Anaulacomera trispinata Fianco, Faria & Cadena-Castañeda 2019

Fianco, Marcos, Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J., Szinwelski, Neucir & Faria, Luiz R. R., 2019, A new Anaulacomera species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) from the Iguaçu National Park, southern Brazil, Zootaxa 4700 (3), pp. 365-376: 368-372

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Anaulacomera trispinata Fianco, Faria & Cadena-Castañeda 2019


Anaulacomera trispinata Fianco, Faria & Cadena-Castañeda 2019 

( Figures 1BView FIGURE 1; 2A – FView FIGURE 2; 3A – FView FIGURE 3; 4A – IView FIGURE 4) Orthoptera

Diagnosis: Anaulacomera trispinata  sp. n. is promptly distinguished from all other members of the poculigera  group and from other species of the genus, by the following combination of characters: male cerci with two ramifications, both at the base; first ramification semi-circular, second almost straight; main branch and both ramifications with a dark tooth at the apex. Tegmina with whitish punctuations slightly below and along Sc+R(+)

Etymology: the specific epithet refers to the three spines found on the male cerci (from the greek tri [three], and the latin spinata  [spine]).


Holotype male ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2, C–E; 3A, C, E, F; 4A–C): vertex light green with yellowish and white stains; a white line from eye towards the fastigium of vertex; a yellowish line across vertex. Gena and frons aquamarine ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2). Thorax ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2, D–E; 4A–C): pronotum green with several small brownish punctations ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 D–E). Pronotal disc compressed between prozona and metazona; posterior margin convex, anterior margin straight with a small median expansion; furcal sulci bell-shaped ( Fig. 2EView FIGURE 2) Lateral lobes smaller than pronotal disc, longer than wide; anterior margin concave, posterior margin convex and semi-circular; humeral sinus presenting an angle of ca. 90º ( Fig. 2DView FIGURE 2). Tegmina shorter than hindwings, light green. Anal and costal margins parallel; Rs vein beginning almost in the middle of the tegmina, with first branch diverging before its first half; RA ending in the costal area; A2 vein yellow in dorsal view with teeth becoming smaller towards the costal area, on both tegmina; with dark grey punctuation above MP +CuA1; in tegmina, punctuations slightly below Sc+R(+), along the extension of this vein ( Fig. 4A – CView FIGURE 4). Stridulatory area of left tegmen greyish in the centre, and dark grey in direction to apex. Tergum of metathorax with a gland-like structure, globose and hairy. Mesosternum with anterior margin concave; lateral lobes small and triangular; its posterior margin with half of the length of the lateral margin; lateral lobes without overlapping in the posterior margin. Metasternum triangular, with a straight anterior margin; lateral lobes demilune shaped, almost touching in the posterior margin. Tibia I with a tympanum opened on both sides, general colour light green with exception of tympanum expansion and tibia apex that is purplish; Femur I, II and III and Tibia II and III light-green. Abdomen ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2; 3A, C, E, FView FIGURE 3): general colour light-green with small and spaced purplish punctuations ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2). Tergite X quite large, its anterior margin whitish and presenting a “v-like” form; posterior margin convex. Cercus with two ramifications, both at the base, with a large sulcus between these ramifications and extending along the main branch of cercus; pellucid setae concentrated at apices; first ramification ventral, semicircular, curved towards the medial region, its base as wide as long, with a long and curved brown spine at the apex; second ramification dorsal, almost straight, longer than the first ramification, base wider than half of its length, with a slightly curved spine at apex; main branch of cercus longer than first and second ramifications, slightly curved to the medial region, apex obtuse with a brown spine smaller than the spines of both first and second ramifications ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3). Subgenital plate longer than wide; median keel at half of its length; posterior processes obtuse, with a concave margin between them, arising from a keel that starts at half of subgenital plate length ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3).

Female ( Fig. 1BView FIGURE 1; 2B, FView FIGURE 2; 3B, DView FIGURE 3): larger than males ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2). Morphological details of head and pronotum as in males. General colour as in males. Stridulatory area greenish with a white spot, outlined in black, at the beginning of M(+) and final of stridulatory area. Right wing with five lines of stridulatory teeth; the four first lines with large and square teeth; the fifth line with conical teeth ( Fig. 2FView FIGURE 2). Tergite X not expanded. Ovipositor greenish, slightly curved up, twice longer than pronotum; lateral margins of dorsal and ventral valves brownish, with small serrulations ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3). Cerci conical, smaller than subgenital plate. Base of the subgenital plate wrinkled, whitish; middle region of subgenital plate not developed under ovipositor valves lateral regions globose, with a median small ramification contacting the basal portion of the ventral valve of ovipositor ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3).

Calling song ( Fig. 4D –IView FIGURE 4): males produce echemes of 11 ± 0.7 s (09–13 s), with a regular intensity ( Fig. 4DView FIGURE 4). The echemes are constituted of two sections of syllables The first section presenting a rate of 2.8 syllables per second, each syllable lasting ca. 10 ± 6 ms (6–20 ms) and with a mute interval of 380 ± 170 ms (253–773 ms), in a slightly decrescendo of intensity ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 E–F). The second part with a high emission rate of 22 syllables per second, each of them with duration of 5 ± 1 ms (2–8 ms) with a mute interval interval of 18 ms ± 6 (14–71 ms) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 G–H). This second part is constituted by four intervals, each interval shorter than the previous one ( Fig. 4DView FIGURE 4). The last interval composed by no more than 10 syllables, with a mute interval of 432 ± 70 ms (381–483 ms). The fundamental frequency of the calling song is of 17 ± 0.6 kHz (13–19), with a bandwidth of 5.1 ± 2 kHz (1.1–12.4) ( Fig. 4IView FIGURE 4).

Type Material: Holotype male, “ BR, PR, Serranópolis do Iguaçu/Parque Nacional do Iguaçu/ 14-18.XI.2018 / Coleta ativa noturna/ Fianco, M. col.”. deposited at Museu Nacional ( MNRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  . Paratypes: 1 female, same data as holotype  ; 1 male and 1 female, “ BR, PR, Céu Azul / Parque Nacional do Iguaçu / 02-05.I.2018 / Coleta ativa noturna/ Fianco, M. col.”  ; 1 male “ BR, PR, Foz do Iguaçu / Parque Nacional do Iguaçu / 06-09.IX.2017 / Armadilha luminosa/ Fianco, M. col”  ; 1 female, “ BR, PR, Santa Tereza do Oeste / Parque Nacional do Iguaçu / 06- 10.I.2018 /Coleta ativa diurna/ Fianco, M. col.”  ; 1 male, “ BR, PR, Foz do Iguaçu / Parque Nacional do Iguaçu / 11- 15.XI.2017 /Coleta ativa noturna/ Fianco, M. col”  ; 1 female, “ BR, PR, Foz do Iguaçu / Parque Nacional do Iguaçu / 08-10.IV.2018 /Armadilha luminosa/ Fianco, M. col”  ; 1 male, “ BR, PR, Foz do Iguaçu / Parque Nacional do Iguaçu / 26-27.VIII.2017 /Armadilha luminosa/ Fianco, M. col”, deposited at MNRJ  .

Measurements (mm): Holotype: BL: 17.1; TegL: 29.3; HW: 2.98; PrL: 4.91; PrH: 3.12; FLiii: 18.8; TLiii: 22.0; SPL: 2.6; CL: 3.98; SFL: 1.28; TN: 64. Male paratypes: BL: 17.8 (16.0–18.4); TegL: 28.8 (27.7–30.4); HW: 3.0 (2.9–3.1); PrL: 5.1 (4.8–5.4); PrH: 3.1 (2.9–3.3); FLiii: 19.4 (18.6–20); TLiii: 22.8 (22.3–23.4); SPL: 2.8 (2.4–3.2); CL: 4.1 (3.9–4.3); SFL: 1.26 (1.16–1.32); TN: 66 (62–70). Female paratypes: BL: 21.4 (18.6–22.8); TegL: 31.4 (30.3–32.1); HW: 3.5 (3.4–3.7); PrL: 5.6 (5.3–5.8); PrH: 3.3 (3.1–3.4); FLiii: 20.3 (19.9–20.5); TLiii: 23.5 (22.3–24.1); SPL: 2.3 (1.9–2.7); TN: 43; OL: 11.1 (10.7–11.7).

Remarks: Anaulacomera trispinata  sp. n. is placed in the poculigera  group by the male cerci morphology which presents two ramifications. Males of both the previous known species of the poculigera  group, A. franciscoi  and A. poculigera  , present the first ramification before half of the length of the cerci, as in the new species. Regarding the second ramification, while in the new species this structure is found almost at the apex of cerci, in A. franciscoi  and A. poculigera  it also appears at the first half of cerci. Additionally, only Anaulacomera trispinata  sp. n. presents a sulci that goes through all the extension of the main branch of the cerci. Another difference between species is the absence of spines on the branches of the male cerci both on A. franciscoi  and A. poculigera  . These differences on terminalia could led us to identify the new species as belonging to the apolinari  group, however, the male cerci do not present many branches and has no coral aspect as in apolinari  group (see Cadena-Castañeda 2012, 2015).

The tegmina colouration is similar considering the species of the group, as A. franciscoi  , A. poculigera  and A. trispinata  sp. n. present the stridulatory area in a distinct colouration of the rest of the tegmina. However, while this region is black in A. franciscoi  , and blackish brown in A. poculigera  , the new species present a greyish and dark grey stridulatory area. Additionally, as in A. poculigera  , the new species presents punctations below and along Sc+R(+); while brownish/greenish in A. poculigera  , punctations are whitish/greenish in A. trispinata  sp. n. The quite large tergite X of the males are found both in A. poculigera  and Anaulacomera trispinata  sp. n. But while this structure presents rounded lobes that are deeply emarginated in the first species, in the latter species the tergite X is just produced, without emarginated lobes.

Besides Anaulacomera  being a speciose genus, there are very few data on bioacoustics, only for unidentified species (see Braun 2002), with a presence of short syllables, which are not the case of Anaulacomera trispinata  sp. n. (as in Anaulacomera  sp. 3 in Braun 2002). The stridulation performed by the males of the new species have the particularity of being emitted in a first third of short and isolated syllables and then the rest of the sequence being emitted in grouped syllables, similar to Parapyrrhicia acutilobata Ragge, 1980  , an African Phaneropterini (see Hemp et al. 2017).


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