Aphthargelia symphoricarpi (Thomas, 1878),

Jensen, Andrew S., 2013, The aphid genus Aphthargelia Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae), with one new species, Zootaxa 3701 (3), pp. 381-392: 388-391

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3701.3.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9228518D-31C3-4F8B-9FDD-4F2FB0EEA606

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/039987C8-130C-A861-39EA-3684FAA80614

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Aphthargelia symphoricarpi (Thomas, 1878)
status

 

Aphthargelia symphoricarpi (Thomas, 1878) 

Aphis symphoricarpi Thomas 1878: 12  ; Hottes and Frison 1931: 438 (synonymy).

Aphis albipes Oestlund 1887: 52  .

Thargelia albipes, Oestlund 1923: 127  .

Brevicoryne symphoricarpi, Gillette and Palmer 1932: 464  ; Palmer 1952: 195.

Aphthargelia symphoricarpi, Hottes 1958: 43  ; Eastop and Hille Ris Lambers 1976: 91; Smith and Parron 1978: 48; Hodjat, 1981: 372; Remaudière and Remaudière 1997: 73; Blackman and Eastop 2006: 1097.

Fundatrix. Appearance in life: overall color dark green, abdominal segments VII and VIII and cauda paler green, body sometimes lightly dusted with wax in a faint pattern like the aptera; head capsule and a.s. I, II and VI dark to blackish; a.s. III –V pale basally and dark apically; siphunculi dark to black, with small internal reddish areas surrounding their bases; legs mostly pale with coxae and trochanters grey to dark grey, and apical part of femora and tibiae grey and tarsi dark grey.

Slide mounted, 11 specimens measured: Body length 1.86–2.51. Antennae with segment III 0.25–0.33 long; IV 0.18–0.25 long, V 0.16–0.20 long, VIa 0.12–0.15 long, VIb 0.09–0.14 long. Setae on antennal tubercles less than ½ basal width of a.s. III. Rostrum with u.r.s. 0.12–0.14 long, with 4–6 accessory setae, and 0.70–0.80 times as long as metatarsal II. Dorsum of thorax membranous, without pigmented plates. Metafemur 0.45–0.54 long; metatibia 0.73–0.90 long, subapical dorsal setae 0.03–0.04 long and 1.2–1.5 times basal width a.s. III; metatarsus 0.13–0.14 long. Abdominal dorsum membranous, without pigmented plates, with distinct intersegmental muscle attachment plates. Siphunculi 0.13–0.20 long. Abdominal tergum VIII with 4–12 setae, longest 0.02–0.05 long and 2.2 –3.0 times basal width a.s. III. Genital plate with 0–11 discal setae in addition 2 primary setae. Cauda 0.13–0.16 long, with 8–10 setae. Otherwise more or less as in aptera.

Apterous vivipara. Appearance in life: A variable species with some samples comprised of typical strong waxy pattern described below and others in which specimens are almost entirely black. Base color of the body dark blue to black; head dark grey to black, dorsum of thorax and abdomen dark bluish to more or less black, with abdominal segment VIII and cauda paler; much of the body sometimes dusted with wax, but distinct transverse wax bands present on front edge of abdomen, abdominal terga V, VII and VIII, spinal wax band from cauda to prothorax where it is broadest, wax bands also laterally on all body segments; siphunculi black; antennae with segments III – V mostly white, with dark apices, segments I, II and VI entirely dark; legs mostly pale, but with coxae and trochanters usually dark grey and with apex of femora and tibiae and entire tarsi grey.

Slide mounted, 37 specimens measured [lectotype measurement in brackets, NA indicating the feature was not measurable]: Body length 1.25–2.85 [1.25]. Antennae with segment I scabrous to lightly imbricated medially and ventrally on apical ½ or more, a.s. II with a few imbrications to fully scabrous ventrally; a.s. III 0.27–0.66 [0.27] long; IV 0.16–0.56 [0.16] long, V 0.12–0.44 [0.12] long, VIa 0.09–0.16 [0.09] long, VIb 0.28–0.77 [0.28] long. Head dark, more or less concolorous with prothorax. Setae on antennal tubercles 0.2–1.3 [0.5] times basal width of a.s. III; antennal tubercles moderately prominent, distinctly exceeding middle of frons, ventral surface with spinules and imbrications, dorsum with a few spinules apically; dorsal surface of head smooth except with transverse wrinkles posteriorly, ventral surface of head capsule lightly wrinkled throughout, wrinkles between antennal tubercles and clypeus sometimes spinulate. Rostrum extending almost to hind coxae, u.r.s. 0.11–0.14 [NA] long, with 4–7 [NA] accessory setae, and 0.67–0.98 [NA] times as long as metatarsal II. Dorsum of thorax with extensive pigmented plates that are mostly covered in reticulate sculpturing, all thoracic terga concolorous. Prothorax with lateral tubercles, sometimes very large and/or split into two separate tubercles, and sometimes 1 or 2 spinal tubercles. Metafemur 0.37–0.88 [0.37] long, with light ornamentation over apical ½ on dorsal and anterior surface composed of small spinulate imbrications; metatibia 0.65–1.61 [0.65] long, subapical dorsal setae 0.03– 0.05 [0.03] long and 0.7 –2.0 [1.1] times basal width a.s. III; tarsal segments I with 3 setae; metatarsus 0.11–0.18 [0.11] long, imbricated uniformly, imbrications on apical ½ often with faint spinules. Abdominal dorsum with large dark reticulated shield and/or bands on all terga, sometimes narrowed on abdominal tergum II and/or broken in middle on posterior segments ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 2 – 7). Strong lateral tubercles present on segments II –V and immediately anterior to siphunculi. Siphunculi dark, 0.09–0.21 [0.10] long, imbricated, often slightly swollen. Abdominal tergum VIII with 4–7 [NA] setae, longest 0.02–0.06 [0.03] long and 0.5–2.2 [1.3] times basal width a.s. III. Genital plate with 0–13 [NA] discal setae in addition 2 primary setae. Cauda 0.10–0.23 [0.10] long, more or less triangular, with 6–19 [NA] setae (rarely less than 10).

Alate vivipara. Appearance in life: most of body, legs, and antennae rather dark, base color dark bluish, dark grey, sometimes slightly orange, when it is apparent. Not normally ornamented with wax.

Slide mounted, 23 specimens measured: Body length 2.06–2.64. Antennae with segment III 0.57–0.73 long with 43–64 sensoria; IV 0.45–0.58 long with 20–37 sensoria; V 0.32–0.45 long with 3–10 secondary sensoria; VIa 0.12–0.14 long, VIb 0.65–0.85 long. Setae on antennal tubercles less than ½ basal width of a.s. III; antennal tubercles moderately prominent, distinctly exceeding median ocellus. Rostrum extending to middle of mesothorax, u.r.s. 0.11–0.13 long, with 5–7 accessory setae, and 0.67–0.83 times as long as metatarsal II. Metafemur 0.71–0.88 long; metatibia 1.40–1.66 long, subapical dorsal setae 0.03–0.04 long and 0.76–1.13 times basal width a.s. III; metatarsus 0.16–0.17 long. Wings with normal Aphidinae  venation. Abdominal tergum with dark lateral sclerites, intersegmental muscle attachment plates, and various blotches or bands on tergites II –VIII, with transverse band between siphunculi connected to sclerites surrounding bases of siphunculi and about equal in thickness to the bands/blotches on tergites II –IV ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 2 – 7). Siphunculi dark, 0.10–0.15 long. Abdominal tergum VIII with 4–6 setae, longest 0.02–0.05 long and 0.63–1.40 times basal width a.s. III. Genital plate with 5–14 discal setae in addition 2 primary setae. Cauda 0.16–0.20 long, more or less triangular, with 12–20 setae. Otherwise more or less as in aptera.

Ovipara. Appearance in life: base body color dark bluish to nearly black, wax markings essentially as in aptera except wax along lateral margins less developed than in most apterae, other pigmentation more or less as in aptera except entire hind tibia grey, and apex of a.s. III not or only slightly darkened.

Slide mounted, 8 specimens measured: Body length 1.39–1.57. Antennal segment I with a few spinules/ imbrications medially and ventrally on apical ½; a.s. II with one to a few small imbrications ventrally on apical ½; a.s. III 0.26–0.31 long; IV 0.19–0.27 long, V 0.15–0.21 long, VIa 0.09–0.12 long, VIb 0.28–0.39 long. Head pale to brown. Setae on antennal tubercles subequal to or less than basal width of a.s. III. Rostrum extending almost to hind coxae, u.r.s. 0.08–0.10 long, with 4–5 accessory setae, and 0.70–0.81 times as long as metatarsal II. Dorsum of thorax membranous, unpigmented, with faint reticulate sculpturing. Metafemur 0.36–0.44 long; metatibia swollen, 0.58–0.76 long, with numerous scent plaques usually covering entire length except extreme base and apex, subapical dorsal setae 0.03–0.04 long and 1.1–1.5 times basal width a.s. III; metatarsus 0.11–0.13 long. Abdominal dorsum unpigmented and membranous except intersegmental muscle attachment plates ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 2 – 7), much of tergites II –V with faint reticulate sculpturing. Siphunculi dark, 0.05–0.08 long. Abdominal tergum VIII with 9– 14 setae, longest 0.04–0.06 long and 1.8–2.2 times basal width a.s. III. Genital plate with 8–14 discal setae in addition 2 primary setae. Cauda 0.11–0.13 long, less elongate than in aptera, with 8–14 setae.

Alate male. As noted above for A. rumbeboredomia  , it is not possible to confidently identify males of Aphthargelia  , and therefore a thorough description of them under either species would be inappropriate. As in many aphids, their overall appearance is similar to a small alate vivipara. Worth noting is the distribution of sensoria on the antennal segments. Fifteen specimens were measured that were extremely likely to be A. symphoricarpi  , with the following counts: a.s. III, 30-59; a.s. IV, 15-31; a.s. V, 7-16.

Biology and distribution. This species appears to be holocyclic and monoecious on several species of Symphoricarpos  . Males appear in many of the summer collections studied for this work. Production of males throughout the life cycle occurs in other aphids, such as Nasonovia (Kakimia) cynbosbati (Oestlund)  . Another oddity of A. symphoricarpi  is the extreme variation in size, the smallest specimens being well under half as long as the largest and more typical specimens. This also is not uncommon, with such extremely small specimens referred to as summer dwarfs. Another strange morph feature of this species is the late-season production of very small alate viviparae which develop in conjunction with males and oviparae in short-season montane habitats.

One often finds this species tended by ants, and sometimes living together with the aphid Cedoaphis  (see discussion of this genus above). Infested stems often have curled leaves, with aphids feeding on the stem and undersides of leaves.

Aphthargelia symphoricarpi  is widespread in North America wherever Symphoricarpos  occurs, including ornamental plantings.

Type material and material examined. The type slides of Thomas were kindly loaned to the author by the Illinois Natural History Survey. These slides have the following collection data: Iowa, Ft. Dodge, on Symphoricarpos vulgaris  , 1 ix 1877, and bear the INHS collection numbers: 459,572 and 459,573. Hottes and Frison (1931) correctly noted that most of the specimens on these slides are mummies of a parasitoid wasp. A few adult apterae, however, are not parasitized. None of the specimens are fully intact nor well-cleared for mounting. Also, being collected in late summer, the specimens are very small, representing what are often called summer dwarfs. Nonetheless, these are the type specimens, and for clarity in the future, a lectotype has been designated on the slide INHS # 459,573 as indicated in Figure 8View FIGURE 8.

Material measured for descriptions (collected by the author except where noted). AJ 3769 (1 fundatrix), USA, Idaho, Shoshone Co., Lookout Pass, ex Symphoricarpos  , 13 vi 2009; AJ 4776 (1 fundatrix), USA, Idaho, Kootenai Co., Hayden Lake, ex Symphoricarpos  , 15 v 2011; AJ 5621 (1 fundatrix), USA, Oregon, Grant Co., Malheur N.F. Rd. 218 nr. Rd. 21, ex Symphoricarpos  , 10 vi 2012; AJ 5566, AJ 5572 (2 fundatrices), USA, Idaho, Gem Co., F.R. 644 above Ola, ex Symphoricarpos albus  , 20 v 2012; AJ 5581 (2 fundatrices), USA, Oregon, Grant Co., Malheur N.F. Hwy 16 MP 50, ex Symphoricarpos  , 27 v 2012; AJ 5609 (1 fundatrix, 1 apt.), USA, Oregon, Grant Co., Malheur N.F. Rd. 2180 nr. Rd. 21, ex Symphoricarpos  , 9 vi 2012; AJ 5738, AJ 5739 (2 fundatrices), USA, Idaho, Camas Co., Sawtooth N.F. Rd. 015, ex Symphoricarpos  , 24 vi 2012; AJ 5555 (1 apt.), USA, Oregon, Baker Co., Dark Canyon, ex Symphoricarpos  , 28 v 2012; AJ 5032 (1 apt.), USA, Washington, Kittitas Co., Suncadia Resort, ex Symphoricarpos  , 20 vi 2011; AJ 2076 (1 apt.), USA, Wyoming, Carbon Co., Medicine Bow Nat. For., ex Symphoricarpos albus  , 3 vii 2004; AJ 5122 (1 apt.), CANADA, British Columbia, Whiteswan Lake Prov. Park, ex Symphoricarpos  , 6 vii 2011; AJ 152 (1 apt.), AJ 152 (1 al.), USA, Oregon, Morrow Co., Mile post 25 on Hwy 207 past Hardman, ex ??, 15 vii 1990, G.L. Reed, coll.; AJ 5835 (1 apt.), AJ 5834 (1 al.), USA, Idaho, Fremont Co., Bishop Mt., ex Symphoricarpos  , 1 viii 2012; AJ 5681 (1 apt., 1 al.), USA, Idaho, Boise Co., Schaffer Butte, ex Symphoricarpos  , 15 vi 2012; AJ 4935 (1 apt.), USA, Washington, Spokane Co., Spokane Airport, ex Symphoricarpos  , 25 vi 2011; AJ 2476 (1 al.), AJ 2477 (1 apt.), USA, Washington, Okanogan Co., Sweat Creek, ex Symphoricarpos albus  , 17 vii 2004; AJ 5247 (1 apt.), USA, Idaho, Kootenai Co., Latour Creek, ex Symphoricarpos  , 17 vii 2011; AJ 3794 (1 apt., 1 al.), USA, Montana, Missoula Co., Missoula, ex Symphoricarpos  , 13 vi 2009; AJ 5976 (1 apt.), USA, Oregon, Union Co., Eagle Caps Wilderness, ex Symphoricarpos  , 2 ix 2012; AJ 5690 (1 al.), AJ 5691 (1 apt.), USA, Idaho, Custer Co., Challis N.F. Bear Creek Summit, ex Symphoricarpos  , 1 vii 2012; USNM (1 apt., 1 al.), USA, Wyoming, Yellowstone Nat. Park, ex snowberry, 22 vii 1946, G.F. Knowlton, Coll.; USNM (1 apt., 1 al.), USA, Utah, Logan Canyon, ex snowberry, ex Symphoricarpos  , 8 viii 1973, no collector noted; USNM (1 apt., 1 al.), USA, Minnesota, Minneapolis, ex Symphoricarpos occidentalis  , 7 vii 1926, F.C. Hottes, coll.; USNM (1 apt.), USA, North Dakota, Johnstown, ex Symphoricarpos occidentalis  , 7 ix 1950, P.B. Kannowski, coll.; CNC (1 apt.), CANADA, Saskatchewan, Craven, Valeport rec. area South End, Last Mt. Lake, ex Symphoricarpos occidentalis  , 5 vii 1995, E. Maw, Coll.; CNC (1 apt.), British Columbia, N. of Wycliffe, ex Symphoricarpos  , 18 viii 1998, Maw and Foottit, coll.; CNC (1 apt., 1 al.), CANADA, Alberta, Elkwater, ex Symphoricarpos  , 13 vii 1966, W.R. Richards, coll.; CNC (1 apt.), CANADA, British Columbia, Vancouver, ex Symphoricarpos albus  , 7 vii 2005, C.K. Chan, coll.; CNC (1 apt., 1 al.), CANADA, Alberta, Waterton Lakes Nat. Park, ex Symphoricarpos albus  , 31 vii 2001, Maw & Foottit, coll.; CNC (1 apt.), CANADA, Alberta, Banff Nat. Park, ex Symphoricarpos occidentalis  , 3 viii 2001, Maw & Foottit, coll.; CNC (1 apt.), CANADA, Manitoba, Pelican Lake, ex Symphoricarpos  sp., 1 vii 1966, W.R. Richards, coll.; CNC (1 apt., 1 al.), CANADA, British Columbia, Lumby, ex Symphoricarpos albus  , 11 vii 1965, W.R. Richards, coll.; CNC (1 apt., 1 al.), CANADA, Saskatchewan, Ft. Qu'Appelle, ex Symphoricarpos  , 5 vii 1966, W.R. Richards, coll.; CNC (1 apt., 1 al.), CANADA, Alberta, Exshaw, ex Symphoricarpos  , 28 vii 1966, W.R. Richards, coll.; UCB (1 apt.), USA, California, Berkeley, ex Symphoricarpos racemosus  , 29 iv 1936, H. Lange, coll.; UCB (1 apt., 1 al.), USA, California, Berkeley, ex Symphoricarpos racemosus  , 30 iv 1947, E. O. Essig, coll.; UCB (1 apt.), USA, California, Alpine Ranch nr. Stanford, ex Symphoricarpos  , 12 vi 1931, P.S.B., coll.; UCB (1 apt.), UCB (1 apt.), USA, Utah, Randolph, ex Symphoricarpos  sp., 3 vii 1957, G.F. Knowlton, coll.; UCB (1 apt., 1 al.), USA, Oregon, McMinnville, ex Symphoricarpos albus  , 11 vi 1938, E. O. Essig, coll.; UCB (1 apt., 1 al.), USA, Oregon, Parkdale, ex Symphoricarpos  , 4 viii 1941, J. Schuh, coll.; UCB (1 apt.), USA, Oregon, Portland, ex Symphoricarpos vulgaris  , 4 vi 1940, J. Schuh, coll.; UCB (1 apt., 1 al.), CANADA, British Columbia, Victoria, ex Symphoricarpos albus  , 6 vi 1938, E. O. Essig, coll.; AJ 5271 (1 al.), USA, Idaho, Shoshone Co., Frazier Creek, ex Symphoricarpos  , 3 ix 2011; AJ 6165 (1 al.), USA, Idaho, Adams Co., nr. Brundage Mt., ex Symphoricarpos  , 22 ix 2012; CNC (al.), USA, Washington, Chelan Co., Merritt Trail Rd., ex Symphoricarpos albus  , 9 vii 2000, Maw & Foottit, coll.; CNC (1 al.), CANADA, Manitoba, Sandilands, ex Symphoricarpos racemosus  , 12 vii 1966, A.G. Robinson, coll.; UCB (1 al., 1 ov.), USA, Montana, 4 Mi. E. Avon, ex Symphoricarpos occidentalis  , 20 vii 1966, A. Gutierrez, coll.; UCB (1 al.), USA, California, Mt. Shasta, ex Symphoricarpos rotundifolia  , 11 vii 1941, W.H. Lange, coll.; AJ 6162 (2 ov.), AJ 6163 (2 ov.), USA, Idaho, Adams Co., nr. Brundage Mt., ex Symphoricarpos  , 22 ix 2012; AJ 4540 (1 ov.), AJ 4541 (1 ov.), AJ 4542 (1 ov.), USA, Montana, Ravalli Co., Bitterroot River, ex Symphoricarpos  , 29 viii 2010.

Other material examined: many specimens in the author’s collection and borrowed from INHS, UCB, WSU, USNM, and CNC. In total, specimens from the following USA states and Canadian provinces have been seen: California, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan.

Comments. See comments under A. rumbleboredomia  for features to use in recognizing this species.