Trachyscorpia verai , Béarez, Philippe & Motomura, Hiroyuki, 2009

Béarez, Philippe & Motomura, Hiroyuki, 2009, Description of a new scorpionfish (Scorpaenoidei, Sebastolobinae) from the tropical eastern Pacific, Zootaxa 2277, pp. 61-68: 62-67

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.275262

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A20060-EB45-FF95-FF60-FE4F2C3457AA

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Trachyscorpia verai
status

new species

Trachyscorpia verai  , new species

New English name: Ecuadorian Deep-sea Scorpionfish Figures 1–3View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3; Table 1

Holotype. MNHNAbout MNHN 2007 -0086, 298 mm SL, female, fish market at Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador (1 ° 33 'S, 80 ° 49 'W), ca. 200 m depth, longline, purchased by J. Vera, 21 October 2006.

Diagnosis. A medium-sized scorpionfish with the following combination of characters: dorsal-fin spines 12; vertebrae 26; tympanic spines present; upper-jaw lip thin, not covering the premaxillary tooth band laterally; maxilla unscaled; 50 scale rows in longitudinal series; body moderately deep (30.9 % of SL); orbit diameter large (12.8 % of SL); third dorsal-fin spine long (15.3 % of SL); pelvic-fin spine short (9.6 % of SL); head profile slightly convex; gas bladder absent; coloration bright red, with no distinct dark markings on back or spinous portion of dorsal fin.

Description. Measurements are presented in Table 1. Dorsal fin with 12 spines and 9 soft rays; all soft rays branched; length of first spine 2.2 in second spine; third spine longest, its length 1.2 that of orbit diameter; fourth to eleventh spines progressively shorter; length of eleventh spine 1.6 in twelfth; membrane of spinous portion of dorsal fin moderately notched; posterior branch of last dorsal soft ray joined by membrane to caudal peduncle for slightly more than one-fourth of its length. Anal fin with 3 spines and 5 soft rays; all soft rays branched; second and third spines much longer than first; second spine abnormally twisted, its length subequal to third; second soft ray longest, its length 1.6 that of third anal-fin spine; skin on anterior part of fin fleshy; posterior branch of last soft ray joined by membrane to caudal peduncle for less than one-fourth of its length. Pectoral fins each with 22 rays, the uppermost ray and lower 6 rays unbranched, remaining rays branched; second and third rays longest; posterior margin of fin bilobed, third to fourteenth rays progressively shorter, then increasing in length to seventeenth, then decreasing again; five last rays in lower lobe thickened, fleshy. Pelvic fin with 1 spine and 5 soft rays, all soft rays branched; entire spine, first and second rays and base of third to fifth rays covered with thick fleshy skin; second soft ray longest. Caudal fin with 16 segmented rays, 13 branched rays, remaining rays unbranched; dorsal procurrent rays 7, ventral procurrent rays 6. Caudal-peduncle depth 1.8 in caudal-peduncle length.

Trachyscorpia verai  sp. nov. Holotype Trachyscorpia osheri  Holotype CASAbout CAS

MNHNAbout MNHN 2007 -0086 86509 Lateral line complete. Scale rows in longitudinal series 50. Pored lateral-line scales 27. Scales below lateral line 11. Scale rows between base of sixth dorsal-fin spine and lateral line 5. Predorsal scale rows 11.

Gill rakers on upper limb 5, on lower limb 11, including 2 rakers on hypobranchial; total gill rakers 16. Gill rakers more developped medially, relatively short and spinous with numerous serrae, longest raker on first gill arch clearly shorter than gill filaments around angle of gill arch; fourth gill slit closed by membrane. Approximately 37 pseudobranchial filaments. Branchiostegal rays 6. Gas bladder absent. Vertebrae 26 (10 + 16).

Body moderately compressed anteriorly, progressively more compressed posteriorly. Nape and anterior body not strongly arched. Body not very deep, its depth 1.5 in head length. No distinct small papillae on head. Two filiform tentacles on dorsal margin of eye membrane, and one below anterior nostril. One filiform tentacle present on posterior end of most head spines, including nasal, preocular, postocular, sphenotic, parietal, suborbital ridge, posterior lacrimal, upper preopercular, nuchal, and tympanic spines. No distinct tentacles on supraocular spine base. Length of tentacles approximately equal to one third of diameter of pupil. No tentacles associated with posterior nostril or on occiput, mid-interorbital space, maxilla, lips, lower jaw, preopercle, opercle, fins and lateral body surface. Pectoral-fin axil without skin flaps.

Exposed minute ctenoid scales covering anterior and posterior interorbital space (mid-interorbital space naked), occipital pit, and an area surrounded by tympanic, pterotic, parietal, nuchal and lower posttemporal spines. Cycloid scales covering opercle, cheek and area surrounded by posterior margin of orbit, pterotic spine, preopercular margin and suborbital ridge. Exposed part of maxilla unscaled. Other areas of head naked. Well-exposed ctenoid scales on dorsal and lateral surface of body, scales becoming cycloid on anteroventral surface (prior to vent). Body scales extending on to basal rays and membranes of all unpaired fins; scales on fins cycloid. Exposed cycloid scales covering pectoral-fin base. Pelvic fins naked. Lateral line sloping downward at tip of opercle.

Sensory pores of cephalic lateralis system prominent; 3 large pores on cheek just below suborbital ridge, first just posterior to lacrimal, second below posterior third of orbit, third below end of suborbital ridge. Underside of dentary with 3 sensory pores on each side, first below anterior tip of lacrimal bone, second below tip of posterior lacrimal spine, third below posterior end of premaxilla; a conspicuous elongated pore posterior to symphysial knob of lower jaw; an indistinct pore on each side of symphysial knob. Two large (slightly smaller than posterior nostril) sensory pores between first and second preopercular spines.

Mouth large, slightly oblique, gape forms an angle of 35–40 o to anteroposterior axis of head and body. Jaws subequal. Posterior margin of maxilla reaching a vertical line through the posterior limit of the second third of orbit. Upper edge of mid-maxilla slightly swollen laterally. Lower jaw with a blunt but conspicuous symphysial knob. Width of symphysial gap separating premaxillary teeth bands slightly greater than width of each band. Tooth band of upper jaw wider than that of lower jaw. Upper jaw with a band of villiform teeth; tooth band broadening posteriorly. Lower jaw with a single row of villiform teeth anteriorly, becoming a narrow band (3 or 4 rows) posteriorly; length of most teeth subequal to those of upper jaw. Vomer V-shaped, medial space naked, branches bearing a narrow band (1 row) of villiform teeth. Palatine teeth in about 1 to 3 rows. Underside of lower jaw smooth, without ridges.

Dorsal profile of snout steep, forming an angle of 40–45 o to anteroposterior axis of head and body. Nasal spine simple, small, directed anterodorsally, its length less than posterior nostril diameter. Ascending process of premaxilla not intruding into interorbital space, its posterior margin extending to level of nasal spine, anteriorly to posterior nostril. Median interorbital ridge absent. Interorbital ridges separated by a shallow channel, beginning posterior to nasal spines and joining at origin of tympanic spines; interorbital ridges unbranched, diverging anteriorly and posteriorly in dorsal view, distance between interorbital ridges narrowest at approximately mid-distance between extremities. Interorbital space shallow, about one-thirteenth of orbit extending above dorsal profile of head. Most spines on head well developed. Preocular spine simple, directed dorsolaterally. Supraocular spine simple, directed posterodorsolaterally, its length shorter than those of preocular, postocular, and tympanic spines. Postocular spine simple, directed dorsolaterally. Tympanic spine simple, directed dorsally. Interorbital, coronal and pretympanic spines absent. Occiput nearly flat, lacking pit, its anterodorsal length greater than width; occiput surrounded laterally by tympanic spines, parietal spines and indistinct low ridges between tympanic and parietal spines. Parietal spine simple (a small spinous point anteriorly), smaller than nuchal spine. Nuchal spine simple (a small spinous point anteriorly); nuchal and parietal spines joined at base. Pterotic spine simple (a small spinous point anteriorly), strong, located below parietal and nuchal spines. No ridges in an area surrounded by parietal, nuchal, pterotic and lower posttemporal spines. Upper posttemporal spine absent. Lower posttemporal spine simple (absent on right side), its base length less than that of pterotic spine. Supracleithral spine simple, not strongly pointed. Cleithral spine flattened, covered by skin. Lateral lacrimal spine simple, pointed, directed laterally. Lacrimal bone with 3 spines on ventral margin. Anterior lacrimal spine pointed, directed dorsoposteriorly; no additional spine occurring at base of anterior lacrimal spine. Middle lacrimal spine simple, pointed, directed dorsally (left side) or ventrally (right side). Posterior lacrimal spine simple, directed laterally; posterior lacrimal spine greater than anterior spine. Suborbital ridge with 5 spines, first and second spines below pupil, third spine below posterior margin of orbit, fourth and fifth spines between posterior margin of orbit and preopercular margin, closer to third spine than to preopercular margin. Space between ventral margin of eye and suborbital ridge narrow. Suborbital pit absent. Preopercle with 4 spines; uppermost spine largest with a supplemental strong preopercular spine anteriorly; second to fourth spines without a distinct median ridge. Preopercle, between uppermost preopercular spine and upper end of preopercle, smooth without serrae or spines. Upper opercular spine simple, small, without a shallow median ridge. Lower opercular spine simple, small, without a shallow median ridge. Space between upper and lower opercular spines without ridges. Posterior tips of upper and lower opercular spines not reaching opercular margin.

Origin of first dorsal-fin spine reaching a vertical through the mid-point between posterior end of supracleithral spine and upper opercular spine. Posterior margin of opercular membrane extends to a vertical between third and fourth dorsal-fin spine bases. Posterior tip of pectoral fin reaching a vertical through origin of eleventh dorsal-fin spine and not reaching anal-fin origin. Origin of pelvic-fin spine slightly posterior to origin of pectoral fin. Pelvic fin short, its posterior tip, when depressed, not reaching anus and extending to level of eighteenth pectoral-fin ray. Origin of first anal-fin spine slightly posterior to origin of first dorsal-fin ray.

Coloration. When fresh in market, uniformly bright red with some indefinite dusky spots or markings on head, and a dark blotch on the opercle. Ventrum somewhat paler. In ethyl alcohol, light brown with scattered indistinct darker markings on anterodorsal part of body. Oral and gill cavities pale. Peritoneum dark.

Distribution and habitat. Currently known only from off Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador. Probably a deepwater species, presumable rarely caught by the longline fisheries off Puerto López.

Etymology. Species name based on that of the collector, Johnny Vera, for his invaluable help in collecting fish. Common names suggested are: Ecuadorian Deep-sea Scorpionfish (English), rascacio espinoso del Pacífico (Spanish), rascasse épineuse du Pacifique (French), and brujo espinoso de profundidad (local name, Ecuador).

TABLE 1. Morphometric characters of Trachyscorpia verai sp. nov., expressed as percentages of the standard length, compared to those of the holotype of Trachyscorpia osheri. T. osheri data are from McCosker (2008) and McCosker (pers. comm.).

Total length (mm) 361 181
Standard length (mm) Body depth 298 30.9 147 38.9
Body width 15.8 25.2
Head length Snout length 46.1 10.0 51.6 12.6
Orbit diameter 12.8 14.4
Interorbital distance Head width 4.9 28.9 7.1 35.4
Post-occiput length 13.6 14.7
Upper-jaw length Maxilla depth 20.8 7.7 25.4 7.7
Postorbital length 24.1 26.7
Predorsal-fin length Preanal-fin length 41.0 73.2 48.1 63.6
Prepelvic-fin length 44.3 43.8
1st dorsal-fin spine length 2nd dorsal-fin spine length 4.0 8.9 6.1 9.9
3rd dorsal-fin spine length 15.3 15.9
4th dorsal-fin spine length 5th dorsal-fin spine length 10.7 8.4 9.9 11.7
11th dorsal-fin spine length 6.2 8.4
12th dorsal-fin spine length Longest dorsal-fin ray length 10.2 16.4 12.9 18.0
1st anal-fin spine length 4.1 6.6
2nd anal-fin spine length 3rd anal-fin spine length twisted 9.2 15.4 13.1
Longest anal-fin ray length 14.6 18.7
Pectoral-fin ray length Pelvic-fin spine length 26.1 9.6 22.9 17.0
Longest pelvic-fin ray length 15.3 22.7
Caudal-fin length Caudal-peduncle length 21.1 18.1 23.3 20.1
Caudal-peduncle depth 9.8 11.8

TABLE 1. Morphometric characters of Trachyscorpia verai sp. nov., expressed as percentages of the standard length, compared to those of the holotype of Trachyscorpia osheri. T. osheri data are from McCosker (2008) and McCosker (pers. comm.).

Total length (mm) 361 181
Standard length (mm) Body depth 298 30.9 147 38.9
Body width 15.8 25.2
Head length Snout length 46.1 10.0 51.6 12.6
Orbit diameter 12.8 14.4
Interorbital distance Head width 4.9 28.9 7.1 35.4
Post-occiput length 13.6 14.7
Upper-jaw length Maxilla depth 20.8 7.7 25.4 7.7
Postorbital length 24.1 26.7
Predorsal-fin length Preanal-fin length 41.0 73.2 48.1 63.6
Prepelvic-fin length 44.3 43.8
1st dorsal-fin spine length 2nd dorsal-fin spine length 4.0 8.9 6.1 9.9
3rd dorsal-fin spine length 15.3 15.9
4th dorsal-fin spine length 5th dorsal-fin spine length 10.7 8.4 9.9 11.7
11th dorsal-fin spine length 6.2 8.4
12th dorsal-fin spine length Longest dorsal-fin ray length 10.2 16.4 12.9 18.0
1st anal-fin spine length 4.1 6.6
2nd anal-fin spine length 3rd anal-fin spine length twisted 9.2 15.4 13.1
Longest anal-fin ray length 14.6 18.7
Pectoral-fin ray length Pelvic-fin spine length 26.1 9.6 22.9 17.0
Longest pelvic-fin ray length 15.3 22.7
Caudal-fin length Caudal-peduncle length 21.1 18.1 23.3 20.1
Caudal-peduncle depth 9.8 11.8
MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

CAS

California Academy of Sciences