Ariopsis guatemalensis ( Günther, 1864 )

Marceniuk, Alexandre P., Acero, Arturo, Cooke, Richard & Betancur-R, Ricardo, 2017, Taxonomic revision of the New World genus Ariopsis Gill (Siluriformes: Ariidae), with description of two new species, Zootaxa 4290 (1), pp. 1-42: 22-27

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4290.1.1

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03992C13-FFAC-FFF4-A1E1-F9AA1C9AFD42

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scientific name

Ariopsis guatemalensis ( Günther, 1864 )
status

 

Ariopsis guatemalensis ( Günther, 1864) 

Blue sea catfish (English)

Cominata azulada, Bagre cuatete (Spanish) Figure 14View FIGURE 14 and 15View FIGURE 15, Tables 2–4 and 9.

Arius guatemalensis Günther, 1864:145  . Type locality: Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.1.11.6 (1). 

Arius caerulescens Günther, 1864:149  . Type locality: Huamuchal , Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.208–209 (2). 

Galeichthys azureus  Jordan & Williams, 1895:398, Pl. 27. Type locality: Estuary at Mazatlán , Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: CASAbout CAS –SU 11575. 

Galeichthys guatemalensis, Regan, 1906  –1908: 123; Meek & Hildebrand, 1923: 110.

Arius guatemalensis, Kailola & Bussing, 1995  ;

Ariopsis guatemalensis, Castro-Aguirre, 1999  .

Material examined. Type specimen: BMNH 1853.1.11.6 (1 male, 249 mm SL), Guatemala  . Syntypes of Arius caerulescens  : BMNH 1864.1.26.208–209 (2, 218 and 258 mm SL), Guatemala, Huamuchal (=Guamuchal). Nontype specimens: STRIAbout STRI 15941View Materials (1, 255 mm SL), El Salvador, fish market  ; UMMZAbout UMMZ 178475View Materials (2, 152– 212 mm SL), Mexico, Guerrero, Laguna de Coyuca, ca 10 mi NW of Acapulco , 3 mi NW of military airport on SW side of the Laguna; UA 67–138–1 (1), Mexico, Nayarit, beach at San Blas; UA 70–24–4 (1), Mexico, Oaxaca, Laguna Pto Escondido. 

Diagnosis. Ariopsis guatemalensis  is distinguished from all other congeners by mesethmoid median portion wide (vs. narrow, Fig. 3View FIGURE 3), medial notch of mesethmoid large and shallow (vs. narrow and deep, Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). The species can be further differentiated as follows: from A. assimilis  , from Mexico (Quintana Roo) to Honduras (Caribbean), by its wider mouth, 13.0–15.2% SL (vs. 10.5–12.9% SL), wider cephalic shield at frontal area, 10.0–11.5% SL (vs. 8.8–10.1% SL); from A. felis  , from Massachusetts ( US) to Yucatán in Mexico (Caribbean), by its wider distance between anterior nostrils, 7.1–8.6% SL (vs. 4.6–6.4% SL), wider distance between posterior nostrils 7.2–8.7% SL (vs. 4.2–7.1% SL), osseous medial groove absent (vs. present; Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15), fleshy medial groove of neurocranium conspicuous or inconspicuous, but never surpassing posterior margin of eyes (vs. conspicuous and very long, always surpassing the posterior margin of eyes, Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 and 15View FIGURE 15), lateral margin of sphenotic straight, as wide medially as anteriorly (vs. notching, at middle portion narrower that anterior portion, Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15), pterotic lateral margin markedly convex, sometimes angled (vs. smoothly convex, Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15); from A. gilberti  , from Mexico (EP), by 31–39 gill rakers on the first and second gill arches (vs. 40–42), wider distance between anterior nostrils 7.1–8.6% SL (vs. 5.5–6.5% SL), wider distance between posterior nostrils 7.2–8.7% SL (vs. 4.9–6.7% SL), wider cephalic shield at frontal area 10.0–11.5% SL (vs. 8.3–9.8% SL), wider cephalic shield at lateral ethmoid area 14.3–15.3% SL (vs. 12.5–14.0% SL), osseous medial groove absent (vs. present; Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15), fleshy medial groove of neurocranium conspicuous or inconspicuous, but never surpassing posterior margin of eyes (vs. conspicuous and very long, always surpassing the posterior margin of eyes, Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 and 15View FIGURE 15), lateral margin of sphenotic straight, as wide medially as anteriorly (vs. notched, narrower medially than anteriorly, Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15); from A. jimenezi  , from Archipiélago de Las Perlas in Panama (EP), by its wider distance between anterior nostrils 7.1–8.6% SL (vs. 5.6–6.5% SL), longer pectoral spine 18.2–20.5% SL (vs. 14.6–18.1% SL), osseous medial groove absent (vs. present; Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15), fleshy medial groove of neurocranium conspicuous or inconspicuous, but never surpassing posterior margin of eyes (vs. conspicuous and very long, always surpassing the posterior margin of eyes, Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 and 15View FIGURE 15), lateral margin of sphenotic straight, as wide medially as anteriorly (vs. notched, narrower medially than anteriorly, Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15), external posterior branch of lateral ethmoid colunar and thin (vs. depressed and thick, Fig. 3View FIGURE 3), fenestra delimited by mesethmoid and lateral ethmoid conspicuous (vs. inconspicuous, Fig. 3View FIGURE 3); from A. seemanni  , from El Salvador to Panama (EP), by the absence of osseous medial groove delete (vs. present; Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15), lateral margin of sphenotic straight, as wide medially as anteriorly (vs. notched, narrower medially than anteriorly, Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15); from A. simonsi  , from Colombia to Peru (EP), by the absence of an osseous medial groove (vs. present; Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 15View FIGURE 15).

Description. Morphometrics and meristics summarized in Tables 2–4, 9. Head moderately long, wide and high, especially depressed at lateral ethmoid and frontal area, profile slightly elevated posteriorly, straight from mesethmoid to parietosupraoccipital. Snout rounded and moderately long. Anterior nostril rounded, with fleshy edge, posterior nostril covered by flap of skin; nostrils moderately separated relatively near to orbit, not connected by fleshy furrow. Eye lateral, relatively small; eyes well separated. Three pairs of long teretiform barbels; maxillary barbel surpassing or not membranous portion of operculum, lateral and mesial mental barbel not reaching posterior margin of gill membrane. Osseous bridge formed by lateral ethmoid and frontal moderately long and slender, delimiting a fenestra little evident under the skin. Cephalic shield exposed, moderately long and relatively narrow on supracleithrum area, and wider on lateral ethmoid and frontal areas, with thick granulation, forming distinct patterns from eyes to parietosupraoccipital procces. Fleshy portion of dorsomedial groove of neurocranium, affixed to anterior cranial fontanel, short, conspicuous or inconspicuous, and not reaching eyes. Lateral margin of sphenotic straight, as wide medially as anteriorly. Pterotic lateral margin markedly convex, sometimes angled. Parietosupraoccipital keeled, triangular, with straight lateral margins converging posteriorly, relatively long and moderately wide at posterior portion, with posterior margin convex. Nuchal plate crescent-shaped, conspicuously granulated dorsally, moderately long and narrow. Mouth subterminal, very large, with lips moderately thick and lower jaw arched. Vomerine tooth plates rounded. One pair of accessory tooth plates ovate, with sharp teeth. Premaxilla rectangular transversally, long and wide, with sharp teeth. Dentary with eyebrow-shaped patch of teeth, separated at midline with sharp teeth. Gill membranes fused, attached to isthmus. Fourteen to 18 acicular gill rakers on first arch, 16–21 spike-shaped gill rakers on second arch and rakers present on posterior margin of all gill arches.

Body wider than its height at pectoral girdle area, progressively compressed from pectoral to caudal peduncle, ventrally flattened from pectoral girdle to anal origin. Lateral line sloping ventrally on anterior one-third, extending posteriorly to caudal peduncle, bending abruptly onto dorsal lobe of caudal. Dorsal spine relatively short and thick, shorter than pectoral spine; anterior margin granulated on basal two-thirds, with weak serrations on distal third; posterior margin smooth on basal third, distal third with weak serrations. Seven dorsal soft rays. Pectoral spine moderately long and thick; two-thirds of anterior margin weakly granulated, with weak serrations on distal third; posterior margin straight on basal one-fourth, distal three-fourths with weak serrations. Nine to eleven pectoral soft rays. Posterior process of cleithrum triangular smooth to rugose, slightly visible. Pelvic fin deep and large at base, with six rays, and well-developed fleshy protuberances in adult females. Adipose fin low, with base moderately long, shorter than anal base. Anal fin moderately high and long at base, with 16–19 rays and ventral profile convex. Caudal peduncle moderately high. Caudal-fin forked, dorsal and ventral lobes relatively long, dorsal lobe somewhat longer than ventral lobe, slightly pointed.

Maximum length: Grows to 450 mm TL.

Coloration in alcohol. Head and body dark brown to bluish above, whitish below; dorsal surfaces of pelvic proximally black, distally lighter; anal dark, distal tips lighter; caudal grayish to blackish ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14).

Sexual dimorphism. Only females have well-developed fleshy protuberances or pads in basal portion of pelvics, especially during reproductive season. Vomerine tooth patches and accessory tooth patches not observed directly, but possibly showing same variation described for A. canteri  and A. jimenezi  .

Distribution and habitat. The EP Ariopsis guatemalensis  occurs in estuarine and marine waters, from the mouth of Colorado River (Sonora), Pacific Mexico, to Costa Rica ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5).

Molecular evidence and phylogenetic relationships. Ariopsis guatemalensis  is the sister species of a clade including A. jimenezi  , A. simonsi  , A. seemanni  and A. canteri  ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9).

Remarks. Günther (1864) described Arius guatemalensis  based on specimens collected on the Pacific side of Guatemala ( Figs. 14View FIGURE 14 and 15View FIGURE 15). In recent literature ( Kailola & Bussing, 1995; Ferraris, 2007), two nominal species have been considered junior synonyms of Ariopsis guatemalensis  . Arius caerulescens  , described by Günther (1864) based on two specimens from Guamuchal (=Huamuchal) in Guatemala, and Galeichthys azureus  , described by Jordan & Williams (1895) based on a unique specimen from an estuary at Mazatlán (Sinaloa), western Mexico. There is little conflict in the literature about the taxonomic status of Galeichthys azureus  , as junior synonym of A. guatemalensis  . Arius caerulescens  ( sensu  Jordan & Gilbert, 1882; Jordan & Evermann, 1896; Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1890; Regan, 1906,1908) is accepted as a synonym of A. guatemalensis  based on characters recognized in present study as sexually dimorphic (e.g., the vomerine tooth plates continuous with larger clubshaped palatine, vs. oblong or oval, continuous or not, with palatine patches a little larger than vomerine in A. guatemalensis  ) or show ontogenetic variation (e.g., maxillary barbel extending to the opercle or near to base of pectoral; vs. extending beyond the base of pectoral in A. guatemalensis  ).

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

STRI

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

UMMZ

University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Siluriformes

Family

Ariidae

Genus

Ariopsis

Loc

Ariopsis guatemalensis ( Günther, 1864 )

Marceniuk, Alexandre P., Acero, Arturo, Cooke, Richard & Betancur-R, Ricardo 2017

2017
Loc

Galeichthys guatemalensis

Meek 1923: 110

1923
Loc

Galeichthys azureus

Jordan 1895: 398

1895
Loc

Arius guatemalensis Günther, 1864 :145

Gunther 1864: 145

Loc

Arius caerulescens Günther, 1864 :149

Gunther 1864: 149