Trichotichnus (Bottchrus) holzschuhi Kirschenhofer, 1992
Schmidt, Joachim, 2017, Brachypterous ground beetles of the Trichotichnus subgenus Bottchrus Jedlička (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the Himalaya, with description of fifteen new species, Zootaxa 4323 (3), pp. 301-358: 304-308
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|Trichotichnus (Bottchrus) holzschuhi Kirschenhofer, 1992|
(Figs 1, 5–13, 151, 1)
Trichotichnus (Bellogenus) holzschuhi Kirschenhofer, 1992: 35 . Type locality: “ Malaphu , near village Tatopani, Bhote Koshi Valley, Sindhupalchok District , Central Nepal.”
Type material examined. Holotype: ♂, “C-Nepal, Bagmati Bhote Koshi khol. [sic], Tatophani [Tatopani] Malaphu, 700 m, 30.VI.87, lg. Holzschuh”, “ Holotypus, Trichotichnus (Bellogenus) holzschuhi m., det. Kirschenhofer, 91” ( NHMW). Paratype: 1 ♂, same data as holotype, but labelled “ Paratypus ” ( NHMW).
Additional material examined. 3 ♂, 2 ♀, “Sete, Umgeb. 2600–3000 m 27.4.”, “ NEPAL –HIMALAYA S Khumbu-Himal lg. Kleeberg ' 93” (cJS).
Description. Habitus as in Fig. 1. Body length in holotype 5.9 mm, in paratype 6.2 mm, in specimens from Sete 5.6–6.1 mm; body width in holotype 2.6 mm, in paratype 2.7 mm, and in specimens from Sete 2.5–2.8 mm.
Colour: Body piceous, shiny on dorsum, with light bluish tinge on elytra and pronotum; labrum, in most specimens also base of mandibles, very narrow margins of pronotum, and elytra paler; epipleurae of elytra usually also much paler than elytral disc, reddish brown; palpi, antennae and legs brownish yellow, with femora usually more or less distinctly infuscate.
Head: Large, with wide neck (in males, HWmax/PWmax = 0.64–0.71, HWmin/PWmax = 0.56–0.59; in females, these indices 0.64–0.68 and 0.56–0.58, respectively). Eyes moderately convex (in males, HWmax/ HWmin = 1.18–1.26, and in females, 1.18–1.22), in lateral view oval, slightly elongate. Tempora comparatively long, about half as long as eye, more or less flat, somewhat abrupt to neck. Genae wide, much wider than width of antennomere 1, with few short setae. Lateral margin of head between antenna and eye more or less markedly protruded laterally, forming a small obtuse angle near eyes, distinctly bordered. Area between supraorbital furrow and upper margin of eye comparatively wide, approximately as wide as width of antennomere 2 basally. Supraorbital setigerous pore located just behind level of posterior margin of eye, separated from supraorbital furrow at least by width of antennomere 3 apically. Labrum slightly or moderately concave anteriorly. Clypeus slightly emarginate along anterior margin, moderately convex basally, flatly sloped to apex. Frons and vertex convex. Mentum (as in Fig. 14) and submentum completely fused, submentum on each side with one long seta and occasionally one shorter seta laterally of the long seta. Left mandible not truncate, at most only slightly blunted at apex. Dorsal microsculpture visible only laterally above and behind eyes, consisting of transverse meshes. Antennae short, slightly not extending to the pronotal basal edge, with antennomeres 5–8 slightly longer than wide.
Pronotum: Slightly transverse (PWmax/PL = 1.34–1.39), widest slightly before the end of anterior third, narrowed posteriad (PWmax/PWmin = 1.17–1.25), with one lateral seta inserted before widest point. Sides almost straight or slightly sinuate in posterior third. Apical margin very slightly emarginate, with apical border interrupted at middle. Apical angles narrowly rounded, slightly protruded anteriad. Basal margin very nearly straight or slightly oblique laterally, vaguely bordered almost throughout, somewhat longer than apical margin and slightly shorter than base of elytra between humeral angles. Basal angles obtuse, sharp at apex, usually without distinct denticle at tip. Pronotal disc convex, strongly sloped to apical angles, not depressed basally, slightly flattened at basal angles. Lateral gutter slightly widened in apical third. Median line distinct, fine, ended before apical and basal margins. Basal foveae oval, poorly delimited, very shallow. Surface sparsely and irregularly punctate only along base and in latero-basal area till lateral seta. Microsculpture evident throughout, consisting of fine transverse meshes, more distinct latero-basally.
Elytra: In lateral and caudal view convex, in dorsal view oval, relatively wide and short (in males, EL/EW = 1.33–1.38; EL/PL = 2.29–2.42; EW/PWmax = 1.25–1.31; in females, these indices 1.32–1.39, 2.34–2.41, 1.25– 1.29, respectively), widest slightly behind middle, with somewhat acute apex. Humeri prominent, angularly rounded at tip, without denticle. Subapical sinuation very shallow. Sutural angle acutangular, somewhat sharp or slightly blunted at tip. Basal edge sinuate laterally, forming an obtuse angle with lateral margin. Striae slightly impressed along entire length or superficial. Parascutellar setigerous pore present, large. Parascutellar striole short, as long as or slightly longer than distance from parascutellar pore to suture, with apex free or occasionally connected with stria 1. Intervals slightly convex, slightly narrowed posteriad. Interval 3 with or without a discal setigerous pore at stria 2 behind middle. Marginal umbilicate series widely interrupted at middle, with 7–8 pores in anterior group and 8–9 pores in posterior group. Microsculpture hardly visible, particularly on inner intervals, more distinct on two lateral intervals, consisting of very fine transverse meshes.
Hindwings: Reduced to tiny scales.
Ventral surface: Prosternum and metasternum finely pubescent. Metepisternum ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 5 – 13) slightly wider than long, strongly narrowed posteriad. Apex of last visible (VII) abdominal sternite in male somewhat widely ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 5 – 13), in female more narrowly ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 5 – 13) rounded.
Legs: Protibia without longitudinal sulcus on upper surface. Profemur with three or four setae on anterioventral margin. Tarsi short, metatarsus noticeably shorter than HWmin, with metatarsomeres markedly widened posteriad, metatarsomere 1 approximately as long as metatarsomeres 2+3. Tarsomere 5 with two pairs of ventrolateral setae. In male, pro- and mesotarsi moderately widened.
Female genitalia: Laterotergite (hemisternite) somewhat symmetrical, with two thick setae apically. Basal stylomere with one preapical spine on external margin. Apical stylomere moderately curved, with a peg-like spine at both ventral and dorsal edges of outer margin.
Male genitalia: Median lobe of aedeagus ( Figs 6–8, 11View FIGURES 5 – 13) in lateral view rather evenly arcuate, C-shaped, with apical portion slightly curved ventrad, in dorsal view almost straight, strongly narrowed to apex in distal third. Terminal lamella ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 5 – 13) moderately long, narrowed slightly to apex, at most only very slightly sinuate at sides before apical capitulum. The latter in lateral view ( Figs 6, 11View FIGURES 5 – 13) oblique, with acute dorsal flange located less distally than rounded ventral flange; in caudal view ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 5 – 13) semi-oval, rounded at tip. Internal sac with two small groups (sometimes connected forming one narrow group) of very small spines just behind the middle of median lobe.
Comparison. This species is distinctly recognized from other brachypterous species of the subgenus Bottchrus of the Himalayan region by having small size (5.6–6.2 mm), completely fused mentum and submentum, short metepisternum (slightly wider than long), not sulcate protibia, fine microsculpture on pronotum and elytra, and evenly arcuate, C-shaped median lobe of aedeagus with an oblique apical capitulum, and with two groups of very small spines in the internal sac. Among the species previously described, T. (B.) holzschuhi is somewhat similar in appearance to T. (B.) cyanescens from East Nepal, T. (B.) loebli from West Bengal and T. (B.) hingstoni from Sikkim, but all three species are larger (6.3–7.7 mm) and with protibia more or less clearly sulcate on dorsal side basally. In addition, T. (B.) cyanescens and T. (B.) loebli differ from T. (B.) holzschuhi in mentum and submentum separated by suture at least medially and in having S-shaped median lobe of aedeagus (as in Figs 117, 119View FIGURES 115 – 119). Trichotichnus (B.) hingstoni , in addition to the markedly larger size (6.8–7.7 mm) and sulcate protibia, easily differs from T. (B.) holzschuhi also in metepisternum noticeably longer than wide ( Fig. 137View FIGURES 137 – 145), in pronotum with more obtuse basal angles, and in arcuate median lobe of aedeagus bent just behind basal bulb, with thinner apical capitulum and without any spines in the internal sac ( Figs 135–136View FIGURES 135 – 136, 140, 142View FIGURES 137 – 145). The body size and the shape of the median lobe of T. (B.) holzschuhi is very similar to T. (B.) opacus described from Darjeeling District, West Bengal, but, based on the illustrations provided in the original description ( Ito 1998: Fig. 7View FIGURES 5 – 13), the median lobe of the aedeagus of the latter species has more transverse apical capitulum, the terminal lamella in dorsal view is markedly dilated at apex and the internal sac is without groups of small spines. The status of T. (B.) opacus requires further study because this species is known to us only from the very short original description where there is no direct comparison with T. (B.) holzschuhi .
Distribution ( Fig. 151View FIGURE 151, 1). Trichotichnus (B.) holzschuhi is known from the type locality in the middle Bothe Koshi Valley in Central Nepal, and from the environments of Sete Village on the eastern slope of Likhu Khola Valley on the western slope of the Lamjura Danda mountain range (southern slope of the Solu Khumbu massif) in the eastern part of Central Nepal (see remarks below).
Remarks. The species was described based on two males and one female collected in one locality in Central Nepal: “ Bagmati, Bhote Koshi Khola, Tatopani Malaphu, 700 m ”. The specimens from Sete are similar in their morphology to the type specimens, but were collected quite far from the type locality. The type specimens are very likely mislabelled at least with respect to the altitude data: the village Tatopani in the Bhote Koshi Valley is located at an altitude of approximately 1500 m. The Bothe Koshi River only reaches an altitude of 700 m more than 30 km south of Tatopani in the foothills of the Himalaya where this species probably does not occur. The true type locality is thus very likely located on one of the slopes of the Bhote Koshi Valley near Tatopani, above 1500 m. Nevertheless, if the type specimens were really collected in the Bhote Koshi River, the status of the populations from Sete needs further study on the basis of additional material particularly from the area between these two localities.
It should be noted that Kirschenhofer (1992: Fig. 32View FIGURES 32 – 37) probably incorrectly illustrated the aedeagal median lobe of T. (B.) holzschuhi as having nearly transverse apical capitulum. Examination of the type specimens revealed that the median lobe of the holotype was broken; the median lobe of the paratype from the same locality has oblique apical capitulum ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 5 – 13).
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