Discochiton cocophyllae (Banks)

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams, 2018, Revision of the soft scale genus Paralecanium (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) with the introduction of three new genera and twenty new species, Zootaxa 4443 (1), pp. 1-162: 20-24

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Discochiton cocophyllae (Banks)

comb. n.

Discochiton cocophyllae (Banks)  comb. n.

( Figs 4 View Figure and 5 View Figure )

Paralecanium cocophyllae Banks, 1906  , 235. Type data: PHILIPPINES: Manila, on underside of leaves of Cocos nucifera  . Syntypes, female. Type depository: Entomological Collection, Bureau of Science, Manila, Philippines.

Paralecanium angkorense Takahashi 1942a  , 24. Type data: CAMBODIA: Angkor, on undetermined tree. Syntypes, female, Type depository: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng , Taichung, Taiwan ( TARIAbout TARI). Syn. n. 

Material examined. Paralecanium cocophyllae Banks  : SINGAPORE, on palm (probably Calamus  sp. or Sabal minor  , see Takahashi, 1950), 26.v.1944, R. Takahashi (BMNH): 1/3 young? adff (f – all with damaged venters, missing mouthparts).

Paralecanium angkorense Takahashi.  Syntype female. CAMBODIA: top label: a round, red spot; bottom label: Paralecanium  / angkorense  / Takah. / 24.iv.1940 /Angkor / Indo-China / R. Takahashi (TARI): 1/1adf (p, poorly cleared and with damaged venter).

Other material. INDONESIA, Sulawesi Utara, Dumoga-Bone N.P., Toraut forest near base camp, at about 215m alt., on Ficus  sp. (strangler fig), 26.iii.1985, J.H. Martin #4752 ( BMNH): 1/1adf (p, venter missing). 

JAPAN, on leaf of Areca lutescens  , 11.v.1976, intercepted at John F. Kennedy Airport, U.S. A, P.M. Grosser ( USNMAbout USNM): 1/1adf (g).

MALAYSIA, Kuala, Selangor, host?, 18.vii.1943, R. Takahashi (BMNH): 1/1adf (f-p, with venter). Klang, Selangor, on palm, 28.iii.1943, R. Takahashi (BMNH): 1/2 bits of adf, some venter). Kepong, Selangor, on palm, 29.iii.1943, R. Takahashi (BMNH): 1/1adf (p, no venter). Western Malaysia, Negeri Sembilan, Ulu Bendol Forest nr. Seremban, on unidentified host, 24.x.2011, J.H. Martin (BMNH): 1/1adf (f). Kuala Lumpur, on pale green orchid, -. iv.1946, R. Takahashi (BMNH): 2/6adff (f-p, some with venters). Kuala Lumpur, on Cocos nucifera  , 29.viii.1931, Ent. Div. (BMNH): 3/3adff (f-p, two missing venters; labelled nr. cocophyllae  , det. Hall). Kuala Lumpur, on Cocos nucifera  , 24.viii.1931, Ent. Div. (BMNH): 2/2adff (1g,1p). Johore, on Cocos nucifera  , 25.vii.1928, Ent. Div. (BMNH): 1/1adf (p).

SINGAPORE (intercepted in Los Angeles, #038584)), on an unknown leaf, 19.viii.1983, J. Dooley ( USNMAbout USNM): 1/2adff (fg). 

THAILAND, (intercepted in Miami #22415), on leaf of Rhipis  sp. [? Rhapis  sp.], 10.xii.1979, E.B. Lee (USNM): 4/9adff (f-g). Thailand, intercepted in Honolulu (54669), on leaf of Rhapis excelsa  , 11.ii.1981, K. Chiang (USNM): 2/5adff (fg). Thailand, as previous but on Rhapis humilis  , 12.xii.1980, E.L. Johnson (USNM): 1/ 2adff (f).

Note. Type material of P. cocophyllae  was not seen. The following description was taken from all three specimens of P. cocophyllae  under Material examined collected by Takahashi, but with some details for the venter taken from other specimens. The data for P. angkorense  is shown in […] brackets.

Slide-mounted adult female. Waxy test glassy, divided into four lines of plates on each side, those medially rather square, those along margin narrow and radial. Body elongate oval. Length 4.1–4.5 [3.5] mm, width 3.2–3.6 [3.0] mm.

Dorsum. Derm of younger specimens only lightly sclerotised but quite thick; older specimens with small celllike polygonal areas, each 7–10 µm wide, throughout most of dorsum. Derm of younger specimens with a complete narrow submarginal band of elongate narrow areolations or ridges (about 6–8 areolations wide), the long axis of each parallel with margin, broadening to fill submargin in older specimens; then with a broad area of round to oval larger areolations that become smaller and scarcer medially; older specimens also with a marginal pale band. Marginal radial lines indistinct, positions indicated by setae and pores, with usually 13 around head, each side with 5 between stigmatic clefts and 13 on abdomen; stigmatic rays present, length about 1/3rd width of body; some rays suggesting a faint polygonal pattern. Abdominal clear areas present, each about 2.5 µm wide. Dorsal setae each spinose, with a slightly to distinctly capitate apex, about 6–10 [6–7] µm long with basal socket about 5 µm wide, frequent in a sparse polygonal pattern; setae absent medially; each seta usually in a pale area of derm often with concentric ridges; also often with 2–4 stouter pointed setae just posterior to each anal plate near anal cleft margin [not visible]. Preopercular pores as follows: CA1 with 2–9 [7 or 8] pores, CA2 with 5–14 [9–11], CA3 with 5–13 [11–13] and CA4 with 6–14 [12–14] pores. Other pores: only small simple pores noted, each about 1.5 µm wide, each appearing as a sclerotised spot about 4 µm wide, with what appears to be a short sclerotised inner ductule, probably in a polygonal pattern. Anal plates rather small and elongate, together narrowly quadrate, length of plates 205–225 [225] µm, combined width 170–180 [180] µm; with anterior and posterior margins subequal in length but with apex crenulated, particularly along outer margins; each plate with 3 or 4 short setae near posterior apex, of which 2 on outer margin often distinctly stronger, plus 3–6 small pores medially. Anogenital fold with 1 or 2 minute setae at each corner of anterior margin, each lateral margin with 1 seta anteriorly plus another posteriorly.

Margin. Marginal ornamentation varying from shallow corrugations to distinct castellations, each with a few short dark radial lines; with 3–7 castellations between 2 marginal setae. Marginal setae broadly fan-shaped; width of each fan about 28–37 [33–35] µm, length 2 5–28 [20–23] µm; with about 70–74 anteriorly on head between anterior stigmatic clefts; each side with 31–3 5 [perhaps 39] between stigmatic clefts and 58–89 [possibly 75] on abdomen; not always very evenly distributed around margin. Stigmatic clefts distinct but not deep, with a rather broad entrance, each with a sclerotised inner margin and 3 narrow, elongate, blunt stigmatic spines; middle spine longest; length of median spines each 18–28 µm, lateral spines each 18–22 µm [spines subequal, 18–23 µm]. Eyespots: diameter of each lens about 33 µm at most in an oval socket about 60–80+ µm across.

Venter. Derm membranous; marginal band apparently absent [possibly present but obscure]. Multilocular discpores frequent on either side of genital opening and on preceding 2 segments only, each side with about 16 or 17 [18?] on abdominal segment VII, 21–25 [17?] on segment VI and 11–17 [17] on segment V. Spiracular disc-pores in a narrow band mostly 1 pore wide (when abundant, often 2 pores wide) between margin and each spiracle, with 20–45 in each anterior band and 20–40 in each posterior band, with a gap medially [no complete disc-pore bands present due to damaged venter]. Ventral microducts minute, probably present sparsely throughout. Ventral setae: with 1 or 2 pairs of setae between antennae; long setae on pregenital segments absent; submarginal setae small, frequent, with about 7 on each side between stigmatic areas; some specimens with a line of 3 or 4 short setae just posterior to tip of each anal plate on either side of anal cleft. Antennae reduced, each with 2 segments (segmental divisions absent between pedicel and other more apical segments); total length 97–115 [78] µm. Clypeolabral shield about 85–90 [90] µm long. Spiracles: width of each peritreme 28–35 [35] µm. Legs entirely absent [not detected—Takahashi (1942a) states absent].

Comments. Adult female D. cocophyllae  appear to be unique within Discochiton  in lacking long pregenital setae. The crenulated apex to each anal plate is also unusual. Other significant features are: (i) dorsal setae spinose, blunt or slightly capitate, and (ii) the presence of preopercular pores associated with all the abdominal clear areas.

The poor condition of the specimen of D. angkorense  meant that some significant morphological details could not be seen. Nonetheless, the presence of preopercular pores and stigmatic rays on the dorsum clearly showed that it belongs to Discochiton  . Other species in Discochiton  that have short, parallel-sided dorsal setae and preopercular pores associated with all four pairs of clear areas are D. cocophyllae  and D. diplodiscus  . Both of these species also have rather narrow stigmatic spines; however, D. cocophyllae  also has a 2-segmented antenna (whereas the antennae of D. diplodiscus  are 3 or 4 segmented) and, whilst the multilocular disc-pores are reasonably clear on the one specimen of D. angkorense  , no pregenital setae could be seen—an apparently diagnostic feature of D. cocophyllae  ; it is here considered that these two species are one and the same, so the name D. angkorense  is here made a junior synonym of D. cocophyllae Banks  , syn. n.

Host-plants. Areca lutescens  , Cocos nucifera  , Rhapis excelsa  , R. humilis  ( Arecaceae  ); Ficus  sp. ( Moraceae  ). Unconfirmed host plants: Calamus  sp., Sabal  sp. ( Arecaceae  ); Dillenia philippinensis  ( Dilleniaceae  ).


Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Discochiton cocophyllae (Banks)

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams 2018


Paralecanium angkorense

Takahashi 1942


Paralecanium cocophyllae

Banks 1906