Paralecanium peradeniyense (Green)

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams, 2018, Revision of the soft scale genus Paralecanium (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) with the introduction of three new genera and twenty new species, Zootaxa 4443 (1), pp. 1-162: 131-132

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Paralecanium peradeniyense (Green)


Paralecanium peradeniyense (Green) 

( Fig. 55 View Figure )

Lecanium paradeniyense Green, 1904  , 241. Type data: SRIAbout SRI LANKA: Peradeniya, on Piper nigrum  . Syntypes, female; Type depository: BMNH, London, England, U.K. See under Notes below regarding spelling of species name.

Lecanium peradeniyense  ; Green, 1904, 248, 249. Justified emendation.

Paralecanium paradeniyense  ; Sanders, 1906, 9. Change of combination.

Paralecanium peradeniyense  ; Green, 1937, 306. Subsequent use.

Paralecanium paradeniyense  ; Ben-Dov, 1993, 207. Misspelling of species epithet.

Material examined. Lectotype f and paralectotype ff (here designated): SRI LANKA (as Ceylon): top labels: CO-TYPE in black on oval label + Lectotype in red on narrow label; bottom label: Lecanium  / peradeniyense  / Green / from / Piper nigrum  / Peradeniya / Ceylon (BMNH): 1/5adff (f, most missing some ventor; lectotype righthand specimen, clearly labelled). Sri Lanka (as Ceylon): top labels: TYPE in red on round label; bottom label: Lecanium  / peradeniyense  / Green / from Piper nigrum  / Peradeniya / Ceylon / coll. E.E.G. xi.1901 (BMNH): 1/6adff (mainly p; some with no venter). Sri Lanka (as Ceylon): top labels: CO-TYPE in black on oval label; bottom label: Lecanium  / peradeniyense  / Green / from Piper nigrum  / Gangaruwa Est. / Peradeniya / Ceylon (BMNH): 1/3adff (f, most missing some venter). Sri Lanka (as Ceylon): top label: Adf / + 4 second/third-instar ff / + 2nd-instar m; bottom label: Lecanium  / peradeniyense  / Green / (juv). / from / Piper nigrum  / Peradeniya / Ceylon (BMNH): 1/5 (f; 1 adf, 4 second- or third-instar females + 1 second-instar male).

Other material. SRIAbout SRI LANKA (as Ceylon), Heneratgoda (a misspelling of Henerathgoda), on Smilax ovalifolia  , -. ii.1904, E.E. Green ( BMNH): 1/6adff (f-g). Sri Lanka, (as Ceylon) Peradeniya, on Piper ingrum  [almost certainly a misspelling of nigrum  ], -. iii.1910, no coll. ( BMNH): 2/2adff (fg).

Note. The description is based on all the type material but venters are present on only three of the specimens.

Unmounted material. “Adult female deep reddish brown; ovate, narrow in front, evenly rounded at each extremity; very slightly convex above; with a broad median cavity below the abdomen forming a shelter for the newly hatched larvae. A very distinct longitudinal ridge, on each side of which are three longitudinal series of impressed polygonal spaces with concentric markings. Marginal area with many short transverse carinae. Surface, except in polygonal spaces, minutely and closely punctate.” “Length 3.50 to 4.0 mm. Breadth 2.5 to 3.0 mm.” (Green, 1903, p. 241).

Slide-mounted adult female. Body rounded at both ends, broadest across abdomen. Length 3.0–4.0 mm, width 2.1–3.0 mm.

Dorsum. Derm of younger adults fairly uniformly sclerotised but older specimens with darker areas of sclerotisation forming a pattern medially, with a medial longitudinal line and about 8 radial lines emanating from it, with about 5 radial lines on abdomen and perhaps 3 on thorax, those on head less clear; most of derm covered in minute, irregularly shaped pale spots, each about 1.0 µm at its widest; also with oval areolations, each about 14–18 µm at its widest, present throughout but largest submarginally, becoming smaller and more obscure medially. Marginal radial lines distinct, in most cases with alternate lines longer; with 11 lines anteriorly between anterior stigmatic clefts, those from each cleft obscure or absent, each side with 3 lines between clefts and 11 on abdomen. Abdominal clear areas absent or obscure. Dorsal setae rather short, each 5–7 µm with a non-flagellate apex; sometimes curved; sparse, mostly situated very close to margin in each radial line but occasionally present in submargin; absent medially. Large dorsal pores, each 8–10 µm wide with distinct micropores, present more or less in a broad band, mainly submarginally and submedially, with about 40–60 on each side, probably in a sparse polygonal pattern. Minute simple pores very sparse, each associated with a clear spot on sclerotised dorsum, also mainly distributed in a polygonal pattern. Anal plates together slightly longer than combined widths, with outer margin broadly rounded; each plate with probably 3 setae near apex (2 on outer margin and an apical seta) and occasionally with a seta medially near inner margin; each plate with 1 or 2 minute pores medially; length of plates 140–150 µm, combined width 109–116 µm (ratio of length to width 1: 0.77). Anogenital fold with 1 pair of small setae along anterior margin, each lateral margin with 1 seta anteriorly and another posteriorly. Anal ring with 3 pairs of setae.

Margin. Marginal ornamentation present as radial sclerotised triangles or “dashes”, each with a long stalk, each “stalk” almost as deep as marginal setal sockets; with usually 2 or 3 between marginal setae. Marginal setae mainly broadly fan-like but some almost round; width of each fan 30–40 µm, length 18–32 µm; with 88–103 setae anteriorly between anterior stigmatic clefts, each side with 25–35 between stigmatic clefts, and 74–91 along abdominal margin. Stigmatic clefts quite deep, each with a sclerotised inner margin and 3 slightly clavate stigmatic spines; median spine longest; length of each median spine 35–48 µm, each lateral spine 23–27 µm long. Eyespots each broadly oval; maximum width of each lens 24–28 µm.

Venter. Membranous but with a complete broad ventral band about 190 µm wide, with short dark “fingers” extending radially. Multilocular disc-pores in groups on either side of genital opening and on preceding segment only, each side with 9–16 pores on abdominal segment VII and 18–23 on segment VI. Spiracular disc-pores present in a narrow band between margin and each spiracle, with 18–30 pores in each band. Ventral microducts only detected near mouthparts. Antennae well developed, each with 6 segments; total length 250–280 µm; apical segment 58–60 µm long; apical seta about 26 µm long. Clypeolabral shield about 110–115 µm long. Spiracles small, width of each peritreme 23–28 µm. Legs well developed; dimensions of hind leg (µm): coxa 95, trochanter + femur 130–140, tibia 65–75 and tarsus 65–70; claw 10. Tarsal digitules slightly longer than claw digitules, with capitate apices; claw digitules both broad but one clearly broader than other and sometimes appearing slightly shorter; claw without a denticle; setal distribution: coxa 6; trochanter 1, moderately long; femur 1 or 2; tibia 2 and tarsus 3.

Comments. The adult females of P. peradeniyense  are extremely similar to P. maritimum  (both species share arrow-head-shaped sclerotisations as marginal ornamentation) but differ as follows (character-states for P. maritimum  in brackets): (i) anal plates together almost as broad as long, ratio of length to combined widths 1:0.77 (clearly much longer than broad, ratio of length to combined widths 1:0.55); (ii) anal plates each with a convex outer margin (without a slight bulge on anterior margin); (iii) each anal plate with a seta about half-way along inner margin (absent); (iv) dorsal large pores much larger, each 8–10 µm wide (smaller, each 5–7 µm wide); (v) dorsal setae sparse but widespread in radial lines from margins (very scarce); (vi) radial lines from margins clear (obscure, only indicated by distribution of dorsal pores and setae), and (vii) marginal ornamentation in the form of sclerotised triangles with deep “stalks”, each stalk as deep or deeper than marginal setal sockets (similar but with very short “stalks”). Paralecanium peradeniyense  is also similar to P. cypripedium  and P. leei  , both described as new above; see under these species for comparisons.

Host-plants. Piper nigrum  ( Piperaceae  ); Smilax ovalifolia  ( Smilacaceae  ).

Note. Ben-Dov (1993) considered that the correct spelling of this species should be paradeniyense  as this was the spelling first used. However, although Green (1904) twice spelled the name as Lecanium (Paralecanium) paradeniyense  —on pp. 241 and 242 (caption to Plate XC), the correct spelling of the collection site (in English) is Peradeniya and this was also used by Green (as Lecanium (Paralecanium) peradeniyense  ) on pp. 248 & 249 in the same (1904) paper. Green again used the spelling Lecanium (Paralecanium) peradeniyense  in his 1937 paper, and so it is clear that this was the name he had intended. This is also the spelling on all of Green’s slides (in his handwriting) in the BMNH, so it is here considered that Green intended the name to be spelt peradeniyens e and that he was the first reviser (1904: 248).


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