Paratachardina theae (Green)

Kondo, Takumasa & Gullan, Penny J., 2007, Taxonomic review of the lac insect genus Paratachardina Balachowsky (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), with a revised key to genera of Kerriidae and description of two new species, Zootaxa 1617, pp. 1-41 : 33-36

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.179122


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Paratachardina theae (Green)


Paratachardina theae (Green) View in CoL

( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 H & I, 12)

Tachardia decorella theae Green View in CoL in Green & Mann, 1907: 348. Tachardina theae Green & Mann View in CoL ; Chamberlin, 1923: 210. Incorrect authors. Laccifer theae Green ; Misra, 1930: 161.

Tachardina theae (Green and Mann) View in CoL ; Kapur, 1958: 40. Incorrect authors. Paratachardina theae (Green) View in CoL ; Varshney, 1968: 489.

Type material studied. Syntypes. Adult females. INDIA: Darjeeling, ex tea plant, from E.E. Green 1918, 2(3) (BME); Darjeeling, ex tea plant, date not given, coll. H.H. Mann, No. 8972, E.E. Green, dry material in small box (BME); same label data except newly slide-mounted by TK 2007 from dry material No. 8972, 2(2) (BME); Darjeeling, ex tea plant, date not given, coll. H.H. Mann, from E.E. Green 1918, G.F. Ferris collection, dry material in small box (BME). [See 'Notes' for discussion of type material.]

Other material studied. CHINA: Canton [now Guangzhou], Lingnan University, 20.x.1948, coll. G.F. Ferris, Ferris field number 12, ex Photinia benthamiana , slide-mounted by PJG 2006 from BME dry material, 15(15) (BME). INDIA: Darjeeling, ex Cinchona calisaya , date not given, coll. H. Mann, No. 8971, from E.E. Green, G.F. Ferris collection, dry material in small box and 8(8) (BME).

Adult female

Unmounted material ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 H & I). Test of adult female brown, convex, subcircular, with about 16 smooth and well defined ridges or often poorly defined nodulose ridges, with test of first-instar nymph present centrally on adult test, either inconspicuous or slightly purplish-brown to wine red in colour, often with a small orifice to one end of incorporated first-instar test. Tests of adult females becoming fused when crowded. The test of specimens on tea plant are apparently more nodulose, with Indian specimens collected on Cinchona calisaya and Chinese specimens collected on Photinia benthamiana having a smoother texture with well defined ridges.

Mounted material ( Fig.12 View FIGURE 12 ). Body outline broadly pyriform, slightly trilobate to transversely oval, often with a constriction at anterior stigmatic areas. Body 1.8–2.3 mm long, 1.8–2.5 mm wide (n = 28).

Dorsum. Brachia membranous, becoming slightly sclerotized at maturity, short, less than about half length of a brachial plate. Brachial plates subcircular to oblong, often with an irregular outline, each plate 90– 100 µm long, 65–83 µm wide; brachial crater very shallow, with a subcircular group of 40–50 pseudospines on narrower side of plate; with 5–10 brachial pores just anterior to group of pseudospines, each pore with 5- loculi; with about one seta on each side of pseudospine group and on apex near narrower side of plate. Anterior spiracles each 55–78 µm long, peritreme 38–43 µm wide, surrounded by a sclerotized area 108–150 µm long and 70–85 µm wide; with a group of 5–12 pores within spiracular sclerotization around peritreme, each pore 3–4 µm wide, deeply embedded within sclerotization; canella represented by a group of 17–30 canellar pores on area just outside spiracular sclerotization; canellar pores each ca 4 µm wide, mostly with 5 loculi. Dorsal spine well-developed, 83–103 µm long, 68–83 µm wide at base, with an opening at apex; membranous pedicel of dorsal spine well developed, as long as or longer than dorsal spine and almost as wide as length of dorsal spine. Anal tubercle well developed, tapering, highly sclerotized; pre-anal plate plus supra-anal plate, 185–230 µm long, 200–225 µm at widest point, pre-anal plate with a fibrous texture, supra-anal plate with a granular texture. With a pair or round outpockets of membranous cuticle with a reticulate surface between area surrounded by anal tubercle, dorsal spine and pre-anal lobes. Pygidial apodemes absent. Anal fringe incomplete, composed of 4 plates, each plate 30–80 µm long and 5–23 µm wide, serrated or at least with some teeth. Anal ring 50–53 µm wide, tip of setae surpassing anal fringe. Microducts scarce, present marginally and submarginally, each 3 µm wide. Spermatoid ducts: 1–2 associated with most microducts. Dorsal setae each 10–20 µm long marginally or submarginally, with longer setae, each 20–30 µm long, lateral to pygidial apodeme.

Venter. Antennae 93–125 µm long, 3 segmented, segmentation poorly defined, with a sclerotizated area delineating each segment, 2 longer setae and 2 or 3 shorter setae on sclerotized area at apex of terminal segment. Clypeolabral shield 148–175 µm long, 90–115 µm wide. Labium apparently 1 segmented, 50–68 µm long, 55–65 µm wide. Pre-oral lobes elongate, poorly developed, present along margins of clypeolabral shield on each side; post-oral lobes present, dome shaped, somewhat pointed, with microtrichia. Legs completely absent. Posterior spiracles each 43–48 µm long, peritremes each 25–28 µm wide, with 9–15 spiracular pores present around each spiracle, each pore 3–4 µm wide, mostly with 5 loculi. Marginal duct clusters (mdc) distinct, subcircular, 16 in total: 2 on each side of anterior lobe between antennae, and 6 on each posterior lobe between antennae and posterior body apex. Each mdc composed of 2 types of microducts: medium-sized microducts, elongate oval, each ca. 4.0–4.5 µm wide, most abundant, making bulk of each marginal duct cluster, also in an outer loose single row present around half circumference of a mdc; large-sized microducts subcircular, each 5–6 µm wide, present on inner areas of each cluster. Ventral duct clusters present in loose subcircular or irregular groups, all composed of medium-sized microducts, 6 or 7 pairs in total: 1 pair on head region (vdc-1) and 5 or 6 pairs of clusters posterior to antennae, when 7th pair (vdc-7) present, then represented by 1–3 pores. Microducts outside ventral and marginal duct clusters smallest, each ca. 3.0 µm wide, present marginally and submarginally, abundant particularly around marginal duct clusters. Spermatoid ducts: 1 or 2 ducts associated with each microduct. Ventral setae usually 6–10 µm long, with longer setae, each 10–15 µm long, present on abdomen between vulva and body apex.

Diagnosis. Paratachardina theae is characterized by the following features: (i) lac test with about 16 poorly to well defined longitudinal ridges, each ridge smooth or with a nodulose texture; (ii) a subcircular group of 40–50 pseudospines on narrower part of each brachial plate; (iii) pedicel of dorsal spine as long as or longer than spine, with a constriction at its base; (iv) rather long membranous brachia; and (v) 6 or 7 pairs of ventral duct clusters present in loose subcircular or irregular groups. This species is indistinguishable from P. mithila at this point (see 'Notes' under P. mithila ). Together with P. mithila , P. t h e a e is most similar to P. t e r - nata (see 'Diagnosis' for P. t e r n a t a).

Notes. The transfer of this species to Paratachardina was by Varshney (1968), not Varshney & Teotia (1968) as listed in Ben-Dov (2006). Although the type depository for this species is listed only as BMNH in Ben-Dov (2006), we consider that the specimens deposited at BME are syntypic since they match the host, the main locality and the collector given in the original description of the species (i.e., on tea plants in Darjeeling in February 1907, by H.H. Mann), and were sent by its author E. E. Green to G. F. Ferris and originally were labelled as " Tachardia decorella theae Green " or " Tachardia decorella var. theae Gr. " although the genus name was subsequently edited to " Tachardina ", presumably by Chamberlin, who initialled the slide labels "JCC". Furthermore, a small box containing lac insects labelled as " Tachardia decorella Mask. / on Cinchona calisaya / Darjeeling, India / from the Govt. Cinchona Station / 8971, EEG", listed in the original description as the typical form (i.e. Tachardia decorella ), is deposited in the BME collection. We have not examined specimens in the BMNH and thus have not designated a lectotype.














Paratachardina theae (Green)

Kondo, Takumasa & Gullan, Penny J. 2007

Tachardina theae

Kapur 1958: 40

Tachardia decorella theae

Misra 1930: 161
Chamberlin 1923: 210
Green 1907: 348
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