Sadala Simon, 1880

Rheims, Cristina A. & Jäger, Peter, 2022, Revalidation of the genus Sadala Simon, 1880 with the description of a new genus of Neotropical huntsman spiders (Araneae, Sparassidae), Zootaxa 5135 (1), pp. 1-80 : 6-9

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5135.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0CC0D586-E099-4593-9032-EA1885F00F3B

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6820323

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/039787EF-FFA4-C906-FF32-FF55FA12FD63

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Sadala Simon, 1880
status

 

Sadala Simon, 1880 gen. reval.

Sadala Simon, 1880: 230 , 317 (description of new genus, without original type designation).

Sparassus, Simon 1897: 35–36 , 38.

Olios, Simon 1903a: 1020 .

Type species. Sadala keyserlingi Simon, 1880 (herewith designated according to article 69.1 of the Code; International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999).

Diagnosis. Species of the genus Sadala resemble those of Nungara Pinto & Rheims, 2016 , Caayguara Rheims, 2010a and Meri gen. nov. in having the chelicerae with three promarginal teeth and intermarginal denticles ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 5–8 ; Jäger et al. 2009: figs 10, 89, 109; Rheims 2010a: fig. 7, 2010b: fig. 2; Guala et al. 2012: fig. 22, Pinto & Rheims 2016: fig. 7) and a short-toothed female palpal claw ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 5–8 , Rheims 2010a: fig. 7; Pinto & Rheims 2016: fig. 16). They are distinguished from Caayguara by the presence of 5–10 escort setae at base of fang ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 5–8 ) (only 1 in Caayguara ), 3 pairs of spines on ventral tibiae I–II (only 2 pairs in Caayguara ); male palps with simple filiform embolus (e.g., Figs 14 View FIGURES 13–18 , 25 View FIGURES 24–29 ) (broadened, with projections in Caayguara ) and MS of female epigyne with triangular scape-like projection (e.g., Figs 27 View FIGURES 24–29 , 38 View FIGURES 35–40 ) (smooth in Caayguara ); from Nungara and Meri gen. nov. by the female epigyne with MS bearing a triangular scape-like projection (e.g., Figs 35 View FIGURES 35–40 , 48 View FIGURES 45–50 , 75 View FIGURES 72–77 ) (MS with epigynal pocket in the other genera). Additionally, they are distinguished from Nungara by the male palp with a smooth tegulum (with deep groove in Nungara ) and conductor long, hyaline, arising centrally from tegulum (short, gutter shaped, arising distally in Nungara ) (e.g., Figs 57 View FIGURES 56–61 , 73 View FIGURES 72–77 , 84 View FIGURES 83–85 ); from Meri gen. nov. by the male palp with embolus coiling 0.5 to 0.75 times around tegulum (only 0.25 times around tegulum in Meri gen. nov.) (e.g., Figs 25 View FIGURES 24–29 , 57 View FIGURES 56–61 , 73 View FIGURES 72–77 ); and by vulva with internal ducts with two turns (except in S. nanay spec. nov. in which second turn is barely distinct) (e.g., Figs 28–29 View FIGURES 24–29 , 66–67 View FIGURES 62–67 ) (only one in Meri gen. nov.).

Description. Coloration pattern ranging from orange-brown to dark brown; prosoma with lighter cephalic region and dark brown stripe extending posteriorly from between median eyes; opisthosoma with lighter heart mark and faint darker pectinated pattern; and legs with very dark patellae, tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi ( Figs 1–4 View FIGURES 1–4 ). Total length of males 10.3–16.4, of females 15.3–24.3. Dorsal shield of prosoma usually longer than wide, can be as wide as long. Cephalic region slightly higher than thoracic region, flattening posteriorly. Fovea conspicuous on posterior third of prosoma. Eyes arranged in two straight rows; AME larger than ALE and more separated from each other than from ALE; PME smaller than PLE mostly equidistant, but can be slightly closer or further apart from each other than from PLE. Clypeus low, less than AME diameter. Chelicerae longer than wide with three promarginal teeth, the median one largest, and 3–5 retromarginal teeth, the three distal ones subequal and the others smaller. Between 15 and 25 intermarginal denticles present at the base of the groove, in front of promarginal teeth. Internal margin with 5–10 escort setae ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 5–8 ). Labium rebordered, as wide as long. Endites slightly convergent, longer than wide, with dense scopula on internal margin. Serrula with single row of denticles ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5–8 ). Sternum longer than wide, slightly projected between coxae IV. Female palp with single pectinate claw with 5–7 short teeth ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 5–8 ); sensory setae long, distally curved, with barbules along the entire setae and with distal region bearing a large rounded pore and a single filiform extension, scattered dorsally along tarsus. Legs laterigrade (2143). Spination pattern in males: palp: femur p0-0-1, d0-1-2, r0-0-1; patella: p1, r1; tibia: p2-1-0, d1-0-0, r1-0-0; legs: femora I–III: p1-1-1, d0-1-1, r1-1-1; IV: p1-1-1, d0-1-1, r0-0-1; patellae I–III: p1, r1; IV: p0, r0; tibiae I–II: p1-0-1, d1-1-1, r1-0-1, v2-2-2; III–IV: p1-0-1, d0-0-1, r1-0-1, v2-2-2; metatarsi I–III: p1-1-0, r1-1-0, v2-2-0; IV: p1-1-2, r1-1-1, v2-2-0; in females: palp: femur: p0-0-1, d0-1-2, r0-0-1; patella: p1, r1; tibia: p2-1-0, d1-0-0, r1-1-0; tarsus p2-1-0, r2-1-0; legs: femora I–III: p1-1-1, d0-1-1, r1-1-1; IV: p1-1-1, d0-1-1, r0-0-1; patellae I–III: p0, r1; IV: p0; r0; tibiae I–IV: p1-0-1, r1-0-1, v2-2-2; metatarsi I–III: p1-1-0, r1-1-0, v2-2-0; IV: p1-1-2, r1-1-1, v2-2-0. Trochanter deeply notched. Metatarsi I–IV distally with dorsal trilobate membrane with median hook as large as lateral projections ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 5–8 ). Tarsi and anterior half of metatarsi scopulate. Trichobothria present on dorsal tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi, arranged in several rows on tarsi, converging to a single row on metatarsi. Dorsal plate of bothria with one or two transversal grooves, projecting over a smooth proximal plate ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 9–12 ). Tarsal organ capsulate, with oval opening ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 9–12 ), located dorsally, at distal end of tarsi. Tarsi with pair of pectinate claws with 20–23 short teeth and claw tufts ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 9–12 ). Opisthosoma oval, longer than wide ( Figs 1–4 View FIGURES 1–4 ). Male epiandrium with small groups of epiandrous spigots ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 9–12 ). Six spinnerets: anterior lateral spinnerets contiguous, conical and bi-segmented. Basal segment elongated and cylindrical, distal segment short and truncated. Posterior median spinnerets conical and short. Posterior lateral spinnerets conical and bi-segmented. Basal segment elongated and cylindrical, distal segment short and truncated. Male palp: tibia shorter than cymbium (distinctly shorter in S. yuyapichis spec. nov.); PTA arising distally, generally triangular; RTA arising distally, single, of varying shapes; cymbium with large oval alveolus, dorsal oval scopula interspersed with sensory setae, as in female, and, in some species, curved dorsal proximal cymbial projection; subtegulum ring-shaped, visible prolaterally in ventral view (except in S. kaiabi spec. nov. in which it is totally covered by the tegulum in ventral view, Fig. 14 View FIGURES 13–18 ); tegulum oval (except in S. kaiabi spec. nov. in which it is sub-circular, Fig. 14 View FIGURES 13–18 ), smooth; embolus filiform, arising from tegulum between 4 and 6 o’clock positions; conductor hyaline, laminar, arising centrally from tegulum (e.g., Figs 13–15 View FIGURES 13–18 , 24–26 View FIGURES 24–29 , 56–58 View FIGURES 56–61 ). Epigyne: MAB present, embedded in EF or inconspicuous; LL smooth, touching each other posteriorly; MS of variable shapes, bearing triangular scape-like projection (e.g., Figs 16 View FIGURES 13–18 , 38 View FIGURES 35–40 , 59 View FIGURES 56–61 , 75 View FIGURES 72–77 ). Vulva: internal ducts with two turns (except S. nanay spec. nov. in which the second turn is inconspicuous); GP arising from ducts at second turn (except in S. nanay spec. nov. in which it arises close to SP); SP of variable shapes; FD short, hook-shaped (e.g., Figs 28–29 View FIGURES 24–29 , 36–37 View FIGURES 35–40 , 66–67 View FIGURES 62–67 ).

Composition. Nine species: Sadala kaiabi spec. nov.; S keyserlingi Simon comb. rest.; S. nanay spec. nov.; S. nigristernis Simon comb. rest.; S. puniceus Simon comb. rest.; S. rufus (Keyserling) comb. rest.; S. tabatinga spec. nov.; S. velox Simon comb. rest.; S. yuyapichis spec. nov.

Distribution. Northern South America, from central Colombia (Bogota and Cundinamarca) to central-western Brazil (Mato Grosso) ( Figs 89–90 View FIGURES 89–90 , 320 View FIGURES 319–320 ).

Key to species of Sadala

1 Males .............................................................................................. 2

- Females............................................................................................ 7

2(1) Cymbium with curved dorsal proximal projection (DpP, Figs 26 View FIGURES 24–29 , 74 View FIGURES 72–77 )............................................ 3

- Cymbium without curved dorsal proximal projection ( Figs 15 View FIGURES 13–18 , 47 View FIGURES 45–50 , 58 View FIGURES 56–61 )........................................... 4

3(2) RTA long, more than three times longer than wide, surpassing proximal margin of alveolus, distally widened, spoon-shaped (best seen in ventral view) ( Figs 25–26 View FIGURES 24–29 )........................................................ S. keyserlingi

- RTA short, two times longer than wide, not surpassing proximal margin of alveolus, with the same width throughout (Figs 73–74)....................................................................................... S. velox

4(2) Embolus arising from tegulum at 4 o’clock position; conductor arising centrally from tegulum, far from embolus base ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 13–18 , 46 View FIGURES 45–50 , 84 View FIGURES 83–85 )............................................................................................. 5

- Embolus arising from tegulum at 6 o’clock position; conductor base extending from central tegulum to embolus base (Figs 56–57)........................................................................................ S. rufa

5(4) Embolus base not extending beyond retrocymbial margin in ventral view ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 13–18 , 46 View FIGURES 45–50 ).............................. 6

- Embolus base extending beyond retrocymbial margin in ventral view ( Fig. 84 View FIGURES 83–85 )................. S. yuyapichis spec. nov.

6(5) RTA distally tapering with pointed tip ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 13–18 ); conductor short (less than 1.5 times longer than wide), barely surpassing anterior margin of the alveolus ( Fig. 145 View FIGURES 145–149 )...................................................... S. kaiabi spec. nov.

- RTA distally blunt, same width throughout ( Figs 46–47 View FIGURES 45–50 ); conductor long (2 times longer than wide), surpassing the anterior margin of the alveolus by more than half its length.................................................. S. punicea

7(1) TP long, generally as long as or longer than wide, if wider than long, width less than twice the length ( Figs 16 View FIGURES 13–18 , 38 View FIGURES 35–40 , 75 View FIGURES 72–77 ).... 8

- TP short, almost seven times wider than long ( Fig. 59 View FIGURES 56–61 ).................................................. S. rufa

8(7) MS triangular, wider than long, widest anteriorly ( Figs 16 View FIGURES 13–18 , 27 View FIGURES 24–29 )................................................. 9

- MS of different shapes, longer than wide or as wide as long ( Figs 38 View FIGURES 35–40 , 65 View FIGURES 62–67 , 75 View FIGURES 72–77 ).................................... 10

9(8) FW slender, slightly wider that the ducts between the first and second turns ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 13–18 )................ S. kaiabi spec. nov.

- FW dilated, four times wider than the ducts between first and second turns ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 24–29 )..................... S. keyserlingi

10(8) MS diamond shaped posteriorly ( Figs 35 View FIGURES 35–40 , 48 View FIGURES 45–50 )............................................................. 11

- MS of different shape ( Figs 38 View FIGURES 35–40 , 65 View FIGURES 62–67 , 75 View FIGURES 72–77 )................................................................... 12

11(10) MS more than 1.5 times longer than wide with elliptical CO ( Fig. 35 View FIGURES 35–40 ); internal ducts loosely twisted ( Fig. 36–37 View FIGURES 35–40 )............................................................................................. S. nanay spec. nov.

- MS less than 1.5 times longer than wide with rounded CO ( Fig. 48 View FIGURES 45–50 ); internal ducts tightly twisted ( Fig. 49–50 View FIGURES 45–50 ).. S. punicea

12(10) MS roughly trapezoid, widest medio-anteriorly ( Figs 38 View FIGURES 35–40 , 75 View FIGURES 72–77 )................................................. 13

- MS pear-shaped, anteriorly constricted ( Figs 62, 65 View FIGURES 62–67 )....................................... S. tabatinga spec. nov.

13(12) MS two times longer than wide; margins of CO oblique ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 35–40 ).................................... S. nigristernis

- MS as long as wide; margins of CO roughly longitudinal ( Fig. 75 View FIGURES 72–77 )........................................ S. velox

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Salticidae

Loc

Sadala Simon, 1880

Rheims, Cristina A. & Jäger, Peter 2022
2022
Loc

Olios, Simon 1903a: 1020

Simon, E. 1903: 1020
1903
Loc

Sparassus, Simon 1897: 35–36

Simon, E. 1897: 36
1897
Loc

Sadala

Simon, E. 1880: 230
1880