Pollanisus hyacinthus Kallies & Mollet

Kallies, Axel, Mollet, Bernard & Young, David A., 2018, A new zygaenid moth species from Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae: Procridinae), Zootaxa 4429 (1), pp. 149-156: 150-156

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4429.1.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:64CF3B25-6921-4E06-8888-CD2BB9AE728D

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A6CC39-FFB7-0678-F9F8-8FCD08415295

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pollanisus hyacinthus Kallies & Mollet
status

sp. nov.

Pollanisus hyacinthus Kallies & Mollet  sp. nov.

( Figs 2, 3, 4 View Figure , 9, 11, 12, 15, 16 View Figure , 18, 20 View Figure , 24 – 27 View Figure )

Material examined. Holotype ♂ ( Fig. 2 View Figure ): ♂, 26.iii.2009, Seal Bay Cons. Pk., Sth. Aust., Kangaroo Island, diurnal in heathlands, D. A. Young, S35°59’27.0” E137°19’57.0” ( ANICAbout ANIC)GoogleMaps  .

Paratypes. South Australia, Kangaroo Island : 1♂, Vivonne Bay , approx. Point Ellen, Vivonne Bay, 24.iii.2004, leg. D. A. Young (gen. prep. AK547, CAKM)  ; 1♂, Vivonne Bay , approx. 400 m W of Point Ellen, cliff edge, S35°59.981’ E137°10.979’, 14.iii.2008, flowering Melaleuca lanceolata  , leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂, same locality, 23.iii.2008, leg. D. A. Young ( CBMG)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂, 1♀, approx. 1.3 km E of Seal Bay Cons. Park , S35°59.280’ E137°19.725’, 24.iii.2008, on Melaleuca lanceolata  flowers, leg. D. A. Young ( CBMG)GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂, Seal Bay Cons. Park, before visitor center, day, S35°59’27.0” E137°19’57.0”, 13.iii.2009, legGoogleMaps  . D. A. Young , S. & B. Mollet ( CBMG); 2♂, Seal Bay Cons. Park, S35°59’27.0” E137°19’57.0”, diurnal in heathland, 24.iii.2009, legGoogleMaps  . D. A. Young ( CBMG); same locality, same collector: 2♂, 1♀, 18.iii.2009GoogleMaps  ; 4♂, 19.iii.2009; 7♂, 20.iii.2009; 1♂, 23.iii.2009; 30♂, 24.iii.2009; 6♂, 25.iii.2009; 17♂, 26.iii.2009; 10♂, 27.iii.2009; 5♂, 1♀, 28.iii.2009; 4♂, 3♀, 30.iii.2009; 3♂, 3♀, 31.iii.2009; 5♂, 10♀, 1.iv.2009 (♂ gen. prep. AK622, ♀ Fig. 4 View Figure ); 5♂, 6♀, 2.iv.2009 (♀ gen. prep. AK611, ♀ Fig. 3 View Figure ); 4♂, 8♀, 9.iv.2009; 2♀, 10.iv.2009 (all CAKM and CBMG); 1♂, 1♀, approx. 1.5 km E of Seal Bay Cons. Park , S35°59.393’ E137°19.857’, 24.iii.2008, mating pair on Gahnia deusta  , leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂, Vivonne Bay , Point Ellen, 6.v.2004, leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM)  ; 1♂, Vivonne Bay , ‘ Melaleuca  Cottage’, S35°58.691’ E137°10.875’, 12.iii.2008, at mercury vapour light, leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂, same locality, 8.iv.2008, 11.30 am, on Gahnia deusta  , leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM). Paratypes will also be deposited in MVM, SAMAAbout SAMA, DESS and ANICAbout ANIC.GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The species’ name refers to the color of the abdomen, which is striking blue in live specimens.

Description. Male ( Figs 2 View Figure , 10, 11 View Figure ). Body length 4˗5.5 mm; forewing length 6˗7 mm; forewing width 2.5˗3.5 mm; hindwing length 4.5˗5.5 mm; hindwing width 2.5˗3 mm; antenna length 4.5˗5.5 mm. Head ( Figs 15, 16 View Figure ). Covered with shining brown scales giving it a satin appearance, ventrally grey brown; frons strongly protruding beyond compound eyes in both lateral and dorsal view; frons in frontal view nearly 2.2× the width of black semispherical compound eye, compound eye in lateral view almost circular, diameter 0.4 mm, ocellus almost circular, diameter 0.1 mm, distance of ocellus from compound eye in lateral view almost circular, diameter 0.4 mm; chaetosemata light brown, triangular, the anterior extension reaching beyond ocellus and completely covering the space between compound eye and ocellus; labial palps shining grey brown scales; proboscis light to dark brown. Antenna dark brown with a golden and coppery reflection on dorsal side of the shaft, which appears blue-purple in fresh specimens; segments 1 to 29–30 bipectinate, segments 30–31 to 36–40 biserrate; at segment 10 pectination 5˗5.5 × longer than breath of shaft in dorsal view and 3–4 × longer at segment 25; sensory hairs on pecten very short. Thorax. Patagia with coppery or golden metallic scales dorsally, mesothorax, tegula and metathorax with shiny metallic golden to bluish green scales and with bluish green metallic scales laterally and ventrally. Abdomen. Bright shiny metallic green or blue dorsally, less shiny ventrally. Forewing. Dorsal side dark brown, with individual green metallic scales in the proximal half, though in occasional specimens these iridescent green scales can be far more extensive, reaching to the termen in extreme cases; under magnification the brown scales produce a gold to coppery reflection, giving the wing a satin appearance; ventral side grey brown with very few green metallic scales in the proximal section of the costa; fringe with a brown satin sheen. Hindwing. Opaque, dorsal side dark brown; ventral side grey brown with green metallic scales in a band between cell and costa and at anal angle; fringe with a brown satin sheen. Legs. Grey brown, without metallic reflection.

Male genitalia ( Fig. 18 View Figure ). Valva with dorsal and ventral margins straight, proximally forming an angle of approx. 12°; proximal and distal portion of the dorsal margin straight, forming together an angle of nearly 160°; translucent distal margin partly convex; ventral margin and tip of sacculus rounded; uncus slender, as long as tegumen. Phallus strongly sclerotized, curved, slightly conical, cylindrical distally, length 5.5˗5.8 × distal diameter; cornutus slightly curved, long and slender, approximately ¾ of the length of phallus, pointed apically.

Female ( Figs 3, 4 View Figure , 12 View Figure ). Similar to male; abdomen very wide and apically pointed, abdominal tuft very small and dark brown. Antenna shining dark brown on dorsal side of the shaft, with 39 biserrate segments. Compound eye almost semi-circular, with a flat side occipitally, in lateral view height 0.4 mm, breadth 0.3 mm.

Female genitalia ( Fig. 20 View Figure ). Papillae anales large, apophyses long, well sclerotised, apophyses anteriores very short, apophyses posteriores well-developed; ductus bursae short and translucent; praebursa with a large central sclerotization and a dense membranous structure laterally (colored deep blue in the figure), sometimes with a small weakly sclerotized tooth visible where ductus intrabursalis is inserted.

Diagnosis. Although Pollanisus hyacinthus  sp. nov. is an unusual species, it shares most of the typical characteristics of other Pollanisus  species, which belong to the tribe Artonini as all other Australian Zygaenidae ( Tarmann 2004)  . This includes the hairy anal tuft, the fan-shaped valvae and the triangular field of chaetosemata, the latter separating Procridinae  from Zygaeninae  and Chalcosiinae  ( Tarmann 1994, 2004, Yen 2003).

Pollanisus hyacinthus  sp. nov. is very similar to P. isolatus  ( Figs 1 View Figure , 9, 13, 14 View Figure , 17 View Figure ), which is known only from a single male collected just east of Melbourne in 1904, and which despite considerable effort has not been observed again. It shows also some similarities to P. cyanota  ( Figs 5, 6 View Figure , 19, 21 View Figure ), with which is shares the bluish abdomen and the dark and small anal tuft in females. Finally, based on unpublished analyses of CO1 DNAAbout DNA sequences (Tarmann, personal communication), Pollanisus hyacinthus  sp. nov. is also related to Pollanisus calliceros Turner, 1926  ( Figs 7, 8 View Figure ). However, this species is readily differentiated by its forewings, which have a rounded apex and are entirely covered by blue or green metallic scales. All these species belong to a group of species characterized by their small size, their antenna with long pectens, their broad frons, small compound eyes and the green to blue upper side of the abdomen.

The most important difference between P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. and P. isolatus  is the morphology of the male antennae. While P. isolatus  has 24 bipectinate antennal segments, P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. has 29 – 30 such segments, and the pectens are longer P. isolatus  . Both species also differ in the number of bluish metallic scales on the frons (numerous in P. isolatus  , almost absent in P. hyacinthus  sp. nov.). Furthermore, based on the original description ( Tarmann 2004), the color of the abdomen of P. isolatus  is metallic blue both dorsally and ventrally, whereas in P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. it is metallic blue dorsally and dark grey ventrally.

P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. can be distinguished from P. cyanota  by its more pointed forewing apex and shorter pectens of the male antenna. Furthermore, both species differ in their collar (coppery in P. cyanota  , blue in P. hyacinthus  sp. nov.).

The male genitalia are very similar in Pollanisus  but some details can provide additional characters for identification. In male, P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. differs from P. isolatus  in the shape of the valva (in P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. the distal and proximal part of the dorsal costa form an angle; in P. isolatus  the dorsal costa is more rounded), the sacculus (in P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. the ventral margin and tip of sacculus is rounded, and the inner angle of the sacculus is about 90 degrees; in P. isolatus  the ventral margin of sacculus is straight, the tip is more pronounced, and the inner angle is blunt), the phallus (in P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. longer, thinner and more curved, with a long and weakly curved cornutus, without sclerotized plate in the vesica; in P. isolatus  shorter, thicker and less curved, with a shorter and more curved cornutus, and with a small sclerotized plate in the vesica). In P. cyanota  the phallus is short and straight. The female genitalia of P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. are very characteristic. The praebursa is small with a large central sclerotization, sometimes with a small weakly sclerotized tooth visible, while in P. cyanota  has a larger praebursa, which is well-sclerotized posteriorly and has well-sclerotized bulb-like structure with two or three curved teeth. The female genitalia of P. isolatus  and P. calliceros  are unknown.

Biology (D. A. Young). All localities of this species are in coastal heath. The biotope in Seal Bay Conservation Park is localized behind sand dunes on a limestone cliff-system about 300 m from the coast ( Figs 22, 23 View Figure ). It is a mosaic of low Eucalyptus  and Melaleuca lanceolata Otto  thickets and open patches with low growing, fire prone heath including three Hibbertia  species. P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. was often observed feeding on Melaleuca lanceolata  flowers ( Figs 24 – 26 View Figure ) or resting on the sedge Gahnia deusta (R. Br.) Benth.  ( Fig. 27 View Figure ). The second biotope is in a more exposed coastal situation, with low dune and clifftop vegetation. Moths have been observed both on the wing and settled on coastal grasses and on low coastal shrubs. In one instance, several specimens were observed feeding from Melaleuca gibbosa Labill.  flowers. The major flight period extends from early March to at least the middle of April. Specifically, the majority of specimens were collected between 12th of March and 10th of April. Only one specimen was observed in early summer and one female was found on the 6th of May. The species seems to be almost exclusively diurnal; only one male was attracted to a mercury vapor light. The hostplant of P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. remains unknown. It may possibly be a species of Hibbertia  ( Dilleniaceae  ) as in many other Pollanisus  species; however, substantial effort has yielded no evidence for this. Notably, several batches of eggs were obtained from female P. hyacinthus  sp. nov., but the emerging larvae refused all plants offered, including young and old leaves of several Hibbertia  and Melaleuca  species.

Distribution. P. hyacinthus  sp. nov. is currently only known from the southern coast of Kangaroo Island. All specimens were collected in the vicinity of Vivonne Bay and in Seal Bay Conservation Park, which are less than 15 km apart.

Additional material examined. Pollanisus isolatus  (holotype): “V. Beaconsfield, 23.2.0 4 / G. Lyell Coll., Pres. 31-7-32. / Holotype, Pollanisus isolatus Tarmann, 2004  / Holotype, T-19996 Pollanisus isolatus Tarmann  / 3041 ( MVM)” ( Fig. 1 View Figure ).

Pollanisus cyanota  : 1♂, Australia, E Victoria, Mallacoota, Centre Rd, SW of Betka River , 27. – 28 Jan. 2005, leg. A. Kallies ( CAKM)  ; 1♂, 1♀, Australia, Victoria, Yackandandah, Coney Hill, Hodgsons Lane , 36°17.1’S 146°52.6’E, 12. Dec. 2010, leg. M. Halsey ( CAKM)GoogleMaps  ; 7♂, 6♀, same locality, 12. March 2012, leg. A. Kallies & M. Halsey ( CAKM, Figs 5, 6 View Figure )GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Australia, Victoria, Croajingolong NP, Bald Hills Track, 800 m E of Mueller River Inlet , 37°46.65’S 149°18.90’E, 14. Feb. 2015, leg. D.J. Hilton ( CAKM)GoogleMaps  ; 2♀, Australia, New South Wales, NE Newcastle, Tomaree NP, near Anna Bay , swamp, 12. – 14. Jan 2009, day, leg. A. Kallies (gen. preps AK621, CAKM)  ; 4♂, 2♀, Australia, New South Wales, Tallaganda Sate Forest, ca 16 km ESE Hoskinstown , 35°28’S 149°36’E, 1200 m, 1. Feb. 2004, leg. M.F. Braby (gen. preps ♀ AK612, ♂ AK616, CAKM, ANICAbout ANIC)GoogleMaps  .

Pollanisus calliceros  : 15♂, Australia, Victoria, Alpine NP, Cobberas area, 38.895°S 148.09°E, Native Dog Flat , 1200 m, 6. – 7. Jan. 2010, leg. A. Kallies ( CAKM, Fig. 8 View Figure )GoogleMaps  ; 12♂, Australia, New South Wales, W of Gloucester, Barrington Tops, Polblue Swamp , camp site, 1500 m, 16. – 17. Jan. 2009, morning, leg. A. Kallies ( CAKM)  .

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

SAMA

South Australia Museum

DNA

Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Zygaenidae

Genus

Pollanisus

Loc

Pollanisus hyacinthus Kallies & Mollet

Kallies, Axel, Mollet, Bernard & Young, David A. 2018

2018
Loc

Pollanisus hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018

2018
Loc

Pollanisus hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018

2018
Loc

P. hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018

2018
Loc

P. hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018

2018
Loc

P. hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018

2018
Loc

P. hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018

2018
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004

2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004

2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004

2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004

2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004

2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004

2004
Loc

Pollanisus calliceros

Turner 1926

1926