Paralecanium

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams, 2018, Revision of the soft scale genus Paralecanium (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) with the introduction of three new genera and twenty new species, Zootaxa 4443 (1), pp. 1-162: 77-79

publication ID

10.11646/zootaxa.4443.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8CF7D069-783C-4D20-8A10-6987529AB4BE

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A687D0-7B34-0348-EEA8-F92AFA5AFC77

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Paralecanium
status

 

Key to species of Paralecanium  based on adult female morphology

1. Marginal setae spatulate......................................................... P. comperei Hodgson  spec. n.

- Marginal setae fan-shaped............................................................................. 2

2. Legs greatly reduced, with very short segments, total leg length less than 50 µm. Venter with rows of long setae across all abdominal segments. Marginal radial lines distinct............................... P. palawanense Hodgson  spec. n.

- Legs not greatly reduced, total leg length greater than 100 µm. Venter of abdomen without segmental rows of long setae. Marginal radial lines rarely distinct......................................................................... 3

3. Stigmatic clefts each with only 1 stigmatic spine (occasionally a few clefts with 2 spines in P. claviseta  )............... 4

- All stigmatic clefts each with at least 2 stigmatic spines.................................................... 10

4. Dorsum with 2 sizes of dorsal setae: short setae (each less than 20 µm long) submarginally and significantly longer setae (each 50–80 µm long) submedially. Marginal ornamentation represented by a few strong radial sclerotisations............... 5

- Dorsum with only 1 size of seta throughout. Marginal ornamentation represented by several weak radial lines.......... 6

5. Large dorsal setae fairly straight, each tapering gradually to a fine point. Stigmatic spines all long, each over 25 µm long, more or less parallel-sided. Without large dorsal pores 5–6 µm wide............................... P. pahanense Takahashi 

- Large dorsal setae strongly bent and tending to taper only near apex. Stigmatic spines all short, generally each less than 20 µm long, and rather bulbous. Large dorsal pores present, each 5–6 µm wide................. P. busoense Hodgson  spec. n.

6. Margin heavily sclerotised between setal sockets, each section between marginal setae with minute corrugations and with small spine-like extensions on either side of each setal socket. Anal plate apodemes each extending anteriorly and fusing medially.............................................................................. P. minutum Takahashi. 

- Margin not heavily sclerotised, but with small radial sclerotisations between marginal setal sockets. Anal plate apodemes not extending anteriorly and fusing medially................................................................. 7

7. Dorsal setae short and stout, each 6–7 µm long, parallel-sided with a blunt apex. Each stigmatic seta quite long (18–20 µm long), parallel-sided and blunt. Larger dorsal pores present more or less throughout medial and submedial areas, numbering about 40 on each side............................................................. P. maculatum Takahashi 

- Character-states not in this combination.................................................................. 8

8. Dorsal setae few, each 11–12 µm long, narrow basally but quickly broadening, becoming narrowly bulbous. Stigmatic clefts mostly each with 1 spine, but occasionally with 2............................ P. claviseta Hodgson  spec. n. (in part)

- Dorsal setae not as above. All stigmatic clefts each with only 1 spine........................................... 9

9. Stigmatic spines short and stout, each 21–23 µm long and 10–11 µm wide at base. Dorsal setae each setose, set in a deep socket. Large dorsal pores widespread, not restricted to submedial bands.................. P. vacerra Hodgson  spec. n.

- Stigmatic spines narrow, parallel-sided and longer (25–30 µm long). Dorsal setae each spatulate, not set in a deep socket. Large dorsal pores restricted to submedian bands......................................... P. acinaces Hodgson  spec. n.

10. Body elongate, 2.5–3.0x longer than wide. Dorsal setae each setose, bent with a sharp apex. Large dorsal pores few, more or less in one line of 8–10 submedially............................................. P. elongatum Hodgson  spec. n.

- Body much broader, less than 2x longer than wide. Dorsal setae, if setose, not strongly bent. Large dorsal pores, when present, more abundant and arranged in bands submedially........................................................ 11

11. Legs reduced, with trochanter + femur less than 75 µm long................................................. 12

- Legs relatively well developed, with trochanter + femur more than 100 µm long................................. 14

12. Multilocular disc-pores present on venter of abdominal segments VII and VI only. Large dorsal pores abundant, present throughout including medially. Marginal ornamentation absent................................ P. calophylli (Green) 

- Multilocular disc-pores present on venter of abdominal segments VII, VI and V. Large dorsal pores restricted to submedial bands. Marginal ornamentation present................................................................. 13

13. Trochanter + femur less than 40 µm long. Dorsal setae each parallel-sided with a blunt, often capitate apex. Antennal segments IV and V each without a hair-like seta.................................................... P. ovatum Morrison 

- Trochanter + femur more than 60 µm long. Dorsal setae each finely spinose with a sharp apex. Antennal segments IV and V each with a hair-like seta................................................... P. neoguineense Hodgson  spec. n.

14. Dorsal setae few, each 11–12 µm long, narrow basally but quickly broadening, becoming narrowly bulbous. Multilocular discpores only present in abdominal segments VI and VII. Stigmatic clefts mostly each with 1 spine but occasionally with 2.......................................................................... P. claviseta Hodgson  spec. n. (in part)

- Dorsal setae not as above. Multilocular disc-pores usually present in abdominal segments V–VII inclusive, although often only few in segment V. Stigmatic clefts each with 3 spines...................................................... 15

15. Large dorsal pores restricted to submedially on abdomen only, absent from thorax and head. Dorsal setae long (12–19 µm long) and strongly setose.............................................................. P. frenchii (Maskell) 

- Large dorsal pores (when present) arranged in complete submedial bands, extending onto thorax and head. Dorsal setae either not so long, or not setose............................................................................. 16

16. Dorsal setae long, each about 13 µm long, and bluntly pointed. Large dorsal pores with particularly clear micropores. Stigmatic spines long, median spine extending out of cleft. Anal plates much longer than their combined widths; ratio of length to combined width about 1:0.67............................................................ P. macrozamiae (Fuller) 

- Dorsal setae short, each less than 10 µm long, with variously shaped apices; if dorsal setae longer than 10 µm ( P. morobeense  ), then other character-states not in this combination......................................................... 17

17. Ventral long setae present near all coxae. Dorsal setae clearly capitate. Anal plates rather elongate..... P. zonatum (Green) 

- Without long ventral setae near any coxae. Other characters not in this combination.............................. 18

18. Marginal ornamentation in the form of strong sclerotised “dashes” at right-angles to margin, not as corrugations or castellations (see Figs 42 View Figure and 55 View Figure )............................................................................ 19

- Marginal ornamentation not in the form of strong sclerotised “dashes” at right-angles to margin but usually as corrugations or castellations (see Figs 39 View Figure and 46 View Figure )...................................................................... 23

19. Dorsal setae clearly capitate and abundant, extending submedially.......................... P. leei Hodgson  spec. n.

- Dorsal setae not clearly capitate, mainly restricted to within marginal radial lines, not extending medially past large dorsal pores............................................................................................ 20

20. Large dorsal pores each 8–10 µm wide.................................................................. 21

- Large dorsal pores (if present) less than 7 µm wide........................................................ 22

21. With 35–60 large dorsal pores in each submedial band. Anal cleft with anterior margins not serrate on each side of anal plates................................................................................ P. peradeniyense (Green) 

- With 10–15 large dorsal pores in each submedial band. Anal cleft with anterior margins slightly serrate on each side of anal plates................................................................... P. cypripedium Hodgson  spec. n.

22. Large dorsal pores present, each 5–7 µm wide. With only 3 or 4 marginal ornamental sclerotised ‘dashes’ between marginal setae............................................................................. P. maritimum (Green) 

- All dorsal pores 2 µm or less wide. With mostly 6–8 marginal ornamental sclerotised ‘dashes’ between marginal setae............................................................................................ P. planum (Green) 

23. With 8–10 multilocular disc-pores on each side of abdominal segment V. Stigmatic spines tending to be rather pointed....................................................................................... P. marginatum (Green) 

- Multilocular disc-pores either absent from each side of abdominal segment V or numbering only 2 or fewer. Stigmatic spines usually with rounded apices............................................................................ 24

24. Ventral marginal band more than 200 µm wide. Dorsal pores each 3 µm wide or less. Anal plates each elongate (ratio of length to combined width about 1:0.6). Marginal setae approximately round or only slightly wider than long.................................................................................................... P. geometricum (Green) 

- Ventral marginal band less than 150 µm wide. Other character-states not in this combination....................... 25

25. Dorsal setae each straight, parallel-sided, with a markedly capitate apex, about 11–14 µm long, with those near margin obviously slightly smaller than those situated more medially. Marginal radial lines only indicated by distribution of dorsal setae and pores. Abdominal clear areas absent............................................ P. morobeense Hodgson  spec. n.

- Character-states not in the above combination............................................................ 26

26. Trochanters all without a long seta on ventral surface. Anal plates with length subequal to their combined widths, and anterolateral margin subequal to posterolateral margin. Marginal ornamentation in the form of small sclerotised triangles......................................................................................... P. hainanense Takahashi 

- Trochanters all with a long seta on ventral surface. Anal plates together clearly longer than their combined widths, and anterolateral margin slightly shorter than posterolateral margin. Marginal ornamentation in the form of shallow sclerotised mounds.................................................................................................. 27

27. Large dorsal pores absent, or, if considered present, each only about 2 µm wide. Claw digitules of similar size................................................................................................ P. machili Takahashi 

- Large dorsal pores present, each 4–5 µm wide. Claw digitules with one significantly narrower than other.............................................................................................. P. neomaritimum Takahashi 

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Coccidae