Paratachardina mahdihassani Kondo & Gullan

Kondo, Takumasa & Gullan, Penny J., 2007, Taxonomic review of the lac insect genus Paratachardina Balachowsky (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), with a revised key to genera of Kerriidae and description of two new species, Zootaxa 1617, pp. 1-41 : 11-14

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.179122


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Paratachardina mahdihassani Kondo & Gullan

sp. nov.

Paratachardina mahdihassani Kondo & Gullan , sp. nov.

( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 P, 2E, 4)

Type material studied. Holotype. Adult female. INDIA: Karnataka, Bangalore, Jarakabande State Forest, 13°03'N, 77°33'E, 2807 ft [ca. 856 m], coll. vi.2006, S. Schroer & R.W. Pemberton, I6, ex Pongamia pinnata , 1(1) (BME); dimensions for holotype as follows: 1.3 mm long, 0.6 mm wide anteriorly, and ca. 1.1 mm wide posteriorly. Paratypes. Same label data as holotype, 3(3) (BME), 2(2) ( USNM); also INDIA: Karnataka, Bangalore, Jarakabande State Forest, 13°03'N, 77°33'E, 2807 ft [856 m], coll. x.2005, S. Schroer & R.W. Pemberton, I2, ex Pongamia pinnata , 4(4) (BME); Bangalore, Bannerghatta National Park, 12°48'N, 77°35'E, 3055 ft [931 m], coll. vi.2006, S. Schroer & R.W. Pemberton, K6, ex Pongamia pinnata , 1(1) (BME); Bangalore, 12°55.7'N, 77°21.5'E, 2754 ft [840 m], coll. 1–5.v.2006, S. Schroer & R.W. Pemberton, H, ex Pongamia pinnata , to USDA quarantine Florida, 5(8) (BME).

Other material studied (excluded from type series). INDIA: Karnataka, Bangalore, Gottipura, coll. 19.viii.2005, R.W. Pemberton, ex Pongamia pinnata or Mangifera indica , PI, No. 130598, X775078/0511018, 5(6) ( USNM).

Adult female

Unmounted material ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 E). Lac test purplish red to dark brown. Test with 4 lobes, anterior pair of lobes each with 0–3 ridges, posterior pair of lobes each with 3 ridges, anterior pair of lobes much narrower than posterior pair ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 E); first-instar test incorporated into test on mid-dorsum, with a circular opening on an elevated area just posterior to first-instar test. Dimensions of adult female test: 1.0– 1.3 mm long, 0.5–0.8 mm wide at anterior lobes, 0.9–1.2 mm wide at posterior lobes, 0.4–0.6 mm high. Lac texture very hard, brit- Mounted material ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ). Body outline 4-lobed with anterior lobes less distinctly demarcated than posterior lobes, inverted-T shaped, anterior margin narrower than posterior margin. Body 0.9–1.7 mm long, 0.4– 0.8 mm wide anteriorly, 0.9–1.5 mm wide posteriorly at widest point (n = 15).

Dorsum. Brachia short, 12–40 µm long, membranous, becoming slightly sclerotized at maturity. Brachial plates subcircular, oblong, or subquadrate, each 92–118 µm long, 62–78 µm wide; brachial crater absent, with a group of 17–32 (28–40 on specimens from Gottipura) pseudospines on narrowing side of plate, each pseudospine 7.5–9.0 µm long, with 1 seta on each side of group of pseudospines, each seta 6–8 µm long, setae often absent on one side. Brachial pores each ca. 4–5 µm wide, with 4 or 5 (mostly 5) loculi, totalling 1–6 pores per plate, usually present on area just anterior to pseudospines, often 1–3 pores found within pseudospine group around its margin. Anterior spiracles each 70–95 µm long, peritremes 30–35 µm wide, surrounded by a sclerotized area 105–145 µm long, 60–78 µm wide, bearing 3–9 spiracular pores; canellae represented by a group of 16–29 pores immediately outside and anterolateral to spiracular sclerotization; spiracular and canellar pores each 4.5–6.0 µm wide with 4 or 5 (mostly 5) loculi. Dorsal spine well developed, 90–105 µm long, 75–100 µm at base, with a slit-like opening at apex; membranous pedicel either very short or absent, only slightly wider than base of dorsal spine. Anal tubercle well developed, tapering, highly sclerotized; pre-anal plate 53–75 µm long, 158–210 µm wide, slightly less sclerotized than supra-anal plate, each with a fibrous texture, supra-anal plate 93–125 µm long, 113–138 µm wide, with a granulose texture on mid areas. Pygidial apodemes slightly to moderately developed, extending from base of each anal tubercle towards body apex. Anal fringe entire, composed of 4 plates, each anal fringe plate 35–55 µm long, 18–22 µm wide, middle plates shorter than lateral plates. Anal ring entire, 36–50 µm wide, tips of setae surpassing anal fringe. Microducts scarce, present marginally and submarginally, with 8–14 ducts present on each antero-anal lobe; diameter of duct rim ca. 3–4 µm. Spermatoid ducts hard to detect, 1 or 2 associated with each microduct. Dorsal setae each 7–9 µm long marginally and submarginally, with longer setae, each 11–22 µm long, in line running from laterad of anal tubercle to body apex on each side.

Venter. Antennae 100–125 µm long, 2 segmented, segmentation poorly defined, with a sclerotized area near base, with 2 longer setae and 2 or 3 shorter setae on sclerotized area at apex of terminal segment. Clypeolabral shield 138–163 µm long, 103–128 µm wide. Labium apparently 1 segmented, 45–68 µm long, 53–70 µm wide. Pre-oral lobes elongate, present along margins of clypeolabral shield on each side. Post-oral lobes each 53–75 µm wide, dome shaped, with microtrichia. Legs completely absent or vestigial, represented by a small claw or a small membranous one segmented leg with a rudimentary claw (not illustrated). Posterior spiracles much smaller than anterior spiracles, each 45–53 µm long, spiracular peritreme 20–23 µm wide; with 7–13 (13–18 on specimens from Gottipura) spiracular pores present around each spiracle, each 4.0–5.0 µm wide. Marginal duct clusters distinct, oval to elongate oval, 8 pairs in total; each composed of 2 types of microducts: (i) medium-sized microducts with elongate oval rim, each 3.5–4.0 µm wide, most abundant type in each marginal duct cluster, and (ii) large-sized microducts with subcircular rim, each 5.0–5.5 µm wide, present on outer rim of cluster closest to body margin and on inner side of each cluster. Formula for marginal duct clusters as follows: mdc-i: 48–66/8–16/16–22; mdc-ii: 14– 19 /3–8/5–8; mdc-iii: 8– 17 /3–7/2–5; mdc-iv: 10– 14 /3–4/2–4; mdc-v: 37– 44 /8–10/12–14; mdc-vi: 35– 44 /8–9/11–15; mdc-vii: 31– 42 /6–9/12–16, and mdcviii: 16– 40 /4–10/5–14. Ventral duct clusters subcircular or irregular in shape, all composed of medium-sized microducts, 6 or 7 pairs in total; pair just anterior to mouthparts (vdc-1) largest with each cluster of pair touching or almost touching ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 P); second cluster (vdc-2) situated just lateral to mouthparts. Formula for ventral duct clusters as follows: vdc-1: 24–41 microducts (49–80 combined); vdc-2: 10–12; vdc-3: 3–7; vdc-4: 6–10; vdc-5: 8–12; vdc-6: 8–13; vdc-7: 0–5. Microducts outside ventral and marginal duct clusters smallest, each with rim ca. 3.0 µm wide, present marginally and submarginally, abundant particularly around marginal duct clusters, and also present in 2 linear groups extending from area ventrad of dorsal tubercle towards body margin, rest of ventral derm devoid of microducts. Spermatoid ducts hard to detect, similar to those on dorsum, present around body margin, 1 or 2 associated with each microduct, appearing most numerous within each marginal duct cluster (distribution not illustrated). Ventral setae each 7.5–10.0 µm long, about 6 or 8 present anterior to mouthparts, 2–5 present anterolateral to each pre-oral lobe, a group of 3–5 setae behind each posterior spiracle, a pair on last 3 abdominal segments anterior to vulva, 1 or 2 pairs on segment posterior to vulva, and a few setae on submargin of posterior apex, setae absent elsewhere.

Diagnosis. Paratachardina mahdihassani is very similar to P. s i l v e s t r i but can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) ventral duct clusters totalling 6 or 7 pairs, with clusters of most anterior pair touching or almost touching ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 P) and each cluster with 24–41 microducts [5 to 6, rarely 7, pairs of vdcs with 10–20 microducts in each anterior cluster (total of both anterior clusters 24–40) in P. silvestri ]; and (ii) test of adult female four-lobed and much narrower anteriorly than posteriorly, purplish red to dark brown in colour [test of P. s i l v e s t r i similar but generally not as narrow anteriorly and more orange to wine red in colour].

Morphological variation. Vestigial legs were present on a few specimens collected on 1–5.v.2006 on Pongamia pinnata , although they were completely absent on most specimens. Specimens from Gottipura appear to have slightly more pseudospines per brachial plate and slightly more spiracular pores around the posterior spiracles than the females from other collections (refer to the description above for ranges of counts for these features on Gottipura females versus typical females), and thus have been excluded from the type series.

Etymology and notes. This species is named after Dr S. Mahdihassan, an authority on Indian lac insects and author of Tachardia silvestri (now P. silvestri ). Mahdihassan (1923a, b) apparently already had recognized the species that we name P. mahdihassani when he described P. silvestri . However, it seems that he believed that the new species herein described was T. minuta (later referred to as P. lobata ). Mahdihassan (1923a: 48, 74, 75) describes " T. minuta " as follows: "The third insect of interest to us grows round about Bangalore on Pongamia glabra , an oil-producing tree of the leguminous order. ... This insect is identical with Tachardina minuta of Morrison, and my specimens were identified by him. ... The cells [test] on Pongamia are dark chestnut in colour with a distinct tinge of purple. At the marginal projections of the exudation a brownish blue colour is distinct. ... The first kind of cells [test of " T. minuta "] is smooth and elevated with only small projections in front, while the latter [ T. silvestri ] has two long finger-like projections instead." The description of " T. minuta " by Mahdihassan (1923a) closely matches the morphology of the test of our P. mahdihassani . Although initially Mahdihassan (1923a, b) called this species T. minuta , later ( Mahdihassan 1946) he stated that " Tachardina lobata " was "the latest name for T. minuta ". In that subsequent paper, Mahdihassan (1946) described two varieties of " T. lobata " based on morphological variation in shape of bacterial symbionts (refer to discussion under 'Notes' for P. s i l v e s t r i).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


United States Department of Agriculture













GBIF Dataset (for parent article) Darwin Core Archive (for parent article) View in SIBiLS Plain XML RDF