Taeniothrips Amyot & Serville
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|Taeniothrips Amyot & Serville
Taeniothrips Amyot & Serville, 1843: 644 View in CoL . Type species Thrips primulae Haliday View in CoL , a junior synonym of Thrips picipes Zetterstedt View in CoL , by subsequent designation of Karny.
In addition to the type species, Bhatti placed into his new genus Taeniothrips cyrtandrae Priesner View in CoL , and Physopus mischocarpi Zimmermann View in CoL , despite the latter being known only from the original description. Three further species were added subsequently, Javathrips musae Zhang & Tong View in CoL from China, J. ciliaris Reyes View in CoL and J. variegatus Reyes View in CoL from the Philippines. The genus was distinguished from Taeniothrips View in CoL by Bhatti on the differences in five carefully defined characters. However, recent study of further species of Taeniothrips View in CoL from Southeast Asia has indicated that each of these differences can be interpreted as part of a continuum in body sizes and shapes. The five differences given by Bhatti are quoted below, with comments on variation observed among related species in support of the above newly proposed synonymy.
1. “shape of antennal segment IV with narrow parallel sided distal fourth, or third”. Certainly, lagoenifer View in CoL has the apex of antennal segment IV unusually elongate, but that is less obvious in cyrtandrae View in CoL . Similar but less extreme elongation of the apex of segment IV occurs in Taeniothrips eucharii View in CoL , where the extent of the elongation is closely related to body size ( Figs 3, 4 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). A less obvious apical neck occurs on large females of other species including T. major View in CoL , T. orionis View in CoL and T. picipes View in CoL . Comparable elongation of antennal segment IV occurs among different species of Craspedothrips View in CoL (see Figures 12 View FIGURES 9 – 12 –14 & 20 in Mound et al. 2012), also other thripine taxa such as Trichromothrips View in CoL species, where it is related to antennal elongation.
2. “long sense cone on each of segments III and IV being subequal to or much longer than its segment”. The illustrations given by Bhatti (1978) indicate that, just as the apical neck of segment IV in lagoenifer View in CoL is much longer than that of cyrtandrae View in CoL , so is the forked sense cone on this segment much longer. Among other Thripinae View in CoL the length of the antennal sense cones appears to be correlated, to some extent, with the length of the segments themselves. Typical Taeniothrips View in CoL species have relatively short antennae and sense cones, but in T. damansarae View in CoL the sense cone on segment III is subequal to the length of the segment ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ).
3. “Postocular and pronotal posteroangular setae not finely pointed, but fringed at apex or at most abruptly pointed”. Again, this seems to be a matter of degree, because some specimens of T. eucharii View in CoL and some specimens of T. inconsequens View in CoL have the postocular setae blunt at the apex, and in T. damansarae View in CoL the apices of these setae are clearly fringed.
4. “pronotum with 2 pairs of posteromarginal setae inner to the major View in CoL angulars”. The contrasting character state of three pairs of posteromarginal setae is not constant among the species of Taeniothrips View in CoL . Available specimens of T. major View in CoL from Pakistan commonly lack one of the minor setae, producing an asymmetric condition; inconsequens View in CoL and damansarae View in CoL usually have only two pairs of posteromarginal setae; and as described below, musae View in CoL has two or three pairs.
5. “marked sexual dimorphism in the number of setae on antennal segments IV–VII” [presumably an error for VI]. This statement was based only on one species, cyrtandrae View in CoL , because no males were known of the type species. Elongation of antennal segment VI occurs in some other species of Taeniothrips View in CoL , including damansarae View in CoL , and as a result this segment bears more setae. Moreover, sexual dimorphism in antennae is occurs widely amongst Thripinae View in CoL , for example among the species of Mycterothrips View in CoL where it was used at one time to distinguish two or more genera ( Masumoto & Okajima 2006).
6. In addition to the above five characters, Bhatti (1978) also referred to: “The anterior head production, well marked in Javathrips , is not marked in Taeniothrips View in CoL .” Certainly, the apparent head length is variable among the species currently placed in Taeniothrips View in CoL . The head of the type species, picipes View in CoL , and also of inconsequens View in CoL , projects weakly in front of the eyes, but this is not true of damansarae View in CoL . As a result, the condition found in lagoenifer View in CoL is here interpreted as one extreme in a range of variation (see Figs 1, 2, 7 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ).
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