 37
Roewer 1955: 206
1955
Loc

Lycosa clara

Platnick 1989: 370
McKay 1973: 379
Bonnet 1957: 2638
Rainbow 1911: 266
Koch 1877: 912
1877