Markea hunzikeri A. Orejuela & C. I. Orozco, 2014

Orejuela, Andrés, Orozco, Clara Inés & Barboza, Gloria, 2014, Three new species of Markea (Solanaceae, Juanulloeae) from Colombia, Phytotaxa 167 (2), pp. 151-165 : 152-156

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.167.2.1

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scientific name

Markea hunzikeri A. Orejuela & C. I. Orozco

spec. nov.

Markea hunzikeri A. Orejuela & C. I. Orozco spec. nov. ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 , 3 View FIGURE 3 ).

Type:― COLOMBIA. Antioquia : Municipio de Urrao, Corregimiento de Encarnación , Parque Nacional Natural “Las Orquídeas”, Sector Calles, camino hacia “La Virgen”, aproximadamente 1800 m. 14 April 2011 (fl, fr), J. Betancur, P. Pedraza, A. Orejuela, J. M. Vélez- Puerta & A. Duque 15234 (holotype: COL!; isotypes: COL!, CORD!, HUA!, MEDEL!; MO!, NY!, US!) .

Markea hunzikeri differs from other species in this genus by its 3-lobed calyx and 3-lobed stigma. Epiphytic shrub or subshrub adhered through adventitious roots. Stem terete at the basal branching in fresh material, angular when dry, with conspicuous lenticels, glabrous, the branches slender, internodes clearly differentiated in young and adult branches, the bark brown, somewhat papyraceous and slightly bright in young branches. Leaves alternate, petiolate; petiole green to violaceous when fresh, 2-10 mm long, articulate, glabrous; blade elliptic to lanceolate or oblong, 5.6–13.6× 1–6.2 cm, symmetrical to slightly asymmetrical, chartaceous, minutely glandular trichomes, soon glabrescent, adaxially dark green and abaxially lighter green when fresh, in dry material dark brown adaxially, olive green abaxially, the base usually symmetrical, cuneate, the apex acuminate, 5-10 mm long, the margin entire, slightly revolute, the secondary veins 3 to 5 pairs, slightly raised on the abaxial surface, reticulum inconspicuous. Inflorescence in monochasial cymes, simple, axillary, (2.4–) 3.1–6 cm long, pendunculate, generally with one flower in anthesis and several scars indicating 4 to 7 flowers formed in different development periods of the inflorescence, bracteate, glabrous; peduncle (0.3–) 1–3.3 (–4) cm long; bracts two, unciform, ca. 0.5 mm long, the buds broadly ovoid; calyx 3- winged, totally covering the corolla before anthesis, calyx and corolla aestivation valvate and quincuncial respectively. Flowers pedicellate; pedicel 3-8 mm long, distally thickened. Calyx 3-lobed, 1.9–3.2× 1.4–1.9 cm, green with purplish tinges when fresh, the base slightly cordate, indument with glandular trichomes, slightly scattered on surface, the tube 3-5 mm long, 3-ribbed, the lobes broadly ovate, 1.6–2.4× 1.1–1.8 cm, fused by their edges along 2/3 of their length, forming three wings or ribs, the apex acute and mucronate, reticulate venation inconspicuous, each lobe with a main vein reaching the apex and 2 to 4 secondary veins departing from the base of each lobe. Corolla 5-lobed, rarely 6- lobed, tubular-campanulate, 2.2–3.8× 1.1–1.7 cm, glabrous, yellowish green, purple at the inner base of the tube, the tube 1.4–1.8 cm long, differentiated into a narrow base, 3.5–4.5× 3–4.7 mm and a campanulate portion 1.1–1.3× 1–1.7 cm, the lobes ovate, revolute with apex obtuse, slightly reflexed during anthesis, 9–10× 7.5–9.8 mm. Stamens 5 (6), 6.5–7.4 mm long, the filaments 1.2–1.4 mm long, adnate at ca. 3.2 mm from the base of the corolla, purple in fresh, brown when dry, scarcely pubescent at the insertion point, with trichomes simple, uniseriate, with 4 to 6 cells, the anthers 6–6.2 mm long, ellipsoid, basifixed, connivent. Ovary conic, ca. 3.1× 2 mm, 2 to 3 carpels, 2 to 3 locules, glabrous, the disc nectariferous 5 lobed and well developed; style 7.2–9 mm long, cream, with purplish tinges in fresh material; stigma 3-lobed, light green in fresh material, ca. 1.3 × 1.4 mm. Fruit a berry ellipsoid, 1.1–1.4× 0.7–1 cm, light green when unripe, translucent exocarp when dry, the persistent calyx totally covering the fruit, slightly accrescent, 2.2–2.9× 2.1 cm, the calyx lobes on the fruit ca. 2.9× 2.2–2.3 cm. Seeds numerous, sub-reniform, 2.3–2.5× 1.2–1.4 mm, pale brown when dry, the testa reticulate; embryo slightly curved, ca. 2.1× 0.5 mm, the cotyledons ellipsoid, as wide but shorter than the rest of the embryo, with relatively abundant endosperm.

Etymology:―The specific name is dedicated to Prof. Armando Hunziker (1919-2001) for his numerous contributions to the knowledge of tribe Juanulloeae and for being the first one to recognize, in his unpublished notes, this taxon as a probable new species of Hawkesiophyton , a genus which has been synonymized under Markea by Knapp et al. (1997). A complete list of Hunziker´s contributions can be found in Anton & Barboza (2007).

Distribution and Habitat:― Markea hunzikeri is distributed in Colombia’s Andean region in the departments of Antioquia, Tolima and Valle, growing in preserved forest and relicts from 800–2500 m.

Phenology: ―Flowering and fruiting take place all year long.

Conservation status:― Markea hunzikeri is endemic to Colombia. Most of the samples come from localities not included in the Colombian National System of Protected Areas (Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas de Colombia), except for those collected from “Las Orquídeas” National Natural Park and from private reserves, including the Ecological Park “Piedras Blancas”, “Montevivo” Natural Reserve, and the Wild Life Refuge of “Alto de San Miguel”, in Antioquia. Markea hunzikeri is proposed as a vulnerable species ( VU) because the area in which it is present (17,000 km 2, as calculated by the minimum convex polygon method) is below 20,000 km 2, which is the lower limit stated by criterion B 1ab [i, iii] of the IUCN (2012). Additionally, most of the known collections of M. hunzikeri come from forest relicts in highly fragmented areas around the city of Medellín.

Additional specimens examined:― COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Arví, vereda El Roble, finca La Forzosa, alto El Surtido , 1750 m, 2 June 2004, Ariza & Toro 670 ( UDBC) ; municipio Caldas, reserva “Alto de San Miguel”, cuenca alta del río Medellín , 1800–2000 m, 75°38´ W, 6°05´ N, 23 November 1996, Roldán & Velásquez 2482 ( HUA) GoogleMaps ; municipio Envigado , vereda “El Escobero” finca “La Morena”, 2100 m, 6°10´19” N, 75°39´09” W, 2 November 1996, Correa et al. 1508 ( JAUM) GoogleMaps ; municipio de Frontino, corregimiento Nutibara , región de Murrí, margen de carretera, 1780 m, 11 July 1986, Acevedo et al. 1283 ( HUA) ; Alto de Cuevas, 10 km al oriente de La Blanquita, 12 km al occidente de Nutibara , 1680 m, 6°40’ N, 76°30’ W, 2 March 1992, Gentry et al. 76033 ( MO) GoogleMaps ; Corregimiento de Nutibara, cuenca alta del río Cuevas , 1720 m, 12 July 1986, Sánchez et al. 347 ( COL) ; 8 km al Sur de Angostura sobre la vía a la represa Miraflores , 2000 m, 6° 50´ N, 75°18´ W, 8 February 1986, Stein & Cogollo 3397 ( COL) GoogleMaps ; entre los municipios de Frontino y Urrao, Parque Nacional Natural “Las Orquídeas”, sector Calles, margen derecha del rio Calles , 1250 m, 6°32´ N, 76°19´ W, 30 May 1988, Cogollo & Ramírez 3068 ( COL) GoogleMaps ; margen izquierda del río Calles, 1 km arriba de la confluencia de los ríos Polo y Calles , 1460 m, 6°32´ N, 76°19´ W, 11 February 1989, Cogollo et al. 3894 ( COL) GoogleMaps ; municipio de Medellín, San Antonio del Prado, al sur de Medellín, vereda La Cabaña, finca Loma Linda , al oeste del pueblo, 2200 m, 6 November 1986, Albert de Escobar et al. 8765 ( HUA) ; near Medellín , February 1931, Archer 1597 ( US) ; corregimiento de Altavista, monte El Encanto, quebrada El Barcino , 2350–2380 m, 6°13´44” N, 75°39´33” W, 16 June 1997, Giraldo et al. 1630 ( HUA, JAUM) GoogleMaps ; corregimiento Santa Helena, Reserva Natural Montevivo, sector Casapalo , 2500 m, 06°12´48” N 75° 29´32.2” W, 20 October 2002, David & Idarraga 376 ( HUA) GoogleMaps ; corregimiento de Altavista, vereda Aguas frías, cabecera de la quebrada “Las Picachas”, 2250–2300 m, 6°13´57” N, 75°39´45” W, 19 May 1997, Rodríguez et al. 811 ( JAUM) GoogleMaps ; vereda Aguas Frias (parte alta), alto El Cedro , 2450 m, 06°13´55” N, 75°39´25” W, 08 February 2008, Rodríguez et al. 6403 ( HUA) GoogleMaps ; entre el municipio Medellín y Guarne, parque ecológico Piedras Blancas , sector Lajas , 2350 m, 6°18´ N, 75°29´ W, 10 December 1994, Fonnegra et al. 5331 ( COL, HUA, MO) GoogleMaps ; municipio Rionegro, corregimiento Santa Helena, vereda Yarumales , 23 km al SE de Medellín por la vía a Santa Helena , 2400 m, 6°16´ N, 75°32´ W, 11 January 1994, Callejas & Bornstein 11091 ( HUA) GoogleMaps ; municipio San Francisco, corregimiento de Aquitania, rio Venado , 1200–1350 m, 2 April 1992, Fonnegra et al. 4052 ( COL, HUA) ; tierra fría, 1150–1250 m, 5 April 1992, Fonnegra et al. 4319 ( HUA, MO) ; municipio Yarumal, vereda “El Cedro” sobre la vía Alto de Ventanas-El Cedro , 127 Km al NE de Medellín, 1600–1800 m, 7°06´ N, 75°32´ W, 7 March 1993, Callejas & Gómez 10809 ( HUA) GoogleMaps . Tolima: entre Murillo, 15 km. de Líbano, 2000 m, 8 April 1984, Albert de Escobar et al. 4211 ( HUA) . Valle del Cauca: Cordillera Occidental, vertiente occidental, Hoya del río San Quininí , lado izquierdo, La Laguna, bosques, 1250–1400 m, 10–20 December 1943, Cuatrecasas 15485 ( VALLE) .

Discussion:― Markea hunzikeri can be easily recognized from any other species of the genus because of its consistently 3-lobed calyx and stigma. This species is sympatric with Markea antioquensis S. Knapp (1998: 153) and Markea pilosa S. Knapp (1998:157) but these species are morphologically very different ( Fig. 2A, G View FIGURE 2 ). Besides of the 5-lobed calyx and 2-lobed stigma, among others characters, in M. antioquensis and M. pilosa the size of the corollas are longer than 4 cm (see the key). In spite of the noticeable 3-lobed calyx and stigma, M. hunzikeri has been confused in herbaria with Markea sturmii Cuatrec. (1959: 271) . Both species are epiphytic small shrubs, profusely branched with slender stems and small leaves of comparable size and color. These similarities may have led to the inclusion of M. hunzikeri as M. sturmii in the catalogue of Solanaceae for the Flora of Antioquia ( Nee 2011).

On the other hand, both species are part of the group of Markea bearing small flowers, less than 3 cm long; however, in M. hunzikeri the calyx is 3-lobed, with lobes broadly ovate and base cordate, while in M. sturmii the calyx is 5-lobed, exhibiting elliptical lobes with cuneate base ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 , 5B View FIGURE 5 ). In M. hunzikeri , the base of the filaments has sparsely simple uniseriate trichomes, while in M. sturmii the filaments are glabrous. Additionally, in M. hunzikeri the bracts are small and unciform while in M. sturmii are conspicuous and foliose. Finally, the stigma in M. hunzikeri is 3-lobed vs. the 2-lobed stigma of M. sturmii .


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