Callyntra femina

Zúñiga-Reinoso, Álvaro, Pinto, Pablo & Collado, Gonzalo A., 2018, No more machismo in Callyntra (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Callyntra femina, a new species discovered based on female genitalia and genetic evidence, Zootaxa 4461 (3), pp. 429-437: 431-433

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Callyntra femina

sp. nov.

Callyntra femina  sp. nov.

( Figs. 1 View Figure and 2 View Figure ).

Type locality. Chile, Región de la Araucanía, Malleco, Curacautín, Parque Nacional Tolhuaca , Laguna Malleco (- 38.21 S; - 71.81 W).GoogleMaps 

Type material. Holotype. Chile, Región de la Araucanía, Malleco, Curacautín, Parque Nacional Tolhuaca , Laguna Malleco (-38.21; -71.81). II. 2015. Leg. S. Larrea. (female, MNNCAbout MNNC). 

Paratypes: Chile, Bío-Bío, Los Angeles, Mulchen. II.1961. leg  . J. Solervicens. (1female IEUMCEAbout IEUMCE). Araucanía, Malleco, Curacautín: Termas de Tolhuaca (- 38.23 S; - 71.72 W). II. 2015GoogleMaps  . Leg. S. Larrea (female, SLPC). 10.XII.2017. leg. P. Pinto. 1220 m.a.l.s. 2♂, 1♀ (female, MNNC; female, UCCC; male, IADIZA). 10.XII.2017. leg. V. Osorio. (female PPPC). Parque Nacional Tolhuaca. 13.I.2006  . leg. A. Ramírez. 1200 m.a.l.s. Walking in grassland of Festuca  sp. (male, ARPC). Reserva Nacional Malalcahuello, sector Corralco. XII.2016  . leg. X. Fuentealba. 1400 m a.l.s. (male, MZUC).

Other material examined: Chile, Bío-Bío, Los Angeles , Pemehue. I.1896. 2♂, 1♀ (2 males and female, MNNCAbout MNNC)  . Araucanía, Malleco, Curacautín, Tolhuaca , XII.1997. leg. P. Vidal (male, MNNCAbout MNNC). 

Description of holotype (female). Body length of holotype: 16.5 mm. Body black, antennae and legs dark red. Head ( Fig. 1a View Figure ). Labrum emarginate, with very scarce and short setae. Clypeus glabrous, without wrinkles, clypeal suture not visible. Frons glabrous with scattered punctation, with few wrinkles. Vertex slightly raised. Mentum with punctures and glabrous. Eyes without setae near base. Thorax. Pronotum ( Fig. 1b View Figure ), wider than long, widest at middle. Anterior angles rounded. Anterior margin conspicuous and angulated with minute punctures with short setae under anterior margin. Central area of anterior margin broad, narrowing towards sides. Lateral margin of pronotum slightly raised, glabrous with few punctures. Lateral margin is wider in posterior third. Posterior angles projected backwards over elytra. Pronotal disc with two parallel carinae, both structures nearly straight, very raised and all along length of disc, wrinkled and thick. Weak transverse wrinkles between carinae. Deep diagonal wrinkles between the lateral margin and discal carinae. Proepisternum smooth. Prosternum convex, with scarce punctures on flanks and nearly glabrous. Prosternal apophysis sub-rectangular, with scarce setae in distal portion and with longitudinal wrinkles. Mesoventrite practically smooth and glabrous. Metaventrite with few wrinkles and glabrous. Elytra ( Fig. 1c View Figure ) with main carinae raised almost straight, secondary carinae absent; transverse rugosity and lateral margin conspicuous and crenulated. With scattered setae on elytral surface. Elytral suture raised. Epipleuron and pseudopleuron glabrous and smooth. Abdomen. Ventrites glabrous, with vertical wrinkles on ventrite I, II, III and IV and ventrite V semi-smooth with puncturates in medial part. Legs. Dark red. Coxae black with a line of long setae on base. Trochanter, femora, tibiae and tarsi dark red. Ventrally trochanter has abundant yellowish setae like a brush. Femora with a line of yellowish setae on ventral face and dorsally with scarce, but longer yellowish setae. Tibiae covered with small setae like-spines, more abundant on ventral face. Female genitalia. In ventral view, first lobes of coxites (i.e. cl 1) are longer than wide with humpbacked shape, lateral margin almost straights ( Fig. 2a View Figure ). Second lobes of coxite (i.e. cl 2+3+4) are semi-straight and sub-square, with a tuft of long hair in apical position and a band of inconspicuous long hairs on base ( Fig 2a View Figure ). Strongly sclerotized gonostyles, straight and parallel ( Fig 2a View Figure ). In lateral view, both lobes of coxite and gonostyles form ~45° angle ( Fig 2d View Figure ).

Male: The males are in general quite similar to the females, but smaller, flatter and narrower. Males possess wrinkles lightly marked on the abdominal ventrites. Tarsus longer in males than in females. Male Genitalia: Aedeagus with the lateral styles of tegmen curved and narrowed towards the apex. Proximal margin ventrally bisinuate, wider at the base, ventrally incomplete, forming an ovoid space not sclerotized. Apical half with abundant setae in the ventral surface. Basal lamina of tegmen with base subrounded, wider in middle. Median lobe tubular, half the width of lateral styles of tegmen, with apical aperture elongated, apex rounded, and distally broadened.

Diagnosis. The diagnostic traits of C. femina  will be described in comparison with C. carbonaria  and C. riverai  . For this, the traits of C. carbonaria  will be given in parentheses and those of C. riverai  in squares brackets; characters shared by both species are indicated by square brackets within parentheses.

Labrum with very scarce and short setae ([with abundant setae]). Pronotum glabrous (glabrous) [setose]. Pronotal carinae long and very raised ([short and slightly elevated]). Slight transverse wrinkles in the pronotal disc (deep and irregular wrinkles) [deep and longitudinal wrinkles]. Glabrous or very few setae on the elytra (scattered setae) [abundant or scattered setae]. The cl 1 is longer than wide ([wider than long]), the c1 with humpbacked shape ([flat]), lateral margin almost straights ([irregular]). The cl 2 + 3 + 4 sub-square ([sub-triangular]). Band of inconspicuous long hairs on the base ([band of conspicuous long hairs on the base]). Small size of lateral styles (large) [small]. Lateral style curved (more than C. carbonaria  ) [less than C. riverai  ]. Basal lamina of tegmen emarginate in the base ([complete in the base]).

Intraspecific variability. The size of C. femina  is variable, from small specimens (~ 14 mm) in some localities (e.g. Pemehue) to large specimens (~ 17 mm) in Tolhuaca National Park. The pilosity in the body is another trait that varies with localities and is possible to find glabrous specimens (e.g. Tolhuaca National Park) or with some pilosity on the elytra (e.g. Malalcahuello National Reserve). The color of the legs is also variable, being dark red in Tolhuaca National Park, black in Mulchen and Pemehue and orange in Malalcahuello National Reserve.

Distribution and habitat. Chile. Regions: Bío-Bío and Araucanía. Provinces: Bío-Bío, Los Angeles and Malleco. Communes: Quilaco, Mulchen, Curacuatín and Lonquimay. This distribution would correspond to the entomofaunal region of Southern Andes Cordillera ( Peña 1966) and the Endemism Area of Southern Andes Mountain Range ( Flores & Vidal 2000). Callyntra femina  inhabits the Andean steppe or Valdivian forest with grassland under the canopy, above 1000 m elevation.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the Latin femina  (singular noun, feminine) which mean female or woman, because is the first species in Callyntra  that is described using female characters (i.e. ovipositor) as diagnostic traits.

Genetic differentiation and phylogenetic analysis. The genetic distance of COIAbout COI between C. femina  sp. n. with other species is greater than 5%, while the intraspecific distances were less than 0.31% (see Table 1). Callyntra femina  is genetically more similar to C. rossi  . The intraspecific variation corresponded to differences in only three bases between the specimens from Tolhuaca National Park and Malalcahuello National Reserve. The Bayesian tree showed four highly supported clades, each one containing the sequences of a single species ( Fig. 3 View Figure ). In this analysis, Callyntra femina  was recovered as sister of a clade composed by C. carbonaria  , C. riverai  and C. rossi  . However, the relationships among the last three taxa were not resolved.


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University of Coimbra Botany Department