Belidae

Oberprieler, Rolf G., Marvaldi, Adriana E. & Anderson, Robert S., 2007, Weevils, weevils, weevils everywhere *, Zootaxa 1668, pp. 491-520: 499-500

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.274039

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1DEF10B6-0BFE-4BE5-A536-02077E7D5187

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0397878F-FFB4-9933-FF0E-C949624EC5F2

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Belidae
status

 

Belidae 

Another small and evidently relict family, the Belidae  number only about 375 species classified in 38 genera and occur predominantly in the southern hemisphere. They are divided into two subfamilies, Belinae  and Oxycoryninae  , with rather different distributions and habits. The Belinae  , with about 155 species in 25 genera, are restricted to the southern hemisphere, occurring mainly in the Australian region (140 species in 21 genera) but a few also in South America. The Oxycoryninae  , with 13 genera and about 200 species, have a worldwide but highly fragmented distribution ( Marvaldi et al. 2006). The larvae of Belinae  are woodborers in stems and logs, the more primitive Pachyurini and Agnesiotidini (fig. 3) mostly in conifers ( Araucariaceae  , Podocarpaceae  and Cupressaceae  ) but the Belini in angiosperms, especially acacias in Australia. Oxycoryninae  (fig. 4) develop mostly in reproductive plant organs, of gymnosperms (araucarias and cycads) as well as of angiosperms, but also in stems or under bark (see Marvaldi et al. 2006). In Belidae  and remaining weevil families, the female rostrum is transformed into a proper oviposition tool by the fusion of labrum and clypeus and the development of more advanced mandibles with long pharyngeal processes, enabling their eggs to be deposited inside firm plant tissues and their larvae to develop truly endophytically.

The unification of Belinae  and Oxycoryninae  into a single family is not universally adopted (e.g., Crowson 1955, Thompson 1992, Zimmerman 1994 a, Zherikhin & Gratshev 1995), although the close relationship of these two groups has long been recognised and is well supported in phylogenetic analyses ( Kuschel 1995, Marvaldi & Morrone 2000, Marvaldi et al. 2002). The Aglycyderini  , too, are sometimes treated as a separate subfamily (e.g., May 1993, Kuschel 1995, 2003) or even family (e.g., Thompson 1992, Zimmerman 1994 a), but recent phylogenetic analyses ( Marvaldi 2005 a, Marvaldi et al. 2006) place them firmly inside Oxycoryninae  . With phylogenetic analyses recently conducted on all the genera of both Belinae  ( Kuschel & Leschen 2003) and Oxycoryninae  ( Marvaldi et al. 2006), the Belidae  are the only weevil family for which comprehensive generic phylogenies are available.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Belidae