Eurypon verticillatum, Cavalcanti & Santos & Pinheiro, 2018

Cavalcanti, Thaynã, Santos, George Garcia & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2018, Description of three species of Eurypon Gray, 1867 (Raspailiidae: Demospongiae: Porifera) from the Western Atlantic and a name to replace the the secondary homonym Eurypon topsenti, Zootaxa 4388 (1), pp. 89-101: 95-98

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Eurypon verticillatum

sp. nov.

Eurypon verticillatum   sp. nov.

( Figures 1 View FIGURE 1 , 6–7 View FIGURE6 View FIGURE 7 , Table 1–2)

Type locality: Brazil, Pernambuco State, Goiana Municipality, Ponta de Pedras Beach.  

Type specimens: Holotype. UFPEPOR 1966, Ponta de Pedras (07°37’00’’S – 34°48’51’’W), Goiana Municipality, Pernambuco State, Brazil, intertidal, coll. T. Cavalcanti and U. Pinheiro (30/VII/2015). Paratype. UFPEPOR 1967 and UFPEPOR 1968 (31/VIII/2015), UFPEPOR 1969 (29/IX/2015), collected at the type locality.

Diagnosis. Eurypon   with blue color and long tylostyles (400–1100 / 2–9 µm), verticillate acanthostyles (I = 81–287 / 3–7 µm; II = 60–141 / 2–6 µm) and raphides (36–62 µm).

External morphology ( Fig. 6A –B View FIGURE6 ). Thinly encrusting sponge, covering surfaces up to 40 cm ² and 0.5–1.0 mm thick. Hispid surface and consistency firm but easy to tear. Oscula absent. Colour in life is blue which is kept when preserved (80% ethanol).

Skeleton ( Fig. 6C View FIGURE6 ). No special ectosomal skeleton. The choanosomal skeleton has a microcionid structure. The majority of tylostyles and acanthostyles are embedded in a dense spongin layer which protrude externally. Raphides are dispersed in the subectosomal region.

Spicules ( Fig. 7A –G View FIGURE 7 ). Choanosomal tylostyles (460– 774.3 –1100 / 3– 5.7 –8 µm): elongated, smooth, curved, with hastate tips and rounded tyla ( Fig. 7A –B View FIGURE 7 ); Acanthostyles I (121– 179.2 –236 / 3– 4.7 –6 µm): long, thin, straight to slightly curved, with few little spines on the shaft, concentrated on the base, and with subterminal tyla bearing bigger verticillate spines ( Fig. 7C –D View FIGURE 7 ); Acanthostyles II (60– 80.4 –110 / 2– 4.2 –6 µm): straight, fusiform, with a flat base, abundant spines on the shaft, and with verticillate curved spines (hook-shaped) directed to the tips ( Fig. 7E – F View FIGURE 7 ); Raphides (40– 49.9 –57 µm): small, smooth and abundant ( Fig. 7G View FIGURE 7 ).

Distribution and ecology ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Brazil: Northeastern Region: Pernambuco State: Goiana Municipality, intertidal zone. Eurypon verticillatum   sp. nov. is abundant at ‘Ponta de Pedras’ reefs. All the sponges were found in an epibenthic association with bryozoan species. The bryozoans Amathia vidovici Heller,1867, Amathia sp. and Nolella stipata Gosse, 1855   were found over the new species surface ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE6 ).

Etymology. The specific epithet verticillatum   refer to the verticillate spines next to base of acanthostyle I and II.

Remarks. Eurypon verticillatum   sp. nov. is assigned to Eurypon   for the possessing a spicule complement typical of the genus, composed by choanosomal tylostyles, echinating acanthostyles, raphides, a microcionid skeletal arrangement and encrusting habit. It differs from the Atlantic Ocean species of the genus for presenting exclusive verticillate acanthostyles. Additionally, it differs from others features. The species more similar to E. verticillatum   sp. nov. is E. viride   , which shares with the new species the presence of choanosomal tylostyles, raphides and acanthostyles. However, E. viride   has only one category of typical acanthostyles, while the new species has two size classes of verticillate acanthostyles. Eurypon verticillatum   sp. nov. is distinguished from E. lictor   and E. topsenti   for presenting acanthostyles. The new species differ from E. clavatella   , E. clavatum   , E. coronula   , E. distyli   , E. fulvum   , E. lacazei   , E. longispiculum   , E. major   , E. pulitzeri   nom. nov., E. radiatum   , E. toureti   and E. viride   , because these species have one category of acanthostyles while the new species has two categories of acanthostyles. The presence of choanossomal subtylostyles in combination with two categories of acanthostyles is found in E. clavilectuarium   , E. hispidulum   , E. incipiens   , E. miniaceum   , E. mucronale   , E. scabiosum   , E. simplex   , E. suassunai   and E. urizae   . The new species differs from the latter species, by the choanosomal tylostyles and in spicules dimensions (Tab. 1). Eurypon verticillatum   sp. nov. is distinguished from E. mixtum   , which has the spicules components of tylostyles, acanthostyles I, II, and ectosomal styles or subtylostyles. The new species differ from E. mixtum   in presenting raphides and in spicules dimensions (Tab. 1). Finally, it is distinguished from E. oxychaetum   sp. nov. and E. potiguaris   sp. nov. by their spicules complement and dimensions (Tab. 1).

TABLE]. Comparative micrometric đata on the spicules, shape anđ đistribution overview of the new Eurypon   species from the Atlantic Ocean. Values are in micrometers (µm), expresseđ as follows: minimum̅maximum or minimum̅ mean ̅maximum length/wiđth. References are numbeređ in parentheses anđ listeđ after the table.

……continued on the next page TABLE]. (Continueđ) References: (1) Pulitzer-Finali (1983); (2) Topsent (1936); (3) Little (1963); (4) Boury-Esnault et al. (1994); (5) Santos et al. (2014); (6) Boury-Esnault & Lopes (1985); (7) Lévi (1969); (8) Topsent

1904); (9) Topsent (1928); (10) Carter (1876); (11) Sarả & Siribelli (1960); (12) Pulitzer-Finali (1978); (13) Uriz (1988); (14) Bowerbank, 1866; (15) Topsent (1927); (16) Bowerbank (1874); (17)

Burton (1954); (18) Topsent (1894); (19) Topsent (1889).