Paratachardina minuta (Morrison),

Kondo, Takumasa & Gullan, Penny J., 2007, Taxonomic review of the lac insect genus Paratachardina Balachowsky (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), with a revised key to genera of Kerriidae and description of two new species, Zootaxa 1617, pp. 1-41: 14-17

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.179122

publication LSID

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Paratachardina minuta (Morrison)


Paratachardina minuta (Morrison) 

( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 F, 5)

Tachardia minuta Morrison, 1920: 179  .

Tachardina (Tachardina) minuta (Morrison)  ; Chamberlin, 1923: 209. Paratachardina minuta (Morrison)  ; Varshney, 1968: 489.

Type material studied. Lectotype, hereby designated. Adult female. PHILIPPINES: Mindanao, Basilan, Isabella, xii. 1918, coll. S.A. Reyes, ex Mangifera indica, No.  10102, labelled as " Tachardia minuta  ", 1 slide (5 adult females: lectotype + 4 paralectotypes), lectotype clearly marked on label, dimensions for lectotype: 1.1 mm long, 0.7 mm wide anteriorly, and 0.8 mm wide posteriorly ( USNM). Paralectotypes. Same label data as lectotype, 1 (4, on same slide as lectotype) + 3 (11: 2 adult females + 8 first-instar nymphs) ( USNM); same label data as lectotype, except slide-mounted by PJG 2002 from dry material No. 10102, 8(8 adult females + 29 first-instar nymphs) ( USNM), 4 (2 adult females + 29 first-instar nymphs) (BME); also PHILIP- PINES: " Tachardia minuta Morrison  ", on Mangifera indica, Isabella  de Basil, Mindanao, S.A. Reyes, Dec.

1918, Baker # 10102, 3 (4 adult females + 5 first-instar nymphs) ( USNM); 1 small box dry type collection, labelled Tachardina minuta Morrison, P.I. [ Philippine Islands], Mindanao, Isabela de Basilan, coll. xii. 1918, S.A. Reyes, ex Mangifera indica, No. 10102 ( USNM).

Adult female

Unmounted material ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 F). Tests adult females present singly or if close together becoming fused, along mid ribs of host leaves, mostly on underside. Test almost hemispherical, reddish-brown to dark-brown, somewhat constricted at areas corresponding to anterior spiracles on slide-mounted specimens, adult test incorporating test of first-instar nymph, with a posterior dorsal opening just posterior to first-instar test; adult test with about 16 ridges running from top of test towards base. Dimensions of test as follows: 1.4–1.7 mm long, 1.2–1.5 mm wide, 0.9–1.1 mm tall.

Mounted material ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5). Body outline subcircular, often with a constriction near anterior stigmatic areas. Body 0.8–1.3 mm long, 0.8–1.1 mm wide (n = 11).

Dorsum. Brachia membranous, becoming slightly sclerotized at maturity, shorter than width of brachial plate. Brachial plates subcircular to oblong, each 47–58 µm long, 43–50 µm wide; brachial crater absent, with a group of 9–15 pseudospines on narrower side of plate; with 2–4 brachial pores just anterior to group of pseudospines, each pore 5 -locular, but loculi hard to see due to sclerotization; setae not detected on brachial plate. Anterior spiracles 50–60 µm long, peritremes each 21–22 µm wide, surrounded by sclerotized area, 68–88 µm long, 43–58 µm wide; spiracular pores totalling 2–4 present around each peritreme; canellae represented by a group of 10–14 pores immediately outside spiracular sclerotization; canellar and spiracular pores similar in size and shape, each 4.0–5.0 m wide with 5 loculi. Dorsal spine 85–95 µm long, 45–55 µm wide at base, with a slit-like opening at apex; membranous pedicel about 2 / 3 the length of spine, slightly broader than base of dorsal spine. Anal tubercle well-developed, tapering, highly sclerotized; pre-anal plate plus supra-anal plate, 138–165 µm long, 113–130 µm wide at widest point, each with a fibrous texture, supra-anal plate with a granular texture on mid areas. Pygidial apodemes well developed, extending from base of each anal tubercle towards body apex. Anal fringe probably incomplete, each anal fringe plate serrated or at least with some teeth. Anal ring entire, about 25 µm wide, tip of setae surpassing anal fringe. Microducts scarce, present submarginally, with several ducts present on each antero-anal lobe; diameter of duct rim ca. 3 µm. Spermatoid ducts: 1–3 associated with each microduct. Body setae each 4–6 µm long marginally or submarginally, with longer setae, each 7.5–12.5 µm long, lateral to pygidial apodeme.

Venter. Antennae 70–90 µm long, 2 segmented, segmentation poorly defined, with a sclerotized area delineating both segments, with 2 longer setae and 2 or 3 shorter setae on sclerotized area at apex of terminal segment. Clypeolabral shield 105–120 µm long, 75–88 µm wide. Labium apparently 1 segmented, 23–48 µm long, 38–55 µm wide. Pre-oral lobes elongate, poorly developed, present along margins of clypeolabral shield on each side. Post-oral lobes present, dome shaped, with microtrichia. Legs completely absent. Posterior spiracles much smaller than anterior spiracles, each 33–39 µm long (spiracular apodeme + peritreme), peritreme 14–15 µm wide; with about 7–8 spiracular pores present around each spiracle within spiracular pocket, each pore 4.0–5.0 µm wide. Marginal duct clusters distinct, subcircular, 8 pairs in total; each composed of two types of microducts: medium-sized microducts, elongate oval, each 3.5–4.5 µm wide, most abundant, comprising bulk of each marginal duct cluster, and large-sized microducts, subcircular each 5.0–6.0 µm wide, present on outer rim of cluster closest to outer margin, and on inner areas of each cluster. Formula for marginal duct clusters as follows: mdc-i: 25– 35 / 2 / 8–9; mdc-ii: 25– 35 / 2 / 7–9; mdc-iii: 15–20 / 0–1 / 2–4; mdc-iv: 20– 25 / 1–2 / 2–3; mdc-v: 20– 25 / 1–2 / 4–6; mdc-vi: 20– 30 / 2 / 4–7; mdc-vii: 25–32 / 1–2 (rarely 3)/ 6–8; mdc-viii: 20– 30 / 1–2 / 6–8. Ventral duct clusters subcircular or irregular in shape, all composed of medium-sized microducts, 5 or 6 pairs in total, pair just anterior to mouthparts largest (vdc- 1), each with 13–20 (29–37 combined) microducts. Microducts outside ventral and marginal duct clusters smallest, each ca. 3.0 µm wide, present marginally and submarginally, abundant particularly around marginal duct clusters. Spermatoid ducts similar to those on dorsum, detected around body margin, appearing most numerous within each marginal duct cluster. Ventral setae usually 4–6 µm long, with longer setae, each 12–15 µm long, on abdomen between vulva and body apex.

Diagnosis. Paratachardina minuta  is morphologically most similar to P. silvestri  , P. pseudolobata  and P.

mahdihassani  , but can be separated readily from these species by the following features (character states of the other three species in parentheses): (i) presence of only 1 or 2, rarely 3, large-sized microducts on the outer margins of mdc-vii (4–9); (ii) 5–11 pseudospines on each brachial plate (16–40); and (iii) the subcircular shape of the test with more distinct ridges (X-shaped with ridges less regular and less well defined to absent).

Notes. Parachardina minuta  is known only from the original material from the Philippines and there is no record of its collection for the last 80 years. It was erroneously recorded in Sri Lanka by Green (1922) based on a closely related species, which was soon after described by Chamberlin (1923) as Tachardina lobata  . Furthermore, the transfer of this species to Paratachardina  was by Varshney (1968), not Varshney & Teotia (1968) as listed in Ben-Dov (2006).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Paratachardina minuta (Morrison)

Kondo, Takumasa & Gullan, Penny J. 2007

Tachardina (Tachardina) minuta

Chamberlin 1923: 209

Tachardia minuta

Morrison 1920: 179