Chalcis Fabricius, 1787,

Saguiah, Pâmella Machado, Molin, Ana Dal & Tavares, Marcelo Teixeira, 2020, The South American species of Chalcis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae), Zootaxa 4885 (3), pp. 353-383: 354-355

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4885.3.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4DA945AD-653E-4E8A-A33D-D52E2F9E44D3

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4330379

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/039B87F3-FFC3-BB71-FF6F-F8A7FC19FA71

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chalcis Fabricius, 1787
status

 

Chalcis Fabricius, 1787 

Type species Sphex sispes Linnaeus, 1761  , by subsequent designation of Westwood (1839: 65).

Chalcis Fabricius, 1787: 272  .

Smiera Spinola, 1811: 147  . Type species Sphex sispes Linnaeus, 1761  , by subsequent designation of Curtis (1833: 472). Synonymy by Gahan & Fagan (1923: 31).

Smicra Spinola, 1837: 1  . Unjustified emendation of Smiera  .

Diagnosis. Both sexes. Mandibular formula 2:3 or 3:3, the upper tooth larger and longer than the others; mesocoxa with short pubescence dorsolaterally; mesotibial spur at most as long as apical width of mesotibia, occasionally absent. Female. Tarsal claws usually slightly curved ( Figs 1eView FIGURE 1, 6aView FIGURE 6), sometimes falcate ( Fig. 11fView FIGURE 11); hypopygium with median portion narrowly extended posteriorly with median portion distinct from the lateral areas ( Figs 2cView FIGURE 2, 4cView FIGURE 4, 6dView FIGURE 6, 9dView FIGURE 9, 12cView FIGURE 12, 15eView FIGURE 15, 20aView FIGURE 20), or thickened but only slightly extended posteriorly beyond the adjacent margins ( Fig. 21aView FIGURE 21). Male. Tarsal claws almost always bifid apically ( Fig. 10cView FIGURE 10); hypopygium enlarged, flat or concave, with distal margin truncate ( Fig. 13bView FIGURE 13) to notched ( Figs 7dView FIGURE 7, 10dView FIGURE 10, 16cView FIGURE 16).

Biology. Few host records known, these as egg-pupal or larval-pupal parasitoids of Stratiomyidae  ( Diptera  ) ( Hart 1895; M̹ller 1908; Schremmer 1960; Cowan 1979).

Distribution. Most species on Northern Hemisphere, but present on all continents except Antarctica ( Noyes 2020).

Remarks. Chalcis  can be distinguished from other genera of New Word Chalcididae  using the key of Bouček (1992). Among Chalcidini  , only females of Chalcis  and Melanosmicra Ashmead  have the posterior margin of the hypopygium medially setose and distinctly produced posteriorly ( Figs 2dView FIGURE 2, 4cView FIGURE 4, 6dView FIGURE 6, 9dView FIGURE 9, 12cView FIGURE 12, 15eView FIGURE 15, 20aView FIGURE 20), usually reaching the apex of the gaster. Species of both genera also have mandibles that lack a ventral lamina, the upper tooth longer than the lower teeth (except a few Melanosmicra  species in which the lower tooth is the longest), and a relatively long petiole and short gaster ( Figs 3aView FIGURE 3, 5aView FIGURE 5). Species of Chalcis  differ from those of Melanosmicra  by the female hypopygium having the median portion extended posteriorly as a narrow projection ( Figs 2dView FIGURE 2, 4cView FIGURE 4, 6dView FIGURE 6, 9dView FIGURE 9, 12cView FIGURE 12, 15eView FIGURE 15, 20aView FIGURE 20) or with the median portion distinct from the lateral areas, thickened but only slightly extended posteriorly beyond the level of adjacent margins ( Fig. 21aView FIGURE 21) (posterior margin angled or bilobed in Melanosmicra  ); hypopygium of males comparatively large, flat or concave, and with distal margin truncate ( Fig. 13bView FIGURE 13) to notched ( Figs 7dView FIGURE 7, 10dView FIGURE 10, 16cView FIGURE 16) (hypopygium surface and distal margin convex in Melanosmicra  ); mesocoxa with short pubescence on dorsolateral surface (with few long, erect bristles in Melanosmicra  ); mesotibial spur absent or when present at most as long as the apical width of the mesotibia (longer than apical width of mesotibia in Melanosmicra  ); and metafemur usually without inner basal tooth ventrally or, if present, inner tooth short and triangular ( Fig. 18aView FIGURE 18) (almost always spinelike and curved in females of Melanosmicra  ). The shape of tarsal claws has also been used to differentiate Chalcis  species. In females, the claws have been most commonly described as slightly curved ( Figs 1eView FIGURE 1, 6aView FIGURE 6, 8fView FIGURE 8, 9aView FIGURE 9, 14fView FIGURE 14, 15aView FIGURE 15) but in some species the claws are falcate ( Figs 3fView FIGURE 3, 11fView FIGURE 11). In males, the tarsal claws are usually pectinate basally and almost always bifid apically ( Figs 7cView FIGURE 7, 10cView FIGURE 10).

In addition to external morphology characters, Delvare (1992) lists the following features of the male genitalia as diagnostic to Chalcis  : phallobase with dorsal expansion, emarginate apically, completely open ventrally, ventral frame most often present, median ventral lamina narrow, without incision on each side of the median ventral lamina; aedeagus with dorsal and sometimes ventral expansion. For comparison, in his diagnosis for Melanosmicra  , he lists the phallobase closed ventrally at least along half length; ventral frame more or less obsolete or absent; median ventral lamina normal; phallobase emarginate or slightly incised near median ventral lamina; digiti normal, not narrow and not emarginate on outer edge; aedeagus short and rounded at apex.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Chalcididae

Loc

Chalcis Fabricius, 1787

Saguiah, Pâmella Machado, Molin, Ana Dal & Tavares, Marcelo Teixeira 2020
2020
Loc

Smicra

Spinola, M. 1837: 1
1837
Loc

Smiera

Gahan, A. B. & Fagan, M. M. 1923: 31
Curtis, J. 1833: 472
Spinola, M. 1811: 147
1811