Ooderella smithii Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2017, Revision of world Ooderella Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), with description of the first males for the genus, Zootaxa 4289 (1), pp. 1-74 : 40-45

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https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.828791

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Ooderella smithii Ashmead


Ooderella smithii Ashmead View in CoL

Figs 90–109 View FIGURES 90 – 98 View FIGURES 99 – 100 View FIGURES 101 – 109

Ooderella smithii Ashmead, 1896: 11 View in CoL . Holotype ♀ (USNM). Type data: Chapada, Brazil, April, H.H. Smith collection.

Type material. Ashmead (1896) did not state the number of specimens on which the description of O. smithii was based, but only a single length measurement was given and there is only a single female in the USNM that is labelled: “April / Chapada / H.H. Smith | Coll. / Type No. | 60523 | U.S.N.M. [red label] / Ooderella | smithii | ♀ Type Ashm [hand written label] / USNMENT 0 0 809388 [bar code label, upside down]” (http:// www.usnmhymtypes.com/). I interpret this female as the holotype of O. smithii .

Additional material examined (44♀, 12♂). Argentina . Córdoba, Las Tapias , 643m, 31°57'46"S 65°05'25.4"W, 16.I.2003, W. Jones & S. Triapitsyn, sw (1♀ [ UCRC ENT 459572 View Materials ] UCRC) GoogleMaps . Missiones , Loreto: 22.III.1932, A.A. Ogloblin (1♀ [ NHMUK 010353728 View Materials ] BMNH) ; 4.IX.2001 (2♀ [UCRC ENT 79292 & 79293] UCRC), 26.I–20.II.2001 (2♀ [UCRC ENT 79297 & 79299] UCRC), S.O. Martinez & R. Fidalgo, MT in Ruinas Jesuiticas; 27°20'12.9"S, 55°31'42.6"W, 176m, 16.II.2009, A. Ossipov & S. Triapitsyn, selva edge nr prison, total sweep (1♀ [UCRC ENT 253213] UCRC). Misiones, Parque National Iguazú : 25°42'12.5"S 54°25'30.9"W, 196m, 18.II.2009, S.V. Triapitsyn, D.A. Aquino & A.V. Ossipov, total sweep near campground (1♀ [ UCRC ENT 252832 View Materials ] UCRC) GoogleMaps ; 25°42'51"S 54°26'28"W, 230m, 17.II.2009, D. Aquino (1♀ [UCRC ENT 245544] UCRC); Cantera , 200m, 8.XII.1990 – 6.I.1991, S.&J. Peck (1♀ CNC); Empalme 101, 206m, 8.XII.1990 – 6.I.1991, S.&J. Peck, palm forest FIT (1♀ CNC); Pto. Canoas, 180m, 8.XII.1990 – 6.I.1991, S.&J. Peck, river forest, FIT 90-91 (1♀ CNC). Bolivia. Cochabamba, Villa Tunari , 16°54'55"S 65°22'06"W, 8.XI.2001, H. Heider (1♀ CNC). Dpto GoogleMaps . Santa Cruz, 5 km SSE Buena Vista, Hotel Flora y Fauna , 17°29.925'S 63°39.128'W, 440m, forest FIT (1♀, 2♂ [1♂ Photo 2016- 103], all CNC) GoogleMaps . La Paz, Chulumani, Apa-Apa , 16°22'S 67°30'W, 1800m, 1–4.V.1987, L. Masner, s.s. 2-09 (1♀, 10♂ [1♂ Photo 2016-102], all CNC) GoogleMaps . Brazil. Espirito Santo: Conceição da Barra, FLONA Rio Preto , 18°22'S 39°52'W, 16.IV–1.V.2013, Malaise 13 & 14, M.T. Tavares & eq. (2♀ [ UFES n° 140919 & 140964] UFES) GoogleMaps ; Linhares, Floresta Nacional Goytacazes , 19°26'17"S 40°04'27"W, 29.I–5.II.2013, M.T. Tavares & eq., Malaise (1♀ [ UFES n° 139659] UFES) GoogleMaps ; Pancas, Faz. Juliberto Stur, Area 1, 19°13'10.5"S 40°46'23.8"W, 24–31.I.2003, Malaise 1, Tavares, Azevedo & eq. (3♀ [ UFES n° 99350, 99474 & 103673], 1♀ CNC Photo 2016-86, all UFES) GoogleMaps ; Sta. M. de Jetibá, Faz. Paulo Seick, 20°02'31.1"S 40°41'51.3"W, 29.XI–6.XII.2002, Malaise T 4, Tavares, Azevedo & eq. (1♀ [ UFES n° 95114] UFES) GoogleMaps . Minas Gerais, Marliéria, P.E. Rio Doce ( PELD), J.C.R. Fontenelle, Malaise: Area Tereza 1, 19°37'S 42°34'W, 9–16.XI.2006 (1♀ [ UFES n° 148129] UFES) GoogleMaps ; Area Tereza 3, 19°37'S 42°34'W, 28.X– 4.XI.2007 (1♀ [ UFES n° 148807], CNC Photo 2016-87, UFES) GoogleMaps ; Trilha Gambá 3, 19°47'S 42°35'W, 3–10.XI.2004 (1♀ [ UFES n° 148787] UFES) GoogleMaps . Nova Teutonia : 1.VII.1965, F. Plaumann (1♀ [ NHMUK 010353742 View Materials ] BMNH) ; 27°11'S 52°23'W, 300–500m, XI.1971, F. Plaumann (1♀ CNC). Pernambuco, Caruaru , 4.V.1972, M. Alvarenga (1♀ CNC) . Repressa Rio Grande, Guanabara , VIII.1972, F.H. Oliveira (1♀ CNC) . Est. Rio de Janeiro, Silva Jardim , VIII.1974, F.M. Oliveira (1♀ CNC) . Rio de Janeiro St., Campos, Murundu , VIII.1978, M. Alvarenga (1♀ CNC) . São Paulo, Bocaina, S. José Barreiro , SP., XI.1968, F.M. Oliveira (1♀ CNC) . Ecuador. Napo, Limoncocha , 250m, 15–28. VI.1970, S.&J. Peck (1♀ CNC) . Orellana, Tiputini , Biodiversity Stn., 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 4.VII.1998 (lot 1862, transect #7: 1♀ USNM) GoogleMaps ; 23.X.1998 (lot #1911, transect #2: 1♀ USNM, CNC Photo 2015-4), 24.X.1988 (lot 1932, transect #4: 1♀ USNM), 6.II.1999 (lot 2063, transect #7: 1♀ USNM; lot 2076, Transect #8: 1♀ USNM), 8.II.1999 (lot 2037, transect #4: 2♀ USNM), 4.VII.1999 (lot 1866, transect #7: 1♀ USNM, CNC Photo 2016-88), T.L. Erwin et al., insecticidal fogging of mostly bare green leaves, some with covering of lichenous or bryophytic plants, 216m. French Guiana. Patawa Kaw Mountains, 04°33.562'N 52°12.425'W, VII.2007, J. Cerda, MT (1♀ CNC) GoogleMaps . Peru. Loreto, Explornapo Camp on Rio Sucusari, 2 km upstream from Rio Napo , 160 km NE Iquitos, 24.VI–20.VII.1990, Menke & Awertschenko (1♀ USNM) . Uruguay. Paysandù Dept., 15 km W Quebracho , Rio Uruguay, 31°51'S 58°81'W, 10m, 14–29.XII.2002, S.&J. Peck (1♀ CNC) .

Description. FEMALE (habitus: Figs 93, 94 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ). Length = 2–4 mm. Head ( Figs 90–92 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) with frontovertex primarily brown or dark to mostly greenish though usually with variably extensive reddish-violaceous lusters under different angles of light ( Figs 90, 92 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ), scrobal depression sometimes entirely green to bluish-green, but usually multicolored ( Fig. 90 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) with green, blue, purple, and reddish-violaceous lusters, often in variably distinctly delineated transverse bands, though sometimes dark dorsally, and lower face mostly green though sometimes with variably extensive coppery to reddish-coppery lusters under some angles of light; in lateral view ( Fig. 91 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) comparatively highly convex with frontovertex quite abruptly angled relative to lower face so broadest dorsally, about 1.1–1.3× as high as long; in frontal view ( Fig. 90 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) about 1.2–1.4× as wide as high; in dorsal view ( Fig. 92 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) about 1.4–1.6× as wide as long with interocular distance about 0.3–0.4× head width, and almost always with yellowish but at least slightly angulate ocellocular mark, and with LOL slightly less than POL and slightly greater than OOL (OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 7–11: 12–18: 8–14: 6–9). Frontovertex with vertex coriaceous-alutaceous over at least posterior half and usually to or near posterior ocelli medially, but at least smooth and shiny posterior and lateral of ocelli and on frons except for setiferous pits with brownish setae ( Figs 90, 92 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ). Scrobal depression ( Fig. 90 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) dorsally abruptly, sometimes partly carinately, angled to and therefore distinctly delimited from frons, broadly Π-shaped with lateral margin curved out from torulus toward lower inner orbit such that without distinct parascrobal region, and dorsal margin broadly arched between inner orbits; dorsally separated from anterior ocellus by about 1.3–1.6× ocellar diameter and ventrally delimited from scrobes and interantennal region only by difference in sculpture/color or at most by very shallow, broadly Π-shaped furrow; reticulate-rugulose to more transversely reticulate-strigose dorsally, and with scrobes shiny and interantennal prominence variably extensively meshlike coriaceous to shiny above setose region. Lower face, interantennal prominence to about mid-height between toruli, and in line along inner orbit to near dorsal limit of scrobal depression with brownish lanceolate setae. Mandible variably distinctly bidentate ( Fig. 99 View FIGURES 99 – 100 : insert) to tridentate with acute ventroapical tooth and variably incurved to incised dorsoapical margin. Labial and maxillary palps whitish-yellow to brown. Antenna ( Fig. 99 View FIGURES 99 – 100 ) with scape almost uniformly brown to entirely or mostly yellowish to yellowish-brown, and pedicel and basal flagellomeres sometimes also comparatively light-colored, but usually dark with variably extensive and distinct green to bluish lusters and sometimes distinctly contrasting white-reflective setae; length of flagellum + pedicel about 1.4–2.2× head width; scape with ventral and dorsal margins subparallel with ventral margin only slightly sinuous so of similar width throughout, and about 4.2–5.0× as long as wide; structure of pedicel and flagellum typical for genus with pedicel about twice as long as apical width, fl1distinctly longer than wide (up to 1.8×), subsequent three funiculars much longer than wide but apical four funiculars increasingly shorter, and with clava somewhat longer than apical two funiculars.

Mesosoma highly variable in color, sometimes mostly orangish to brownish-yellow ( Fig. 93 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) except for pronotum posterolaterally anterior to spiracle and tegula dark brown ( Fig. 95 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ), but often more extensively brown ( Figs 94, 96, 97 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ), most commonly at least acropleuron and scutellum, and sometimes mesoscutum mostly brown to dark brown except mesoscutal flange yellowish-translucent and propleuron and prosternum at least mediolongitudinally brownish-yellow to yellow, and when darker brown then dorsally with variably extensive and distinct green to bluish lusters ( Figs 96, 97 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ). Legs ( Figs 93, 94 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) highly variable in color but at least most of procoxa and usually metacoxa dorsolaterally brown, and usually most of profemur and protibia, mesofemur at least dorsally, and meso- and metatibiae and metafemur variably extensively brownish to dark brown. Pronotum in dorsal view ( Figs 95, 96 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) with collar transverse-quadrangular, about 1.5–2× as wide as long with anterolateral corners right-angled relative to anterior margin and anterior margin right-angled relative to abruptly inclined neck, the dorsal surface flat and only very sparsely setose on either side of deep mediolongitudinal groove. Mesoscutum ( Figs 95, 96 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) flat anteriorly and with lateral lobes carinately angled within about posterior third to quarter; meshlike reticulate; with variably long and conspicuous, sometimes bristle-like, posteriorly directed setae of similar color as cuticle except for dense white lanceolate setae forming reflective patch posteromedially, the setal region distinctly separated from posterior margin of mesoscutum by distance at least about equal to width ( Fig. 95 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) and usually length ( Fig. 96 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) of setal region, with most setae directed anteriorly but sometimes the posterior-most setae directed posteriorly, and sometimes mesoscutum anteriorly near level of inner margin of each spiracle also with one to several slender-lanceolate, posterolaterally directed white setae, though these not forming conspicuous setal patches ( Fig. 96 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ). Scutellar-axillar complex ( Fig. 97 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) about 1.1–1.4× as long as basal width with hairlike setae of similar color as cuticle along lateral margins of axillae and scutellum; axillae reticulate, triangular but shorter than scutellum; scutellum reticulate to longitudinally reticulate-strigose, teardrop-shaped, about 2.9–3.0× as long as greatest width, with distinctly differentiated, meshlike coriaceous frenal area. Tegula ( Figs 95, 98 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) with line of dark setae along inner margin. Fore wing ( Fig. 97 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) extending over base of propodeum to or slightly beyond level of spiracle, about 1.9–2.2× as long as greatest width, flat, hyaline to variably distinctly brownish-hyaline basally; costal cell and submarginal vein clearly not extending to angulate or rounded apical margin of wing, the submarginal vein extending only about two-thirds to three-quarters length of wing; costal cell setose ventrally; submarginal vein with long, apical-most seta extending at most to about apical margin of wing; membrane behind submarginal vein bare and comparatively broad relative to slender costal cell, usually about 3× as long as width of costal cell. Mesopleurosternum ( Fig. 98 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) with region of dense white lanceolate setae forming setal tuft anteriorly on acropleuron and dorsally on mesopectus, and mesopectus extensively but more sparsely setose, with often somewhat shorter, more hairlike white setae near anterior margin, more conspicuous lanceolate white setae anterior and/or ventral to acropleural setal tuft, plus conspicuously longer hairlike white setae along acropleural sulcus at least about 3× as long as other setae; acropleuron smooth and shiny medially but longitudinally reticulate-strigose to mostly meshlike coriaceous or coriaceous-imbricate beyond setal tuft to level almost equal with posterior margin of tegula, and variably strongly and widely striate-strigose along dorsal and often posterior margins or most distinctly meshlike coriaceous-reticulate along posterior margin. Metacoxa ( Fig. 98 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) densely setose with white lanceolate setae dorsally and ventrolaterally and bare longitudinally on outer surface or sometimes with a few white setae extending across outer surface subapically. Propodeum ( Fig. 97 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ) with both anterior and posterior margins incurved at midline but posterior margin usually more deeply incurved such that strongly recurved margins united medially only near anterior margin, though sometimes similarly incurved and united along most of length medially, and mostly meshlike coriaceous callar regions differentiated by somewhat more coarsely sculptured lunate furrow on either side of midline and along posterolateral margins; callus with a couple of white lanceolate setae anterior to spiracle and region of dense white lanceolate setae posterolaterally.

Gaster ( Figs 93, 94 View FIGURES 90 – 98 , 100 View FIGURES 99 – 100 ) brown to dark brown and when dark usually with green to bluish-green luster on at least syntergum under some angles of light, except extreme tips of ovipositor sheaths yellow and often syntergal flange posteriorly variably broadly paler, brownish- to yellowish-translucent; variably distinctly meshlike coriaceous and shiny with long dark setae in single row across tergites except for more extensively setose syntergum; syntergum ( Fig. 100 View FIGURES 99 – 100 ) longer than wide and longer than penultimate tergite, with dorsal surface in similar plane such that syntergal flange poorly differentiated as posteriorly rounded, often lighter-colored bare region behind setae; ovipositor sheaths projecting only very slightly beyond syntergal flange.

MALE (habitus: Fig. 103 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ). Length = 1.7–3.9 mm. Head ( Figs 101, 102 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) variably extensively dark brown with greenish luster at least on face below about level of dorsal margin of interantennal prominence, to mostly green in larger specimens and dark regions sometimes with reddish-violaceous luster, with scrobal depression having lighter-colored line extending dorsally from interantennal prominence variably distinctly to anterior ocellus, but interantennal prominence without distinct reddish-violaceous region dorsally; vertex coriaceous-alutaceous behind posterior ocellus and medially within ocellar triangle and frons smooth and shiny except for scattered setiferous pits, but lower face and scrobal depression variably strongly sculptured depending on size of specimens, with smaller individuals having scrobal depression very finely alutaceous and lower face coriaceous-reticulate and larger individuals with lower face and scrobal depression except for scrobes quite strongly meshlike reticulate. Head in frontal view ( Fig. 101 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) with ventral margin of torulus distinctly above lower orbit, vtd about 1.4–1.5× dtd; scrobal depression transversely oval, extending to inner orbits such that distinct parascrobal regions not evident. Head in dorsal view ( Fig. 102 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) with interocular distance about 0.5× head width; OOL about 0.5–0.6×, POL about 1.5–1.7×, and LOL about 0.8–1.0× MPOD, respectively; with ocellocular mark indicated at most by slight ridge or depression but not by color. Mandibles ( Fig. 101 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) variably distinctly tridentate with dorsoapical margin variably incurved to angularly incised. Labial and maxillary palps white ( Fig. 101 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) to brownish. Antenna ( Figs 104, 105 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) with scape and pedicel yellow to yellowish-brown, but contrasting in color to darker brown flagellum excluding sometimes pale fl1; length of pedicel + flagellum about 4× head width; scape compressed and widest subbasally, about 2.7–3.1× as long as greatest width; flagellum with fl2 about 3.4–4.6× as long as wide and subsequent flagellomeres of same width and of similar length except clava about 6.5–8.8× as long as wide; flagellomeres with multiple rows of convex, longitudinal mps along length of flagellomere, each with only a very short apically free portion so not appearing seta-like ( Fig. 105 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ).

Mesosoma ( Figs 106–108 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) mostly dark without distinct green or bluish lusters except sometimes laterally on pronotum and on propodeum under some angles of light, though dorsally with variably extensive and distinct reddish-violaceous lusters. Front and middle legs beyond coxae pale, yellowish to brownish-yellow, and hind leg similar in color except femur dark. Mesoscutum ( Figs 106, 107 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) entirely meshlike reticulate or more finely sculptured only narrowly along posterior margin; about 6.0–8.0× as long as wide ( Fig. 106 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ). Fore wing ( Fig. 109 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) hyaline to very slightly brownish-infuscate; about 2.6–2.7× as long as wide with mv about 0.7–0.75× width; disc dorsally with variably broad speculum anterior to setose mediocubital fold and basal fold, but obscured by setae on ventral surface; cc about 3.2–4.2×, mv about 2.8–3.5×, and pmv about 2.3–2.4× length of stv, respectively (though pmv gradually lightened apically such that limit usually not clearly delimited).

Distribution (Map 2C). Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Uruguay.

Remarks. Along with O. setosa , O. smithii is the most commonly collected and widely distributed species of Ooderella in the New World. Females are exceptionally variable in color, structure, and setal patterns, and it is possible that some of what I interpret as intraspecific variation actually represents cryptic species. Females are differentiated from other New World females with a highly convex head and smooth and shiny frons by a combination of features, including primarily by their tegular setal pattern and pronotal structure in combination with usually quite distinct ocellocular marks (cf. Fig. 157 View FIGURES 156 – 164 ). However even those females without distinct, lightcolored ocellocular marks and with a few differentiated white lanceolate setae on the mesoscutum anteriorly are differentiated from those of other New World species keyed beyond couplet 11 by several features. Females of O. setosa are most readily differentiated by their setose fore wings ( Fig. 78 View FIGURES 72 – 80 ), a distinct mesoscutal setal region anteriorly ( Fig. 77 View FIGURES 72 – 80 ), and the head in lateral view being broadest below or at least at about mid-height ( Fig. 73 View FIGURES 72 – 80 ) and in frontal view with distinct parascrobal regions ( Fig. 72 View FIGURES 72 – 80 ). Those of O. stenoptera also have the head broadest in the ventral half ( Fig. 140 View FIGURES 137 – 146 ) and a distinct mesoscutal setose region anteriorly ( Fig. 143 View FIGURES 137 – 146 ), plus a scape with a distinctly sinuate ventral margin so that it is quite conspicuously compressed basally and narrowed apically ( Fig. 139 View FIGURES 137 – 146 ), and a propodeum that basally is abruptly incurved so as to form a more horizontal surface anteriorly relative to a more vertical surface posteriorly. Females of O. speculifrons have the gaster white ventrobasally ( Figs 112, 117 View FIGURES 110 – 117 ) and a distinct mesoscutal setal region anteriorly ( Fig. 114 View FIGURES 110 – 117 ), plus the mesopectus being uniformly covered with short white lanceolate setae without any longer setae along the acropleural sulcus (cf. Fig. 116 View FIGURES 110 – 117 with Fig. 98 View FIGURES 90 – 98 ), as well as a much shorter, more transverse scrobal depression ( Fig. 110 View FIGURES 110 – 117 ), and narrower fore wings with the venation extending virtually to the apical margin ( Fig. 115 View FIGURES 110 – 117 ). Finally, females of O. microptera have the head broadest in the ventral half ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 54 – 62 ) in combination with distinct though slender parascrobal regions and a dorsomedially more angular ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 54 – 62 ) rather than broadly arched scrobal depression, and the fore wing venation extending to the wing margin apically ( Fig. 60 View FIGURES 54 – 62 ) rather than obviously separated from it.

Males included in O. smithii are most similar to those of O. setosa , but differ by the features given in the key. In addition, O. smithii males usually have the mesoscutum noticeably longer than wide compared to O. setosa (cf. Figs 87 View FIGURES 81 – 89 , 106 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ) though this is less obvious for smaller O. smithii males. Further, most O. setosa males have quite evident greenish luster on the mesoscutum and bluish luster on the frenum and/or axillae ( Figs 87, 88 View FIGURES 81 – 89 ), which is lacking from O. smithii males ( Figs 106, 107 View FIGURES 101 – 109 ). Available males of O. smithii differ substantially in size, even those from a single collecting event.


University of California, Riverside


Ministry of Natural Resources


Natural History Museum, London


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Ooderella smithii Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2017

Ooderella smithii

Ashmead 1896: 11
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