Cryptoperla teana Li & Murányi

Li, Weihai & Murányi, Dávid, 2018, A new species of Cryptoperla Needham, 1909 (Plecoptera: Peltoperlidae) from Guangxi of China, based on male, female, and larval stage, Zootaxa 4455 (1), pp. 177-188: 178-186

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Cryptoperla teana Li & Murányi


Cryptoperla teana Li & Murányi  , sp.n.

( Figs. 1–40View FIGURES 1–8View FIGURES 9–14View FIGURES 15–17View FIGURES 18–23View FIGURE 24View FIGURES 25–35View FIGURES 36–39View FIGURE 40)

Type materials: Holotype male ( HIST), China: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Wuming County, Damingshan National Natural Reserve , seep at Golden Turtle Waterfall , 1150 m, 23°30.373'N, 108°26.141'E, 2015. III.21, leg. J. Kontschán, J.Y. Li, S. Li, W.H. Li, DGoogleMaps  . Murányi, G.Q. Wang. Paratypes: same locality and date: 1 female and its exuviae ( HNHMAbout HNHM: No. PLO54); Damingshan National Natural Reserve, inflow stream above Dragon Lake , 1225 m, 23°29.751'N, 108°26.242'E, 2015. III.22, leg. J. Kontschán, J.Y. Li, S. Li, W.H. Li, DGoogleMaps  . Murányi, G.Q. Wang.: 15 larvae, 2 exuviae (HNHM: No. PLO60).

Adult. General body color light brown with yellow pattern. Biocellate, distance between ocelli about two times the diameter of the ocellus. Head mostly brown but with distinct pale patches around ocelli in dorsal view, and a pale crossbar continuing medially to clypeus on the downcurved apex of head, as seen in frontal view ( Figs. 1–2 View Figure , 18–19 View Figure ). Occipital suture indistinct, occipital rugosities scarce and barely seen; compound eyes black and hairy, antennae brown, mouthparts and palpi pale. Pronotum brown with distinct pale rugosities ( Figs. 1 View Figure , 19 View Figure ). Mesonotum and metanotum ventrally pale with paired longitudinal brown patches laterally, scutum chocolate brown; metathoracal postscutellum with pale, worm-like paired mediolateral process dotted by short, sensilla-like setae ( Fig. 20 View Figure ). Wing membrane brownish, veins dark brown; femora and tibiae pale brown, tarsi dark. Abdominal segments mostly pale brown to yellowish.

Male. Forewing length ca. 11.8 mm, body length ca. 9 mm. Terminal 3 segments with brownish terga and distinct lateral marking ( Figs. 3–5 View Figure ), posterior half of tergum 10 downcurved ( Fig. 9 View Figure ), and the margin parabolic in rear view ( Fig. 9 View Figure ). Basal cercal segment ca. 5X long as basal with and distal half with reddish brown dense, spurlike hair fringe along inner margin, longest hair ca. 2X long as the cercal width ( Figs. 3, 7–8 View Figure , 11, 13 View Figure , 15 View Figure ); cercal spur absent. Vesicle of sternum 9 ca. 0.6X long as wide, apex with an interrupted row of long hairs ( Fig. 6 View Figure ). Aedeagus ( Figs. 10–14 View Figure , 16–17 View Figure ): basoventrally with conical lower lobe at each lateral corner with slightly coarse surface ( Figs. 12–14 View Figure , 17 View Figure ), the corresponding dorsal part forming a transverse band with rough surface with wrinkles, the posterolateral margin angled ( Figs. 10–11 View Figure , 16 View Figure ); main upper lobe much larger and spherical, without macrosetae ( Figs. 11–13 View Figure ).

Female: Forewing length 13 mm, body length 10 mm; habitus and coloration similar to male. Sternum 8 with trapezoid anterior portion subdivided from the large subgenital plate; subgenital plate is broadly rounded, covers most of sternum 9, yellowish and covered by dense but short and thin setae ( Fig. 21 View Figure ). Sternum 9 with posteromedial portion subdivided from the basal and lateral portions, white and bald; it is slightly produced posteriorly, fully covers sternum 10. Tergum 10 broadly triangular, darker than the previous terga and sterna, well overhangs paraprocts ( Figs. 21–22 View Figure ). Paraprocts and cerci dark brown, unmodified.

Egg: unknown.

Larva. Body length of the female exuviae from Golden Turtle Waterfall 10 mm, larvae and exuviae from Dragon Lake smaller, 8–9 mm, female exuviae 17–18.5 mm. General color greyish dark brown, with distinct yellow and reddish patches ( Figs. 24 View Figure , 38 View Figure – Fig. 38 View Figure shows alive larva, Fig. 24 View Figure made on the basis of exuviae of the same specimen). Coloration of larvae from Dragon Lake less contrasting ( Fig. 39 View Figure ). Head with yellow or pale brown occiput, brown anterior to ocelli mouthparts pale, antennae yellowish pale brown. Lacinia bidentate, teeth of equal length, marginal fringe with very long setae; galea shorter than apical tooth of lacinia, bear apical tuft of short setae ( Figs. 33–34 View Figure ). Mandible with two molar and three incisor dens, molar well developed ( Fig. 35 View Figure ). Pronotum brown with pale, marmorated pattern, following thoracal plates similar but with distinct yellow bars delimiting wing pads; ventral surface of thorax pale. Legs brown with distinct yellow dorsoapical patches on femora, tarsi reddish brown. Abdomen with conspicuous, wide medial yellow marking on the first three terga, following two or three terga are with paired lateral yellowish spots, terminal segments with indistinct pattern; ventral surface uniformly pale. Cerci pale brown, bit darker than antennae.

Meso- and metathoracal posterior supracoxal gills simple, elongated and acute ( Figs. 29–30 View Figure ). Paraprocts continued in elongated triangular gills, posteriomedial gill of tergum 10 distinct and elongated ( Fig. 28 View Figure ). Ventral setal fringes of thorax consist of complete anterior fringe and well developed posteriolateral fringes on prothorax; mediolateral and well developed poteriolateral fringes on mesothorax; well-developed mediolateral fringes and complete posterior fringe on metathorax ( Fig. 23 View Figure ). Legs with dorsal row of swimming hairs scarce and indistinct on femora, more developed on tibiae; clothing hairs black. All abdominal sterna are with complete posterior setal fringe of long, blunt setae ( Fig. 26 View Figure ); clothing hairs pale. Posterior setal fringe on abdominal terga consist of five to six short, clavate setae altered with long, acute setae ( Fig. 25 View Figure ); clothing hairs black. Posterior fringe of tergum 10 lacks clavate setae but fully armed with long, acute setae. Paraprocts are with pale clothing hairs and a posterior fringe of long, blunt setae at the origin of gills ( Fig. 27 View Figure ). Basal segments of cerci bear distinct ventral blade-like setae in apical whorls, and dense, long intercalary hairs ( Fig. 31 View Figure ); blade-like setae gradually weakens towards the medial portion of the cerci, apical segments are armed only with moderately long setae in apical whorls, and dense, long hairs ( Fig. 32 View Figure ).

Distribution and ecology. The new species was found at two water flows within Damingshan National Natural Reserve, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The Daming Mountains form relatively isolated range in central Guangxi, and the Cryptoperla  was found on high plateau of the range. Lentic and lotic waters distinctively 'tea-colored' because of high humin acid content occurred. The two mature larvae were found under stones in a vertical rocky seep close to a pond beneath Golden Turtle Waterfall ( Fig. 36 View Figure ), while penultimate instar larvae were numerous under littoral stones at rapid section of a stream flowing into Dragon Lake ( Fig. 37 View Figure ). The matured larvae are both emerged safely within a few days; however, we were not able to rear the penultimate instar larvae from the Dragon Lake stream. March should be considered as beginning of the emergence period of the species. It is worth to note that penultimate instar larvae were able not only to run fast but to jump up to ten centimeters in distance. No mature eggs were found in the female adult despite being alive for more than two weeks. At the seep, the holotype and paratype were found together with numerous Indonemoura Baumann, 1975  larvae but no other stoneflies. The stream inhabited by the paratype larvae are shared with a few other Leuctridae  , Nemouridae  and Perlidae  , including a new Rhopalopsole Klapálek, 1912  species ( Li et al. 2017a).

Affinities. The female is difficult to identify, but combination of a broadly rounded subgenital plate, shape of metathoracal postscutellar process and general coloration distinguish it from most known congeners. The arrangement of setae of the male cerci is most similar to the Himalayan C. pentagonalis Zwick & Sivec, 1980  and less to Central Chinese C. nangongshana Huo & Du, 2018  , but their figures (fig. 10, Huo & Du 2018) of the everted aedeagi appear differ by more complex lobes and surface structures. No similar cerci or aedeagus were found after comparison with other Asian species (aedeagus of some Chinese species still unknown, e.g. even the lately described C. dactylina Du, 2018  (in: Huo & Du 2018)). The larva also appears similar to the C. pentagonalis  by configuration of ventral fringes of thorax and dense blade-like setae of the cerci, but easy to distinguish on the basis of distinct color pattern.

Etymology. The name teana  (from the Latin word teanus, meaning 'of tea') refers to the habitat of the species, tea-colored waters of the Damingshan plateau. Used as a possessive pronoun, gender feminine.

Known distribution of the Cryptoperla  species ( Fig. 40 View Figure ). The genus Cryptoperla  is distributed mainly in the eastern continental areas of the Oriental Region and enters the East Palaearctic on the Japanese Archipelago. No Cryptoperla  species are known from the Indian Subcontinent outside of the Himalayas, neither from the Southeast Asian islands. The type species, C. torva Needham, 1909  and its type locality constitutes the westernmost occurrence, in Himachal Pradesh state of India. Cryptoperla torva  and C. pentagonalis Zwick & Sivec, 1980  seem to be widespread in most of the Himalayas, whereas the further three species were found in the East Himalayas, in Arunachal Pradesh state of India. The Tibetan Plateau and the Indochina Peninsula apparently is the center of species diversity of the genus, with the northernmost continental records known from southern Gansu Province of China ( C. stilifera Sivec, 1995  ). The genus apparently dispersed southwards into peninsular Malaysia ( C. fraterna (Banks, 1938))  . In the eastern areas of Oriental China, the genus seems to be rare, with only two species known from Fujian Province ( C. fujianica Sivec, 1995  and C. stilifera Sivec, 1995  ). East of the continent, Cryptoperla  species occur on Taiwan, larger isles of the Ryukyus, Kyushu, Shikoku and on Honshu up to Nagano Prefecture of Japan.


Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)