Fenimorea fucata (Reeve, 1845)

Fallon, Phillip J., 2016, Taxonomic review of tropical western Atlantic shallow water Drilliidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea) including descriptions of 100 new species, Zootaxa 4090 (1), pp. 1-363: 164-172

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Fenimorea fucata (Reeve, 1845)
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Fenimorea fucata (Reeve, 1845) 

( Plate 65View PLATE 65 Figs. 3, 4; Plate 70View PLATE 70, Figs. 22–26; Plates 77–80View PLATE 77View PLATE 78View PLATE 79View PLATE 80)

Pleurotoma fucata Reeve, 1845  a: pl. 20, fig. 169: Reeve (1846 b: 110); Krebs (1864: 9); Arango y Molina (1878: 218); Mørch (1878: 13); Dall (1885: 235).

Pleurotoma (Crassispira) fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Mørch (1852: 73, No. 1398); Weinkauff & Kobelt (1876: 94, pl. 20, fig. 8); Higgins & Marrat (1877: 16).

Drillia fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : H. & A. Adams (1853 a: 90); Dall (1889 a: 89); Dall (1889 b: 98, 99).

Drillia weldiana Tenison-Woods, 1877  : is a junior synonym of Drillia fucata (Reeve, 1845)  erroneously described as a Tasmanian species in Tenison-Woods (1877: 137) according to Hedley (1902: 49).

Drillia (Clavus) fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Tryon (1884: 189, pl. 11, fig. 86, not fig. 93 = Pleurotoma paria Reeve, 1846  ).

Drillia (Crassispira) fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Dall (1885: 110).

Cymatosyrinx furcata  auct.: is a misspelling of fucata  by C. W. Johnson (1934: 136), and by M. Smith (1937; 1945: 134, pl. 52, fig. 11).

Fenimorea fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Nowell-Usticke (1959: 82); Powell (1966: 91); Rios (1975: 131, pl. 40, fig. 589); Rios (1985: 137; pl. 47, fig. 625); Turgeon et al. (1988: 97); Jong & Coomans (1988: 113); Leal (1991 b: 186); Rios (1994: 162, pl. 54, fig. 729); Williams (2005: 1561); Absalão et al. (2005: 23; fig. 12); Williams (2006; 2009: species 1561).

Cymatosyrinx fucata (Reeve, 1945)  : Rios (1970: 126, pl. 48).

Splendrillia (Syntomodrillia) fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Abbott (1974: 275, fig. 3109).

Splendrillia fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Sander & Lalli (1982: 317); García & Luque (1986: 48); K. Sunderland (1991: 14); Petuch (1994: pl. 99, fig. P); Turgeon et al. (1998: 102); Redfern (2001: 123, pl. 55, fig. 513 A –C, pl. 112, fig. 513 D); VanderVen (2007: 18).

Splendrillia (Fenimorea) fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Espinosa et al. (1995: 42).

Fenimorea fucata pulchra  n. sp. Usticke, 1959: 82, vi, pl. 4, fig. 11: The type locality is 1 mi [1.6 km] N of Frederiksted, St. Croix. Faber (1988: 88, 96 [Taxonomic status uncertain.]); Boyko & Cordeiro (2001: 67).

Fenimorea fucata  var. pulchra Usticke, 1959  : Nowell-Usticke (1969: 27, pl. 6, fig. 1123 [fig. labeled as Fenimorea pulchra  ]).

Fenimorea pulchra Usticke 1959  “New Sp.” [ F. f. pulchra  elevated to species]: Nowell-Usticke (1971: 23, pl. 4, fig. 1123).

Not this species or unconfirmed extralimital and fossil reports.

Pleurotoma fucata Reeve, 1845  a: Paetel (1888: 63 [Algoa Bay, S.A.]).

Pleurotoma paria Reeve, 1846  : syn. of Pleurotoma fucata  acc. to Paetel (1888); syn. of Drillia fucata (Reeve, 1845)  acc. to Tryon (1884: 189, pl. 11, fig. 93); var. of D. fucata  acc. to Dall (1889 a: 89; 1889 b: 98, 99); subsp. of Cymatosyrinx furcata  [sic] (Reeve, 1845) acc. to C. W. Johnson (1934: 136); subsp. of Fenimorea fucata (Reeve, 1845)  acc. to Powell (1966: 90); syn. of Splendrillia fucata (Reeve, 1845)  acc. to Abbott (1974: 275). Treated as a valid species for northern Brazilian material by (Rios, 1983). P. p ar i a is not placed in synonymy with F. fucata  in this work because of the poor condition of the types and nomen dubium status (see separate section on F. paria  ).

Drillia fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Dall (1889 a: 89; 1889 b: 98, 99 [in part, for specimens off Cape Fear, North Carolina that are likely Fenimorea janetae Bartsch, 1934  , according to Porter (1974: 251), but possibly Decoradrillia pulchella (Reeve, 1845)  , which is commonly mistaken for F. janetae  ]); Melvill & Standen (1901: 438 [Karachi, India]).

Drillia (Clavus) fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Bouge & Dautzenberg (1914 [New Caladonia]).

Drillia (Tylotia) fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Melvill (1917: 161). This taxon was used with uncertainty by Melvill for specimens from Karachi, India, saying that they may be a form of unizonalis Lam. Melvill cites other authors’ use of this taxon for specimens from “West Indies” (Tryon), New Caledonia (Bouge & Dautzenberg), St. Jan, Antilles (Kobelt), South Africa (von Martens), and Oshima, Japan (Hirase).

Fenimorea fucata pulchra  auct. non Usticke, 1959: 82 pl. 4 fig. 11: Kaicher (1984: card 3970) [The card depicts a specimen from Grand Bahama I. that does not match Nowell-Usticke’s type or description, but instead may be Fenimorea fabae  , new species.]

Splendrillia fucata (Reeve, 1845)  : Campbell et al. (1975: 117 [Caloosahatchee beds]);

Splendrillia fucata  auct. non (Reeve, 1845): VanderVen (2004: 18 [photo = D. pulchella  ]).

Type material. Repository unknown, presumed lost.

Nowell-Usticke (1959: vi) designated the holotype of Fenimorea fucata pulchra  as the specimen figured in pl. 4, fig. 11 of the same publication without specifying its measurements or its repository. Inasmuch as this designation meets the requirements of ICZN 2000 Article 73.1. 3 (the holotype of a new nominal species-group taxon can only be fixed in the original publication and by the original author), it was validly designated. The illustrated specimen is believed to be the one in AMNH 195461 since in a later publication (Nowell-Usticke, 1971: 23, pl. 4, fig. 1123), the author explicitly identifies it as a 21 x 8.3 mm specimen and its illustration is the same as in the original figure. The size of the specimen in AMNH 195461 has been confirmed as the same in this project. A paratype is in AMNH 294366. Two specimens in a third lot, UF 156157, have the same locality data as the holotype, and a collection date of Feb 1957. They are presumed to be paratypes but have not been examined.

Neotype designation. In accordance with the requirements for the designation of a neotype specified in ICZN 2000, Article 75.3, and described next, the specimen illustrated in Pl. 77, Fig. 2, and deposited in USNM 1291346 is here designated as the neotype. Need for clarification: as can be seen in the section on misidentifications above, there is a need for better description and a type specimen to fix the identity of this taxon. There are also additional taxa similar to F. fucata  that are proposed as new in this work. As such it is felt that the neotype will serve to anchor the identity of Reeve’s taxon and reduce possible confusion in the future. The taxon, as accepted here, is presently believed to have numerous geographic forms (herein illustrated) that differ somewhat in shell shape, color, and size, and may be found to differ at the species level when a sufficient number of specimens, or when molecular analysis data become available, further reinforcing the need of a type specimen. Characters differentiating species-group taxon. Fenimorea fucata  bears all the characteristics of the genus (see introduction to Fenimorea  ) and is differentiated at the species level, from all of its known congeners, by the presence of numerous low ribs, angular shoulders, a mid-whorl brown spiral band, and darker patches of color located randomly in the sulcus whose color appears to “run” into intercostal space. Recognition of the neotype. The specimen illustrated in Plate 77View PLATE 77, Fig. 2, the proposed neotype, measures 25.5 x 9.5 mm and is close in color pattern and form to Reeve’s drawing (compare Pl. 77, Figs. 1View Fig. 1 and 2). Reeve’s specimen is estimated to have been 21.8 mm in length, the measured height of the stated natural-sized drawing (Reeve, 1845 a: pl. 20, fig. 169). The number of axial ribs shown in the drawing is too few based on the examination of numerous specimens and believed to be artistic license. Although F. f u c at a is distinguished by the presence of a brown central band and random dark brown staining, mostly confined to the shoulder, there is a large variation in the color pattern and morphology of specimens over their geographic range (see Plates 78–80View PLATE 78View PLATE 79View PLATE 80). The width of the spiral band and degree of angularity of whorl shoulders was important in the selection of the neotype. The population at Little St. James I., St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Is. appears to be consistent for these two traits and closely matching Reeve’s drawing. In addition, examined specimens from this locality range in 18.0– 26.1 mm, which is around the 21.8 mm of Reeve’s original model. Search effort: many of Reeve’s types are at the NHMUK, where the first inquiry was made. According to museum personnel at NHMUK, Ms. Kathie Way originally and then again a few years later Ms. Andreia Salvador (on 16 Dec 2013) could not locate the type. Earlier, Donn Tippett was unable to locate the type at the NHMUK (D. Tippett’s research notes of a visit of 9–10 May 1995). The type was unable to be located at other European institutions: MNHN (Dr. Yuri Kantor, pers. comm. 17 May 2011); again at the MNHN, Dr. Peter Stahlschmidt ( Pers. comm. 8 Nov 2011), and MHNG (Dr. Yves Finet, pers. comm. 30 Mar 2011). The type is assumed to have been lost. Characters differentiating the nominal taxon: Only a single taxon is at present recognized in the species-group F. f u ca t a.

Original type locality. Reeve did not report a locality for the type. The greatest number of reported occurrences suggests that it is most common in Bahama and Virgin Is. (see below under “Other material examined”). Repository of the neotype: in the Smithsonian, catalog number USNM 1291346.

Type locality. The origin of the type was unknown to Reeve. The neotype is from Little St. James I., St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Is., in 7 m.

Other material examined. An additional 175 specimens were examined: Florida Keys: 3 spec., 9.8 x 4.7, 17.7 x 7.4 & 17.7 x 7.1 mm, in 9m, Pickles Reef, Plantation Key, H.G. Lee! 9 Jul 1989 (UF 470302). Bahama Is., Grand Bahama I.: 2 spec., 25.4 x 10.2 & 20.3 x 8.2 mm, W end (USNM 889643); 7 spec., the largest 2: 15.8 x 6.2 & 13.8 x 5.5 mm, in 0-0.9 m, Settlement Point, West End, 26 ° 42 ' 15 "N, 078° 59 ' 50 "W, J. Worsfold! (ANSP 368583); 1 spec., 24.3 x 9.5 mm, Queens Cove, (EFG 10858); 2 spec., 24.7 x 9.0 & 20.2 x 7.9 mm, in 0.9 m, NW end, Gambier House (Hope Estate on charts), 26 ° 40 ' 30 "N, 078° 50 ' 30 "W, J. Worsfold! (ANSP 371930); 6 spec., 18.9 x 6.8, 14.2 x 6.0, 10.6 x 4.2, 9.5 x 4.5 mm, 10.1 x 4.2 & 10.1 x 4.4 mm, E side, Freeport Harbor entrance, 26 ° 31 '00''N, 078° 46 ' 30 ''W, J. Worsfold! (ANSP 374460); 3 spec., 8.7 x 4.0, 9.4 x 4.4 & 6.1 x 3.6 mm, in 12 m, Lucayan Waterway, off South end, 26 ° 31 ' 45 "N, 078° 32 ' 45 "W, J. Worsfold! Jul 1983 (ANSP 375275); 1 spec., 9.9 x 4.8 mm, in 12 m, Lucaya  , 26 ° 29 ' 45 "N, 078° 37 ' 15 "W, J. Worsfold! Jun 1982 (ANSP 373417); 1 spec., 9.6 x 4.5 mm, in 0.9 m, Mcleans Town, 26 ° 38 ' 45 N, 077° 57 ' 30 W, J. Worsfold! Feb 1984 (ANSP 375070); 17 spec., only 1 measured: 21.8 x 8.8 mm, in 0.6–1.5 m, North Hawksbill Creek, 26 ° 32 '00''N, 078° 45 '00''W, J. Worsfold! (ANSP 3705490). Bahama Is., Abaco Is.: 3 spec., 14.2 x 5.7, 16.9 x 6.0 & 20.4 x 7.9 mm, Treasure Cay, C. Redfern! (DMNH 100579); 4 spec., lengths only: 13.75 & 11.0 mm, Whale Cay (BMSM 57865); 9.0 mm Sunrise Cay (BMSM 57866); & 8.75 mm, Sandbank Cays (BMSM 57871), all 4 C. Redfern! Bahama Is., Andros I.: 1 spec., 13.3 x 5.5 mm, in sand & turtle grass, off Long Cay, M. Williams! 23 May 2005 (author's coll.); 10 spec., 4 best 20.8 x 7.8, 10.5 x 4.5, 14.9 x 5.7, 9.5 x 4.3 mm, Small Hope Bay, S & T. Abbott! Mar 1971 (DMNH 41349); 2 spec., 8.8 x 4.1 & 12.6 x 6.3 mm, Fresh Creek, Long Cay, (EFG 11555). Bahama Is., Bimini Is.: 4 spec., 13.6 x 5.5, 13.8 x 5.5, 10.3 x 4.8 & 11.1 x 4.4 mm, N end of Pigeon Cay, Bimini Lagoon, R. Robertson! 1957 – 58 (ANSP 329529); 2 spec., 17.2 x 6.8 & 17.3 x 7.3 mm, in 3–4 m on white sand, S Bimini I. (UF 359489; UF 359553); 5 spec., 23.1 x 9.4, 21.9 x 8.2, 18.3 x 7.4, 15.5 x 6.3 & 15.4 x 5.9 mm, in 11 m on sand on reef, Moxon Rocks off S end of Cat Cay, Jun 1992 (author's coll.); 1 spec., 17.0 x 6.7 mm in 12 m on reef, the Gingerbreads, P. Fallon! 14 Jul 2000 (author's coll.); 1 spec., 17.7 x 7.0 mm, N Cat Cay, B. Holiman! 25 Oct 1987 (UF 470301); 1 spec., 15.2 x 5.8 mm, in sand in shallow water, South Cat Cay (author's coll.); 1 spec., 22.3 x 8.8 mm, in 5 m, Honeymoon Cove, Gun Cay, G. Mackintosh! 24 Jan 1993 (author's coll.); 1 spec., 18.7 x 7.8 mm, in 4 m, Honeymoon Cove, Gun Cay, G. Mackintosh! 7 Apr 1994 (author’s coll.); 1 spec., 18.9 x 7.6 mm, Honeymoon Cove, Gun Cay (author’s coll.). Bahama Is., New Providence I.: 2 spec. 17.3 x 6.5 & 22.6 x 8.7 mm, in 6 m, Mahony Wreck dive site, off Paradise I., Nassau, R. Allamand! 23 Aug 2012 (author’s coll.); 4 spec., 18.1 x 7.0, 18.5 x 7.6, 20.5 x 7.8 & 20.9 x 8.3 mm, in 5 m, LCT Barge dive site, off Paradise I., Nassau, R. Allamand! 24 Aug 2012 (author’s coll.). Bahama Is., Eleuthera I.: 1 spec., 15.3 x 6.3 mm, in beach wrack, B.J. Piech! Apr 1972 (DMNH 143011); 2 spec., 11.6 x 4.7 & 20.8 x 8.7 mm, in 32 m at base of coral wall, off Cape Eleuthera, R. Masino! (author’s coll.); 8 spec., 21.2 x 8.6, 19.6 x 8.1, 21.9 x 8.6, 12.2 x 5.0, 14.8 x 6.4, 20.2 x 7.6, 21.0 x 7.9 & 22.0 x 8.6 mm, in 1.5–3 m, 360 m N of Current Cut, Current, H.G. Lee! May 1968 (UF 470303). Bahama Is., Mayaguana I.: 4 spec., 21.6 x 8.4, 16.8 x 6.9, 16.9 x 7.0 & 17.8 x 7.3 mm, in 4 m, SW end Booby Cay, Mayaguana I., G. Mackintosh! 14 Mar 1996. (author’s coll.). Bahama Is., Cay Sal Bank: 3 spec., 24.3 x 9.9, 21.9 x 8.8 & 25.5 x 10.0 mm, in 9 m, Middle Damas Cays, Cay Sal Bank, G. Mackintosh! 21 Feb 1996 (author's coll.); 5 spec., 17.9 x 6.8, 10.5 x 4.5, 22.6 x 8.9, 21.4 x 8.5 & 20.7 x 8.4 mm, in 9 m, 2 nd Cay, S end, Damas Cays. Bahama Is., Little San Salvador: 1 spec., 19.3 x 7.5 mm, SE side, near mouth of "river", 24 ° 35 '00''N, 075° 54 ' 30 ''W, R. Robertson! 0 7 Jul 1986 (ANSP 361512). Puerto Rico: 1 spec., 22.5 x 9.1 mm, in 12 m, Tourmaline Reef, G. Mackintosh! 12 Mar 1993 (author's coll.). U. S. Virgin Is.: 2 spec. (paratypes of F. fucata pulchra Usticke, 1959  ) 20.1 x 8.0 & 20.6 x 8.4 mm, 1 mi [1.6 km] N of Frederiksted, St. Croix, G.W. Nowell-Usticke! Feb 1957 (UF 156157); 1 spec. (holotype of F. f. pulchra  ), 21.7 x 8.4 mm, 1 mi [1.6 km] N of Frederiksted, St. Croix, G.W. Nowell-Usticke! 1959 (AMNH 195461); 1 spec. (paratype of F. f. pulchra  ), 20.7 x 8.5 mm, N of Frederiksted, St. Croix (AMNH 294366); 1 spec., 26.1 x 9.9 mm, in 9 m on sand & rubble, Little St. James I., St. Thomas, G. Mackintosh! 13 Jul 2000 (author's coll.); 7 spec., 22.0 x 8.9, 20.7 x 8.2, 20.1 x 7.7, 21.6 x 8.2, 22 x 8.2, 23.4 x 8.7 & 23.4 x 8.7 mm, in 7 m, Little St. James I., St. Thomas, G. Mackintosh! 18 Jun 1996 (author’s coll.); 8 spec., 18.0 x 7.2, 22.2 x 8.6, 22.4 x 8.3, 18.7 x 7.4, 19.8 x 7.7, 19.9 x 7.9, 20.4 x 8.1 & 18.8 x 7.5 mm, in 8–9 m, Little St. James I., St. Thomas, G. Mackintosh! 8–12 Jul 2000 (author’s coll.); 3 spec., 18.6 x 7.5, 20.6 x 8.0 & 20.0 x 7.8 mm, in 8–9 m, Little St. James I., St. Thomas, G. Mackintosh! 12–13 Jul 2000 (author’s coll.). Br. Virgin Is.: 3 spec., 17.1 x 7.2, 21.1 x 8.3 & 21.2 x 8.5 mm, in 0.2 mm, Beef I., B. Crystal! Apr & May 1993 (UF 470305). Anguilla: 1 spec., 16.4 x 6.9 mm, in 1.2–3 m, Pear Cay, G. Duffy! 19 Nov 1983 (UF 470304). Guadeloupe: 1 spec., 13.6 x 5.4 mm, in 2.5 m, Pointe des Chateaux, O.K. McCausland! 3 Sep 1985 (EFG 21973); 3 spec., 21.6 x 8.6, 19.5 x 7.7 & 6.2 x 3.0 mm, in 20-33 m, bank of Vaisseaux, Grand-Terre, KARUBENTHOS 2012 Sta. GD65, 16°08.1'N, 61 °17.0'W, 27 May 2012 (MNHN IM- 2012-5996 & 5997); 8 spec., 2.7 x 1.5, 4.0 x 2.1, 4.0 x 2.1, 4.5 x 2.5, 7.7 x 4.0, 4.7 x 2.4, 7.5 x 3.9 & 5.5 x 2.8 mm, in 16 m, west shoal, Petiti- Terre, KARUBENTHOS 2012 Stas. GS 39 & GB36, 16°09.5'N, 61 ° 10.5 'W, 28 May 2012 (MNHN IM- 2012-5993 & 28008); 3 spec., 12.5 x 5.1, 10.6 & 4.6 x 2.2 mm, in 23 m, Tete à l’Anglais, Basse-Terre, KARUBENTHOS 2012 Sta. GB06, 16 ° 22.9 'N, 61 ° 45.9 'W, 8 May 2012 (MNHN IM- 2012-28006); 1 spec., 3.7 x 1.9 mm, in 50 m, Pigeon Isle, Basse-Terre, KARUBENTHOS 2012 Sta. GS13, 16°02.4'N, 61 ° 45.6 'W, 11 May 2012 (MNHN IM- 2012- 28005); 1 spec., 4.2 x 2.1 mm, in 11 m, outer slope, Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin, KARUBENTHOS 2012 Sta. GB02, 16 °22.0'N, 61 °38.0'W, 4 May 2012 (MNHN IM- 2012-5990); 1 spec., 3.4 x 1.7 mm, in 21 m, Tete à l’Anglais, Basse-Terre, KARUBENTHOS 2012 Sta. GR12, 16° 22.9 'N, 61 ° 45.9 'W, 8 May 2012 (MNHN IM- 2012-5998). The following 2 specimens, live-taken during MNHN KARUBENTHOS 2012, were sequenced:

Southeastern Caribbean: 3 spec., 17.1 x 6.1, 15.3 x 5.7 & 14.4 x 5.7 mm, in 10–30 m on sand, Store Bay, Tobago I. or possibly St. Vincent I., N. Deynzer! (author's coll.). Colombia: 2 spec., 19.0 x 7.6 & 18.0 x 6.9 mm, in 5 m, Cabo de La Vela, La Guajira Dept., A. Jorio & L. Couto! (author's coll.); 1 spec., 16.0 x 6.3 mm, in 5 m, Cabo de la Vela, La Guajira Dept. (author’s coll.). Panama: 1 spec., 24.9 x 9.4 mm, in 2 m on coralline sand among coral rubble, Pelican I., San Blas Is., A. Poremski! Feb 2010 (author's coll.). Honduras: 1 spec., 21.1 x 7.8 mm, in 12 m, West End, Roatan I., C. Jackson! Nov 1991 (EFG 11746); 1 spec., 21.8 x 8.5 mm, in 1.5–1.8 m, NW end, Roatan I., T. Kalafut! 1988 (UF 470306); 1 spec., 11.9 x 5.0 m, in 15–18 m on coral rubble, Andy’s Wall, Milton Bight, N coast of Roatan I., P. Fallon! 4 Apr 2008 (author's coll.); 1 spec., 15.4 x 5.9 mm, in 12 m on coral rubble, Yubu buoy site, NE coast of Roatan I., 16 ° 25.057 'N, 086° 23.000 'W, P. Fallon! 24 Sep 2008 (author's coll.); 9 spec., 15.4 x 5.9, 11.9 x 5.0, 21.5 x 8.3, 19.2 x 7.1, 17.6 x 7.2, 16.0 x 6.3, 12.6 x 5.0, 11.6 x 5.0, 9.7 x 4.2, 9.5 x 4.6 & 8.6 x 4.0 mm, Little French Cay, SE coast of Roatan I., 16 ° 20 ' 26 "N, 086° 28 ' 11 "W, R. Masino! (author’s coll.); 1 spec., 15.8 x 6.3 mm, in 19 m, Trujillo Bay, 15 ° 57 ' 57 "N, 86 °01' 41 "W, R. Masino! (author’s coll.). Brazil: 1 spec., 15.3 x 6.6 mm, off Alcobaça, Bahia (author’s coll.).

Range and habitat. Florida Keys (Plantation Key); Bahama Is.; Puerto Rico (Tourmaline Reef); U.S. Virgin Is. (St. Thomas; St. Croix); Guadeloupe; Colombia (La Guajira Prov.); Panama (San Blas Is.); Honduras (Trujillo Bay; Roatan I.). Mexico (off Yucatan); Brazil (Bahia; Espirito Santo). Reports of this species from Cuba by García & Luque (1986) and Espinosa et al. (1995), who cite Arango & Molina (1878 – 80), are possible but specimens from Cuba have not been examined. Interestingly, specimens have also not been seen from most areas within the Greater Antilles. This species has been reported mostly from shallow water less than 15 m in depth; rarely as deep as 37 m.

Description. Shell medium (up to 26.1 mm), of up to approximately 10 whorls, fusiform, truncated anteriorly, with a large last whorl approximately 60 % of the total length. Whorls concave at sulcus, convex below, shoulders formed by ribs angled at and then sharply reduced in the sulcus. Protoconch of 2 smooth round white whorls. Axial sculpture of somewhat irregular but distinct ribs, slightly sigmoid on the body whorl near shoulder, most extending almost to the anterior fasciole; reduced to narrow, low, curved ribs in the shoulder sulcus; number 11–18 on penultimate, and 5–13 to varix on body whorl. Ribs about as broad as intercostal space, not aligned from whorl to whorl. Growth striae cover entire shell surface. Spiral sculpture consisting of a surface microsculpture of very fine spiral grooves or ridges, spaced greater than twice their width, intersected by more closely spaced axial growth striae that impart a jagged appearance to the grooves or ridges; rectangular pits or depressions are formed in the void between the raised growth striae, aligned in rows, bounded above and below by the spiral grooves. This pattern is overlain with relatively widely spaced shallow but broader spiral grooves that end in “teeth” at the edge of the lip. Sulcus has ribs, and growth striae, as well as the aforementioned microsculpture but threads more closely packed. Varix a swollen mound or hump located ⅓-turn back from the edge of the lip. Outer lip somewhat flattened from the varix to the lip’s edge, thus tending to widen the aperture with the edge flexed inward, the entire lip strengthened by 4 irregular axial folds; lip edge toothed; stromboid notch present anteriorly. Anal sinus deep and U-shaped, set off from the suture by a parietal tubercle such that it appears spout-like. Inner lip margined, adherent, thickest at anterior end and thin in the parietal area. Columella straight; columellar fasciole slightly swollen. Anterior canal very short, deep, open, and notched at its tip. Color white to dingy white with a broad light-brown band below whorl’s periphery; vertical streaks of darker brown between ribs; patches of dark brown cover the varical hump, occur sporadically on the sulcus of the entire spire, and sometimes appear to “run”, like wet paint, a short distance down between the ribs.

Remarks. Taxonomy. Fenimorea fucata  has come to represent the typical Fenimorea  to most because of its commonness and ease of recognition. The type of the genus, F. janetae Bartsch, 1934  is unfortunately quite rare in collections. Fenimorea fucata  possesses all the characteristics of the genus but has a shorter anterior canal than F. janeta  e, which may have an adaptive advantage in shallow water habitats. Fenimorea janetae  , along with other large members of the genus that have longer anterior canals, are found in offshore soft-bottom habitats. Fenimorea fucata  also has an added sculptural element lacking in F. j an e t a e —spiral grooves that end in teeth along the edge of the outer lip. Both conditions, species with and without shallow spiral grooves and teeth are found in the genus, in large deeper water offshore species and in smaller shallow-water species. Variability. Overall, 154 specimens have an average total length of 16.12 mm (2.7–26.1 mm) and average W/ L ratio  of 0.416. Although most commonly reported from the Bahama Is. F. fucata  is found over a large geographic area, including the southern and western Caribbean, and northern Brazil. Specimens from different regions exhibit slight differences in shape, size, and color pattern that appear consistent for that region; all are immediately recognizable as F. f uc a t a. Too few have been examined to characterize regional differences with certainty, and the question of whether some of these differences rise to the level of species will have to await more detailed analysis of populations.

To illustrate the variability of F. f u ca t a, photographs of groups of specimens from different localities are presented in Plates 77–80View PLATE 77View PLATE 78View PLATE 79View PLATE 80. Pl. 77, Figs. 3–14 are specimens from the U.S. Virgin Is.; those in Figs. 3–11 are from the same locality as the neotype and those in Figs. 12–14 are Nowell-Usticke’s holotype and paratypes of F. fucata pulchra  from St. Croix. Of all the variants of F. f uc a t a, Nowell-Usticke’s types of pulchra  are very similar to Reeve’s original, as represented by the drawing shown in Fig. 1View Fig. 1. The specimens in Pl. 78, Figs. 1–13View Fig. 1 are from two distinctly different populations from Grand Bahama I.; those in Figs. 1–8View Fig. 1 are a distinctive form with nearly straight sides, colored white with brown markings. A few of these (Figs. 6–8) are miniature forms, fully developed with varix and mature lip, but otherwise the same as the normal-sized specimens. These miniature forms, which are believed to be ecomorphs, occur elsewhere too, and may be developmentally retarded, perhaps an adaptation to environmental conditions. Figs. 9–13 are specimens from elsewhere on Grand Bahama I. that are more typical for the species. From the same Bahamian bank, Little Bahama Bank, specimens in Figs. 14–20 are from Abaco I. also having straighter sides than the neotype but a lighter, nearly yellow central band. Again, smaller specimens in Fig. 18–20 represent miniature ecomorphs from this area. Specimens shown in Figs. 16–17 are of intermediate size.

Specimens from the Great Bahama Bank are represented in Plate 79View PLATE 79. Those depicted in Figs. 1–6View Fig. 1 are from the Bimini Is. and appear to have larger and darker brown patches. Two specimens from the shallow Bimini Lagoon from the same lot are shown in Figs. 5–6, one of which is all-white. All-white forms have been observed for other species of Fenimorea  and may have the advantage of better camouflage on open patches of white carbonate sand. Specimens from Andros I. (Figs. 7–13) are more subdued in color and again occur as dwarfs, some of which are shown.

Specimens from Cay Sal Bank are shown in the lower panel of Plate 70View PLATE 70 for comparison with F. caysalensis  , new species. Although some of the latter are similar in coloration (especially among the population from Gun Cay, Bimini Is.), there are morphological differences.

Non-Bahamian specimens are shown in Plate 80View PLATE 80. A growth series from French Cay, Roatan I., Honduras, (Figs. 12, 14– 18) illustrates the more usual developmental sequence to a mature aperture. None of the small specimens (Figs. 12, 14) have fully developed apertures, with a parietal lobe and deeply notched anal sinus. The Roatan I. population consistently has a narrow mid-whorl band, which contrasts with the wide-banded specimens from the Bahama Is. Specimens from other regions are also shown; too few have been examined to generalize their differences.