Caenohalictus turquesa Rojas & Toro

Gonzalez-Vaquero, Rocio Ana & Roig-Alsina, Arturo, 2013, Revision of the species of the bee genus Caenohalictus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) occurring in Argentinean Patagonia, Zootaxa 3670 (4), pp. 493-515: 511-512

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Caenohalictus turquesa Rojas & Toro


Caenohalictus turquesa Rojas & Toro 

( Figs. 36View FIGURES 32 – 38, 42–44, 53–54, 61)

Caenohalictus turquesa Rojas & Toro 2000: 192  –193. Holotype: male. Chile, Aysén, Aysén Chico. Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago.

Diagnosis. Caenohalictus turquesa  can be confused with C. iodurus  with which it is sympatric. Males can be separated by the malar area, at most as long as 1 / 3 of mandibular width (Fig. 53), and features of the genitalia. Females of both species are difficult to separate, see characters in the key. Male genital capsule (Figs. 42–44): igp small, covered by several short, specialized setae, slender dorsal process of plate with a rounded apex, which reaches the penis valve; penis valve with outer basal tooth; ogp with 2–3 short setae, finely plumose apically, plate not greatly expanded dorsally; mgl half-moon shaped; va compressed, with its apical half tapering.

Variation. Some males have the bluish highlights reported ubiquitously for the species by Rojas and Toro (2000), but most of them are completely green.

Description. Female. Length, 6.2 –7.0 mm; forewing length, 4.9–5.4 mm.

Color: Head and mesosoma dark green with a metallic reddish tint, more evident on head, mesoscutum and scutellum. Black apical band occupying more than half of clypeus, extending along the inner orbits up to the level of antennal sockets. Following parts dark brown: labrum, mandible except reddish apex, scape, pedicel, posterior surface of flagellum, coxa, femur, tibia, spot on center of outer part of hind basitarsus, basal half of the marginal zone of terga, and disc of sterna. Anterior surface of flagellum, mid and hind tarsi, and apices of sterna light brown or yellow. Tegula and apical half of marginal zone of terga translucid. Wings light amber with light brown veins and pterostigma, costal and radial veins dark brown.

Pubescence: Whitish. Compound eyes with hairs as long as MOD. Head with erect, plumose hairs; those on paraocular area and vertex as long as 1.5–2.3 times MOD; hairs on lower part of genal area 1.6–3.2 MOD. Thorax with plumose hairs on mesoscutum (0.8–1.4 times MOD), much longer on pleura (2.3–3.6 times MOD) and metanotum (up to 2.5 times MOD). Lateral side of propodeum with very short plumose hairs (0.1–0.2 times MOD) and much longer hairs (up to 2.8 times MOD). Vestiture dense on legs. Terga with hairy marginal zones; disc of terga with very short erect hairs, laterally with some longer hairs with their apices directed latero-posteriorly. S 2 – S 5 with long, short-barbed hairs, with their apices directed posteriorly.

Sculpture: Labrum with verrucose, median, basal elevation ( Fig. 61View FIGURES 59 – 62). Lower paraocular area with strong punctures, separated by 0.5–1 PD. Base of clypeus and supraclypeal area with punctures separated by 2 PD; rest of face with punctation finer and sparser. Punctures on disc of mesoscutum separated by 5–6 PD, not easily seen due to sculpture, sparser on disc of scutellum and metanotum. Dorsal surface of metapostnotum finely microareolate as propodeum. Surface between punctures equally reticulate throughout the body, finer on clypeus, supraclypeal area and sterna; marginal zones on metasoma substrigulate.

Structure: Head broader than long, 1.27–1.59: 1. Proportion of lower to upper interocular distance 0.89–0.99: 1. Clypeus longer than broad, 1.51–1.82: 1. Proportion of interantennal to antennocular distance, 0.86–0.88: 1. Proportion of posterior interocelar to ocelo-ocular distance, 0.92–0.97: 1. Inner hind tibial spur pectinate, with two or three paddle-like teeth, the one which is nearer the apex bent down to the axis ( Fig. 36View FIGURES 32 – 38).

Comments. Females have the malar area at most as long as 1 / 4 of the mandibular width, and the mid and hind basitarsi are light brown or yellow, with a dark brown spot at midlength of the outer part of the hind basitarsus. All specimens have the apical half of the marginal zone of the terga translucid. The female of C. turquesa  is described here for the first time. This species visits flowers of Discaria trinervis  and Retanilla patagonica  ( Rhamnaceae  ).

Distribution in Argentinean Patagonia. Arid to subhumid regions of Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz. Also found in Mendoza ( Argentina  ) and in Chile: Aysén.

Examined material. ARGENTINA  : Mendoza: 1 M, Cerro Cacheuta 1400m, XII – 2005, G. Debandi (IADIZA). 3 F, Río Blanco, XII – 1996, D. Medán ( FAUBA). 1 F, Villavicencio, 20 –X – 1941 ( MLPA). Río Negro: 1 M, Valcheta, II – 1924, M. Gómez ( MACN). 1 F, Ñorquinco, 5 –II – 1994, A. Roig Alsina ( MACN). Chubut: 1 F, Comodoro Rivadavia, X – 2003, M.E. Arce ( MACN). 1 F, Rada Tilly, 24 –X – 1992, M.E. Arce ( FAUBA). 1 F, Cañadón Ferrais, 5 –X – 1992, M.E. Arce ( FAUBA). 2 F, Cañadón Ferrais, 21 –X – 1995, M.E. Arce ( FAUBA). 11 F, Near Los Antiguos (Santa Cruz) S 46 º 37.044 ’ W071º 16.133 ’, 17 –XII – 2005 / 1 –I – 2006, pan trap, A –I. Gravel ( PCYU). 2 F, Near Gab. Costa S 44 º 57.841 ’ W070º 25.355 ’, XI – 2005, pan trap, A –I. Gravel ( PCYU). 2 F, E of Las Heras, 17 / 27 –XI – 2003, pan trap, L. Packer ( PCYU). 2 M 6 F, Golfo San Jorge, 31 –X – 1906, C. Ameghino ( MACN).

Santa Cruz: 13 M, El Pluma Ruta 43, 24–I – 1994, A. Roig Alsina ( MACN). 4 M, Ruta 40 Arroyo Feo, 27 –I – 1994, A. Roig Alsina ( MACN). 8 M 2 F, Río Pinturas Cueva de las Manos, 28 –I – 1994, A. Roig Alsina ( MACN). 1 M, Gobernador Gregores 350m, 12 / 13 –II – 1998, C. & M. Vardy ( MACN). 2 M, Gobernador Gregores 350m, 12 / 13 –II – 1998, C. & M. Vardy ( BMNH). 1 F, Los Antiguos, 18 –XI – 2006, pan trap ( PCYU). 2 F, 43km E of Perito Moreno, S 46 º 26.057 ’ W070º21.843, 540m, 16 –XI – 2003, L. Packer ( PCYU). 3 F, 23km W of Las Heras, S 46 º 36.827 ’ W069º38.394, 382m, 16 –XI – 2003, L. Packer ( PCYU). 1 F, 25km S Los Antiguos – 46.87972 –71.79472, 18 –XI / 24 –XII – 2006, pan trap, A –I. & M. Gravel & L. Packer ( PCYU). 33 F 27 M, 25km E Los Antiguos, S 46 º 37 ’ 187 ’’ W 71 º 18 ’ 322 ’’, 250m, 1 –III – 2007, blue van trap, A –I. & M. Gravel ( PCYU).


University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Biology


Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia


The Packer Collection at York University














Caenohalictus turquesa Rojas & Toro

Gonzalez-Vaquero, Rocio Ana & Roig-Alsina, Arturo 2013

Caenohalictus turquesa

Rojas 2000: 192